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police of Lisbon and of the whole kingdom, Dom Diogo Ignacio de Pina Manique. Nor must the reader be surprised if I should relate much evil of Dom Diogo, his unjust imprisonments, and the wretched manner in which he feeds the prisoners; but this I will relate ia few words, to shew that Dom Diogo is by no means beloved, though a traveller ought to be very cautious and. moderate in forming a judgment.

The amusements of the carnival are always governed by the ruling taste of every nation. Of what then should they consist in Lisbon? Both high and low delight in throwing all kinds of dirt and filth on the passengers, who in conformity to custom, and to avoid quarrels, must bear it patiently.

The high walls of the quintas in the town, the vacant and deserted grounds, invite to robbery and murder, which are still farther favoured by the badness of the police. These crimes are always perpetrated with knives, though all pointed knives are prohibited.

Murders generally arise from revenge or jealousy; robbers are generally contented with threats. The spring is the most dangerous time, and I have known every night marked with some murder. The boldness of the assassins is astonishing. On a fast-day, in a procession in honour of St. Rochus, a man was mnrdered in open day in the throng, at five o'clock in the afternoon. In the summer of the same year a man was robbed at noon, between the walls near the Prince of Waldeck's, who was witness to the transaction. The robbers were even so bold as to attack coaches. But the criminals almost always escap* ed, the compassion of the Portugueze being such, that every one assists him in his flight. They exclaim Coutadinho! or alas, poor man! and every thing is done to assist him. The punishment of death is entirely done away, and the culprit is sent to the Indies or Angola; a punishment which by no means gives the impression of death, though the climates of both are so unwholesome that destruction is certain.

A great part of these robbers are negroes, of whom there is a greater number here perhaps than in any other city of Europe, not excepting London. Many of them get their bread as tradespeople, not unfrequently become good and respectable citizens, and instances occur of their arriving at a high degree of skill as artisans. A larger portion are beggars, thieves, procurers, and procuresses. Every negro who has served his master seven years in Europe is free, and then not unfrequently becomes a beggar unless he has had a very good master. Great numbers of them are employed as sailors, and I do not see any reason why they are not also enlisted as soldiers; but Mr. Jungk's assertion, that one fourth of the inhabitants) of Lisbon are negroes and Creoles, like many other assertions of that author, is much aggravated.

There is a great number of vagabonds in Lisbon, for all idle people from the provinces come in torrents to the metropolis, and are permitted to live in the open town without impediment. Hence arise the immense number of beggars, who partly rove about, and partly remain in fixed places, crying out continually, and promising to mention this or that person to Nossa Senhora in their prayers. A physician might here meet with an uncommon number of remarkable cutaneous disorders; I have often observed a true leprosy, and endeavoured by observations of this kind to render myself insensible to the disgust they inspire. These beggars receive a great deal in charity, through a mistaken sense of piety prevalent in Catholic countries. They also often practise artifices to obtain charity. I remember an old man who fell down before us through hunger, as he afterwards said, and thus immediately obtained from my youthful companion a considerable piece of gold; while I, somewhat colder, remarked his theatrical performance, withheld my cha-r rity, examined into the affair, and found my suspicions grounded. Another class of begging is that for souls in purgatory. The religions fraternities, to whom it properly belongs to collect these alms, and to have masses performed in a certain church for that purpose, farm out this employment to certain people, who post themselves in the neighbourhood of this church to beg; for which they generally pay eight milrees annually, and by this contract frequently gain one hundred milrees a year. Every thing is tlone in Portugal pelo amordeDeos epelas almas, (for the love of Cod and of the souls.) Thf monasteries send their fruit, usually grapes, to be sold in the streets as it were by auction, in order to perform masses for the money. They are cried about the streets as uvas pelas almas (grapes for the souls;) and when the price is asked, the answer is generally considerable. In the Calzada de Estrella sat a beggar, who always cried saatf for the souls. Snuff is a great article of necessity

for all ranks, for both sexes, for every old man, and in short for the whole nation. Nor is it difficult to obtain the partiality of any of the common class of people, if the traveller but offer him a pinch of good snuff. I saw a beggar-woman put some snuff to the nose of her child who was still in arms. On a botanical excursion near Lisbon I met a well-dressed lady, who asked for a pinch of snuff, as she had left her box; and when I told her that I never used one, she replied, with an expression of the most violent grief, estou desesptrada (I am quite in despair). Nor can we blame Alphonso IV. for giving the English soldiers, who had fought so bravely for him at the battle of Ameixial, two pounds of tobacco each. The smoking of tobacco is, however, very uncommon; nor are even cigarros, though so customary in Spain, used by any but sailors.

