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1. 602. Hebrews i. 5; Psalm ii. 6, 7; Genesis xxii. 16; Philippians ii. 10, 11, 1. 607. And by myself bave sworn ;-cf. Isaiah xlv. 23. 1. 633. rubied nectar ;-Homer's véktap épv@pov (Iliad, xix. 38). 1. 637. communion sweet ; – cf. Psalm lv. 14. 1. 642. ambrosial night occurs in Iliad, ii. 47.
1. 646. roseate ;-'Roseus' is used of the light of the dawn and of the rising sun, (Lucretius, v. 974). Milton probably had in his mind the idea of the dew-drops struck by this rosy light and refracting it in all its prismatic radiance, and he forgot that the season was night. (Keightley.) The word only occurs here in Milton's poems.
1. 647. Psalm cxxi. 4, and Iliad, ii. 2.
1. 657. Alternate ;-i. e. like the choral service in cathedrals, one half the quire answering the other, a custom said to have been introduced by Ignatius of Antioch, on account of its resemblance to the angelic bands, crying one to another.
1. 673. Beelzebub is always represented as second to Satan. (i. 79, ii. 299.) 1. 674. and remember'st='when thou remember'st.' (ii. 730.) 1. 685. Satan begins his revolt by a lie. (John viii. 44.)
1. 689. Satan is called monarch of the north’in 1 Henry VI. v. 3. Cf. Isaiah xiv. 12, 13.
1. 702. and casts between, &c.;— Aeneid, ii. 98.
1.708. as the morning-star ;--with peculiar propriety of Lucifer, 'son of the morning.'
1.710. Revelation xii. 3, 4. 1.718. Psalm ii. 3 gave the hint of this line, and of the irony in line 721.
1. 731. lest unawares. Such expressions of derision,' says Landor, ‘are very ill applied, and derogate much from the majesty of the Father. We may well imagine that very different thoughts occupied the Divine mind.'
1.734. Lightning. Keightley takes this word as a participle, but it is not so used elsewhere in Milton's poems. Other commentators consider it a substantive, and refer to Daniel x. 6, Matthew xxviii. 3.
1. 736. Psalm lix. 8.
l. 738. illustrate ;—make illustrious. (Paradise Lost, x. 78, Paradise Regained, i. 370.)
1.750. triple degrees ;—Mr. Wright, in his introduction to his translation of the Paradiso, gives a tabular view of these degrees. They had been constructed by the pseudo-Dionysius from the comments of the Fathers on some passages of St. Paul's writings, e. g. Rom. viii. 38. But their order varied in different authors. That given by Mr. Wright as Dante's is not followed in the very passage he quotes from the Convito. That quoted by Keightley (Life, p. 467) from Drayton is a third arrangement. In the hierarchy of Dionysius there are three divisions: the first or lowest commencing with angels, and proceeding upwards to Archangels and Principalities; the second, reckoning as before, consisting of Powers, Virtues, and Dominations ; the third comprising Thrones, Cherubim, and Seraphim. To each degree of this hierarchy a special sphere of the material heavens is assigned, the nine spheres, reckoning upwards, being those of the Moon, Mercury, Venus; the Sun, Mars, Jupiter ; Saturn, the Fixed Stars, and the Primum Mobile. To this order Milton does not strictly adhere. He places Principalities above Virtues, and assigns to Archangels a station nearest the throne of God. The rank and file of the opposing hosts are Cherubim and Seraphim. But he preserves the due pre-eminence of the last-named in i. 793, and in line 248 of this book, where Raphael, a seraph, receives in his proper station the command of God. The angelic hierarchies were the subject of Hooker's dying meditation. Cf. Bacon, Advancement of Learning, i. 2, and note to Faery Queene, I. xii. 39.
1. 753. globose ;-globe, adjective for substantive.
1. 759. Cf. Faery Queene, I. vii. 33. Sir Thomas Herbert, speaking of the diamond mines of Golconda, says: The mine is a large rock, and part of that mountain which extends towards Balaguata.' The dramatists make frequent allusions to this site of the diamond : e. g.
(Massinger, Maid of Honour, iii. 3.) (Keightley.)
1.782. knee-tribute is a similar expression to mouth-honour' (Macbeth, v. 3). Cf. the speech of Richard II, affirming that the people were courted by Bolingbroke:
And had the tribute of his supple knee.' (i. 4.) 1.791. “Such was the judgment of the least conservative of our great poets as delivered in verse; and the prose development of his opinions may be found in his Second Book of the Reformation in England. (Henry Taylor.)
1.793. Jar;—Metaphor from music. The same analogy is pursued by Plato in the Republic, and by Shakespeare in Henry V. i. 2 (Exeter's third speech). Cf. also the speech of Ulysses on degree,' Troilus and Cressida, i. 3, and the lament of Richard II (v. 5).
