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ment. Their brief fever over, the sobriety and good-nature of Englishmen were disgusted at the licence and the cruelty of Whitehall; and though the Puritan experiment, once so thoroughly tried, could not be repeated, the struggles and sufferings of the Puritans bore certain, if tardy fruit.

Milton died just half way between the Restoration and the Revolution. Fourteen years before his death the way to establish a free commonwealth had seemed to him ready and easy ;' but it was not found till the spirit of compromise and concession (which he abhorred, but which it seems must ever rule Englishmen when engaged in lasting works of reform) had been evoked by a great emergency, and had rendered it possible to establish a settled liberty under the old forms of the constitution, and to afford conflicting tendencies scope and verge enough for their mutual opposition without danger to the national interests.

Looking back, ‘in calm of mind, all passion spent,' at the great tragedy he had seen played out, Milton found no time or cause for lamentation. All is best, though we oft doubt.' A new acquisition of true experience had been gained, such as can be reaped even from the failures of true men.

The letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life. That would seem to be in brief the lesson of the great struggle of the seventeenth century. The elaborate machinery of government, readjusted and varied till its continual alteration produced and evinced the instability and anarchy it was intended to prevent; the attempt to attain exalted excellence by narrowing the idea of perfection; the continual self-conscious straining after a self-appointed rule of life; and the neglect or denial of those facts of life of which the rule took no account;- these were the failings and the errors of the Puritanic system.

But the unconquerable will to do right (according to the system); the patient endurance of suffering in what was, at least in its beginning, the cause of freedom; and the assurance that that cause, being of God, must stand fast for ever and ever-here was the virtue and the faith that gave lustre and dignity to the Puritanic character. And if the virtue was

sometimes marred by self-will, and the faith distorted by fanaticism, it was but as the light of the stedfast stars may be for awhile dimmed or hidden by the mists and vapours of this sin-worn mould. If we do not refuse to the memory of the Puritans the just tribute of our gratitude, we must acknowledge that to them it was owing that England did not sink to the level of the France or the Spain of that day. We have entered into the labours of their might: if we have received from them any traditions not of sound doctrine, the fault is ours if we allow the authority of their opinion—which was but 'knowledge in the making'-to prejudice us against the teaching and the warning of their example.


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1608 Bancroft persecutes the Puritans; they emigrate Edward Hyde (afterwards Earl of Clarendon) b., Dec. 9, John Milton b.; 20,
to Virginia.

d. 1674 ; Thomas Fuller b., d. 1661; Sack baptized at Allhallows,
ville, Earl of Dorset d. (72).


Sir Matthew Hale b., d. 1676; Sir J. Suckling

b., d. 1641 ; Publication of Shakespeare's

Sonnets. 1610 Henry IV of France assassinated, May 4. 1611

Authorised Version of the Bible, May 22;

James Harrington b., d. 1677.
1612 Earl of Salisbury, the younger Cecil d., May Samuel Butler b., d. 1680; Polyolbion, First
24; Prince Henry d., Nov. 12.

Part published.
1613 Princess Elizabeth married to the Palatine, April Jeremy Taylor b., d. 1667.

10; Sir Thomas Overbury murdered, Sept. 24. |
1614 | The · Addle Parliament;' the · Undertakers. Henry More (the Platonist) b., d. 1687.
1615 George Villiers, Privy Councillor, April 23 ; Richard Baxter b., d. 1691.

Trial of the Earl and Countess of Somerset ; ||
Arabella Stuart d., Sept. 17.-Second Part of

Don Quixote.
1616 Cautionary towns surrendered to Holland; Con- Shakespeare d. (52), April 23 ; Francis Beau-

demnation and reprieve of Somerset. mont d. (29); Publication of Jonson's Under-
Miguel Cervantes, d. (67).

woods, and Browne's Britannia's Pastorals. 1617 Book of Sports ; Episcopacy in Scotland ; Ra- Ralph Cudworth b., d. 1688.

leigh's Guiana expedition. 1618 Bacon, Lord Chancellor, Jan. 4; Execution of Joshua Sylvester, translator of Du Bartas, d.

Raleigh (66), Oct. 29.-- Thirty Years' War (55). begins, May. 1619

Samuel Daniel d. (57); William Harvey (1577

1657) discovers circulation of blood.
1620 The May-flower' sails, Sept.-Palatinate lost; Andrew Marvell b., d. 1678; Evelyn 6., d. 1706 ; | To St. Paul's School before
Molière b., d. 1673.
Novum Organon published.

this year.
1621 | Bacon condemned, May 3, and pardoned, Oct.; Publication of Sylvester's works, and of Burton's

the Protest of the Commons, Dec. 18.-La Anatomy of Melancholy.