The porters, water-carriers, and most of the servants, come from the Spanish province of Gallicia, and are called Gallegos. These useful men leave their poor native country, emigrating partly into the other provinces of Spain, partly into Portugal, to earn money by the severest labour, and, in many provinces of Portugal, assist in the harvest. They are extremely laborious, and, though avaricious, honest. This character, however, is not entirely unspotted. Sometimes they settle in Portugal, and open small tippling and eating houses, or grocers' shops, but generally return home with the money they have gained. I have often seen pictures of Portugueze, which, instead of natives, represented Gallegos, whose dress is somewhat different. The vignette of the Neio Picture of Lisbon has the same fault.

The dress of the common people is a vest of various colours, as blue, black, dark brown, &c. over which they wear a mantle with hanging sleeves, like the Spaniards, but a three-cornered hat, and not a brown cap, which is peculiar to the Gallegos. Young ladies also wear a similar mantle, as do both men and women of considerable rank, only that they wear them of various colours, and often figured. Beneath this mantle a fashionable dress is often concealed, similar to that of London or Paris. Great coats and round hats are quite unusual among the natives. Women of the lower classes wear a handkerchief wound round their head so that a corner hangs down behind; some wear (redesillaj but never the Spanish veil. Among the rich, who in other respects pursue European fashions, we 'here and there saw one with her hair tied flat behind with a riband. The female peasants round Lisbon come to town in a red jacket and a black pointed velvet cap.

Murphy, who in his Travels in Portugal has many very just remarks, is truly ridiculous in others. He says, for instance, fruit-women wear pointed caps, though he might, however, have easily convinced himself of the contrary. Having also, perhaps, once seen some servants playing at cards while waiting for their masters, he sets this, down as a general characteristic; but, with 'his permission, I have also once seen the same in London. On Sunday, he says, that the hair-dressers go about with their swords and chapeaux-bras; this also may have happened once, but is by no means customary. Fires seldom happen in Lisbon; but in the winter of J798-9 they occurred very often, and a house was burnt down in which a young girl lost her life. He says much in favour of the common people, and praises the great politeness of the Portugueze; adding, that they constantly give the right hand to strangers in walking. Just the contrary: it is singular that, in direct opposition to the customs of other nations, the Portugneze through politeness give every one the left hand. His knowledge of the language cannot be great, for he says a Portugueze Bever fails to say, " I am dying with desire to see you;" which he translates, with a violation of all grammar, rtorro com saudades de o ver *.

What is said in praise of this nation by Murphy and other writers is very just; but what they say against them is not unfrequently exaggerated. They who would judge of the nation by Lisbon run the risk of committing frequent errors;. for this city is a rendezvous for all the Vagabonds of the whole kingdom, and a great part of the foreigners of the lower ranks are also the scum of 'tfceir nations. I know that these last are sometimes very docile, and easily fall into the custom of hiring themselves as banditti; for I know certainly of serious proposals of this kind being made. But I must confess that, notwithstanding the numbers of bad people among the lower classes, and the unworthy manner in which foreigners often act toward the inhabitants, examples are

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not wanting of true and disinterested hospitality among the common people. Round Lisbon and in the villages, however, the true Fortugueze character not unfrequently again appears, to which I have already borne testimony of my full approbation.

Both the higher and lower classes are very fond of a profusion of compliments, which flow in a torrent from every mouth. A common peasant meeting another takes off his hat quite low down, hold» him a long while by the hand, inquires after his health and that of his family, and does not fail to add, I am at your commands, and your humble servant festou a sens ordens, seu criadoj. This is not a remark taken from a single instance, for I have heard it extremely often from ass-drivers, and others of similar classes. The Portugueze language indeed, even in the mouths of the common people, has naturally something well-bred and elegant; nor do they ever use oaths and indecent expressions, like the English, French, and Spanish low execrations, though the lowest classes indeed sometimes mention the devil. All the Portugueze are naturally talkative, and sometimes very insipid. The rich are said to conceal a false heart beneath a profusion of polite expressions. I have nothing to say iu defence of the higher classes; they are as inferior to the Spaniards as the common people excel them. The want of science and taste, which perhaps arises from the total want, of works of art in this country; a government which never had wisdom or opportunity to bring into action the nobler passions of mankind; the constant and oppressive neighbourhood of the English, who justly feel tli€tr superiority; and the total decay of literature; are, I conceive, the chief causes why the Portugueze nobles are formed of worse materials than any European nobility.

The male sex are not handsome; and a tall man is rarely seen, the generality being short, fat, and squaremade. Their features are also.seldom regular, turnedup noses and projectmg lips being so common as to suggest an idea of a mixture with negroes. The difference between the Spaniards and the Portugueze is extremely striking, the latter being fat, the former meagre, the noses of the latter turned up, those of the former arched downward, so that they only agree in their yellow complexions and black eyes. Of the fair sex, the author of the New Picture of Lisbon, who was a Frenchman, and his German editor at Leipzig, Tilesius, differ; the former

Vol.. IV. I i

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