1.798. edict ;—accented on the last syllable, as in Love's Labour 's Lost (opening speech).
1. 799. for this;-on account of this ; i. e. this imposition of law and edict' (in itself an unnecessary usurpation) can still less (than the simple assumption of monarchy) give any right to lordship and adoration.
1. 809. blasphemous ;-accented on the second syllable, as in vi. 360, and in Spenser (Faery Queene, VI. xii, 34):
And therein shut up his blasphemous tongue.' 1. 822. Romans ix. 25. 1. 835. Colossians i. 16, 17.
1. 843. Keightley supposes the meaning to be that the Son, by becoming King over angels, lowered himself down to their nature, and thus, in effect, raised them to his. He also supposes Milton's favourite text, Philippians ii. 6, to have influenced him here. This is, indeed, the most obvious sense : but we also read that though he took not upon him the nature of angels,' he was made a little lower than they (Heb. ii. 16, 9), so that thus reduc't does not fully express the humility of the Son.
1. 848. Isaiah lv. 6, 7. -1.856. who saw, &c.;-Job xxxviii. 4
1. 3. Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses, ii. 112. 1. 4. In Homer, the Hours guard the gates of heaven (Iliad, v. 749). 1.7. This alternation is taken from Hesiod (Theogny 748). 1. 16. fiery steeds;—like those on the mountain in Dothan (2 Kings vi. 17).
1. 18. Cf. 1 Maccabees vi. 39: “Now when the sun shone upon the shields of gold and brass, the mountains glistened therewith, and shined like lamps of fire.
1. 19. in procinct. The Roman soldiers, standing ready to give battle, were in procinctu,' girded. Chapman, in his translation of the Iliad (xii. 89), has . in all procinct of war.'
1. 29. Servant of God;—the meaning of Abdiel.' Cf. Matthew xxv. 21; Romans i. 1 ; 1 Timothy vi. 11. 1. 34. So Spenser (Faery Queene, IV. iv. 4):
'For evil deeds may better than bad words be bore.' Cf. Psalm lxix. 7; Jeremiah xxii. 18. The verse begins with two trochees, an effect intentionally harsh. (Keightley.)
1. 36. 2 Timothy ii. 15.
1. 51. •The archangel is here commanded to do what God gave him not strength to do.' (Landor.)
1. 58. reluctant here means strongly struggling,' more forcible than luctantes venti' (Aeneid, i. 53).
1. 64. In silence. So the demons march in i. 561. Cf. Iliad, iii. 8.
1. 69. Imitated from a passage in Tasso (Gierusalemme Liberata, i. 75) describing how the pioneers of the Crusaders levelled every obstacle to their march.
1. 71. bigb above the ground ;-cf. viii. 302, xii. 629; Iliad, v. 778.
1. 73. The simile of a flight of birds is used in the same way by Homer (Iliad, ii. 459 and iii. 2), and Virgil (Aeneid, vii. 699 and x. 264).
1. 81. battailous ;-a Spenserian word (Faery Queene, I. v. 2). 1. 82. Cf. · horrent arms' in ii. 513. Iliad, xiii. 339; Aeneid, xi. 601. '
1. 84. boastful argument ;-i.e. mottoes like those of the heroes at the siege of Thebes. (Euripides, Phoenissae 1104, &c.) Aeschylus gives a similar list in his tragedy on the subject (Septem contra Thebas, 375-646).,
1. 93. hosting ;-a common term in Ireland for ‘mustering,' used by Spenser in his View of Ireland.
1. 100. sun-bright;-a Spenserian word (Faery Queene, 1. v. 2).
1. 101. Idol ; - resemblance, image (etbalov). Spenser calls Elizabeth (Faery Queene, II. ii. 41)
• Th' idole of her Maker's great magnificence. 1. 102. flaming would be properly of seraphim, but perhaps Milton thought that the seraphim of Isaiah were the cherubim of Ezekiel. (Keightley.)
1. 103. Cf. Iliad, iii. 29.
1. 104. So Tasso (Gierusalemme Liberata, xx. 31) says, descresce in mezzo il campo.'
1. 107. cloudy;—to express multitude. Cf. 1. 535.
1. 115. realty ;-a substantive from the Italian adjective reale, 'royal' or ‘loyal.' In the first sense Chaucer uses the word 'really. It would here convey an allusion to Satan's ' faded splendour.' Bentley proposed 'faith and fealty,' un unnecessary alteration, if the second sense of realty' be intended.
1. 127. Cf. Iliad iii. 21, &c.
1. 147. sect; those who have followed me. In our version of the New Testament it is used without disparagement (Acts xxvi. 5). Milton may have intended a sneer at the Royalists.