Fontaine 6., d. 1695.

Polyolbion, Second Part published.
1623 Spanish journey, Feb.; the match broken, William Camden d. (72); Giles Fletcher d.;

Bacon's De Augmentis; First Folio of Shake

speare's Plays.
1624 Disgrace and impeachment of Cranfield, Earl of John Fletcher (dramatist) d. (49); George Fox, Psalms cxiv. and cxxxvi. ;
Middlesex, May.
b., d. 1690.

Hard study.
1625 James I d. (59), March 27 ; Charles I married, Publication of Purchas' Pilgrims, and enlarged Feb. 12, Pensioner at Christ
June; First Parliament, June to August. | edition of Bacon's Essays.

College, Cambridge.
Bacon d. (65), April 9; Sir John Davies d. On a Fair Infant.

1627 | Buckingham before Rochelle, July 7.-Arundel | Thomas Middleton d. (56); Hakewill's Apo-
marbles brought to England.

logy or Declaration of the Power and Pro

vidence of God.
1628 Third Parliament, March 17; Petition of Right Lord Brooke d. (74); John Bunyan b., d. Vacation Exercise.

confirmed, June 17; Laud, Bp. of London; 1688; Sir W. Temple b., d. 1699.

Buckingham killed, Aug. 23
1629 Oliver Cromwell's first speech in Parliament,

B.A., March 29; Nativity Ode.
Feb.; Protest and dissolution, March 2; Pro-

clamation against Parliaments.
1630 Charles II b., May 27; mutilation of Alexander Isaac Barrow b., d. 1677; John Tillotson b., On the Circumcision ; On the
Leighton by sentence of Star-chamber. d. 1694; Charles Cotton b., d. 1687.

Passion ; On Shakespear.
1631 Battle of Leipsic, Aug. 28; Kepler d. (61). Michael Drayton d. (68); Dr. John Donne d. Epitaphs on Hobson, d. Jan. 1,

(58); John Dryden b., d. 1700.

and Marchioness of Winchester d., April ; Sonnet I.


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MILTON'S LIFE. 1632 Laud and Wentworth ; Till 1638 lasts the period John Locke b., d. 1704; Herbert d. (39); Earl M.A., Cambridge, July; Re

of Thorough.—Gustavus Adolphus killed at of Roscommon b., d. 1684; Prynne's His- tires to Horton for five years,
Lutzen, Nov. 6.

triomastix; Second Folio of Shakespeare; to which period are assigned
Herbert's Temple ; Wither's Shepherd's Hunt. Time, Solemn Music, May
ing, and Fletcher's Purple Island published. Song, Sonnet II, L'Allegro,

Il Penseroso, Arcades, and
1633 Charles crowned in Edinburgh, June 18; Laud,

Abp. of Canterbury, Sept. 19.-Release of

Galileo from imprisonment. 1634 First writ of ship-money, Oct. 20; Sir E. George Chapman d. (77); Thos, Randolph d. Comus acted at Ludlow, MiCoke d. (84).

(29); Inns Masque and Coelum Britannicum, chaelmas.

Feb.; Habington's Poems.
1635 French Academy ; Lopez de Vega d. (67). Richard Corbet, Bp. of Norwich, d. (53). M.A., Oxford.
1637 Prynne, Burton, and Bastwick sentenced, June Ben Jonson d. (63). Aug. 10; Chillingworth's Death of Sara Milton, April 3,
30; Janet Geddes' outbreak, July.-Des- Religion of Protestants published.

and Edward King, Aug. 11;
cartes' Discours sur la Méthode; Cid, by

P. Corneille, 1606-1684.
1638 Hampden cast, June 12 ; League and Covenant;

Continental journey.
Episcopacy abolished in Scotland, Nov. 29.
1639 Pacification of Berwick, June 13.-Racine 6., John Ford d. (54); Thos. Carew d. (50); Sir Return; Death of Carlo Dio-
d. 1699.

I H. Wotton d. (71); T. Ellwood b., d. 1713. dati.
1640 Short Parliament, April 13 to May 5; Long Philip Massinger d. (56); Robert Burton d. Residence in St. Bride's Church-
Parliament meets, Nov. 3.-Rubens d. (63). (64); Earl of Stirling d. (69); William yard; Education of nephews.

Wycherley b., d. 1715; Thomas Shadwell b.,

d. 1692.
1641 Judgment against Hampden cancelled, Feb.; Sir J. Suckling d. (33); Peter Lely comes to Of Reformation in England;
Strafford's trial, March, and execution, May England, d. 1680.

Prelatical Episcopacy; Rea-
I1; Grand Remonstrance, Nov. to Dec.-

son of Church Government ; Vandyke d. (42) in London, Dec. 9.


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