1. 161. success ; —see note on ii. 9.
1. 187. as erst thou saidst ;-So Ascanius retorts the taunt of his adversary (Aeneid, ix. 599, 635).
I. 189. saying ;-contracted here into one syllable.
1. 191. Cf. the combat of Guyon with Pyrochles and Cymochles (Faery Queene, II. viii. 33).
1. 193. ruin ; in the sense of destruction.' Horace uses it for death' (Odes, ii, 17. 9), and Livy for “defeat' (v. 48).
1. 194. on bended knee ;-like Homer's wounded Aeneas (Iliad, v. 309). 1. 195. As if on earth, &c.;-cf. Faery Queene, I. xi. 54. 1. 203. Shakespeare has the vast of night' (Tempest, i. 2).
1. 207. Milton was evidently thinking of the battle of the Kronidae and Titans in Hesiod, Theogny 676. (Keightley.)
1. 209. bray'd. Spenser applies . bray' to a trumpet (Faery Queene, III. xii. 6), and to shrieks and yells (Faery Queene, I. vi. 7, and viii. 11). It is sometimes used by him as a verb active (Faery Queene, V. xi. 20). Cf. Bpáxe teúxea (Iliad, xii. 396).
1. 212. Tasso (Gierusalemme Liberata, vii. 105) and Ariosto (Orlando Furioso, xvi. 57) have described the face of heaven overshadowed with darts. Hesiod has the same expression of the Titans. hiss of darts here is equivalent to 'hissing darts.'
1. 216. battle ;- for ‘army,'as in 1 Samuel xvii. 2, or the division of an army. (* Main battle,' Richard III. v. 3 ; set our battles on,' Julius Caesar, v. 3.)
1. 236. The ranks are the ridges, between which are the furrows (metaphor from a ploughed field).
1. 236. no thought of flight, &c.;-Iliad, xi. 71, xxiv. 216.
1. 239. moment; - the weight that turns the balance (Lat. momentum).
1. 245. Conflicting fire. Homer's Greeks and Trojans fought like burning fire' (Iliad, xiii. 673), but Milton here excels that forcible expression.
even scale ;-cf. the åyar looppotos of Euripides (Supplices 706), and Spenser (Faery Queene, IV. iii. 37),
•Whilst thus the case in doubtful balance hung.' 1. 251. Squadrons at once ;-cf. Samson Agonistes 138.
two-handed sway. Michael used the long sword of ancient days, appropriate to heroes of romance. In the challenge scene in 2 Henry VI. ii. 1, Gloucester is bidden to come with his two-hand sword.'
1. 258. Surceas'd. Shakespeare uses the word (Macbeth, i. 7) in the sense of ceasing at once (Fr. sur, cesser). Radigund, in Faery Queene, V. iv. 45,
• Warned all her people to surcease from fight.' Cf. last note on Nativity Ode, p. 254 (Extract from Shepherd's Calendar).
1. 275. Imitated from Tasso (Gierusalemme Liberata, ix. 64), where Michael similarly rebukes the demons who fight against the Christians.
1. 276. thy offspring ;-alluding to the birth of Sin.
1. 282. Nor think thou, &c. ;-cf. the speech of Aeneas to Achilles (Iliad, xx. 200).
1. 305. Cf. the sun-broad shield’ of Guyon (Faery Queene, II. ii. 24). 1. 306. Expectation is thus personified in Henry V. ii. Chorus. 1. 311. Great things by small ;-cf. Virgil, Eclogue i. 24. 1. 313. Cf. note on x. 659. 1. 315. "Two stars keep not their motion in one sphere.'
(1 Henry IV. v. 4.) 1. 316. Like the stone in Virgil (Aeneid, vi. 602), just ready to fall. 1. 318. repeat;-infinitive for substantive. 1. 321. Jeremiah 1. 25. Cf. book vii. 200.
1. 322. This account of Michael's sword seems to be copied from that of Artegal in Spenser (Faery Queene, V. i. 10), 'temp’red with adamant.'
1. 323. Michael's sword with its down-stroke cut Satan's weapon in two, and with its up-stroke shared' his side.
1. 325. sheer (cf. i. 742) has the same derivation as
1. 326. sbare =cut (A. S. scearan, sciran, divide); retained in .ploughshare.'
1. 328. griding is Spenser's word for cutting' (Faery Queene, II. viii. 36). The whole passage recalls that in the Fourth Book of Spenser's poem (IV. iv, 24) in which the spear of Satyrane, striking Triamond,
*Staid not till it arrived in his side,
That streams of blood his armour all bedide.'
discontinuous ;--allusion to the old definition of a wound as a solution of continuity.'
1. 332. nectarous humour ;-this is the Homeric ixáp, the blood of the gods. (Iliad, v. 340.)