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1. 699. According to Diodorus Siculus and Pliny, 360,000 men were employed for nearly twenty years on one pyramid.

1.703. found ;- melted as in a foundry (Lat. fundere, French fondre.) 1.704. bullion dross ;Some scummed the dross that from the metal came.'

(Faery Queene, II. vii. 26.) • Bullion' is usually applied to the metal, the uncoined ball or mass of gold, but here it means 'boiling' (as if from Lat. bullire, Fr. bouillir). Milton, in his Reformation, speaks of extracting gold and silver out of the drossy bullion of the people's sins.

1.709. sound-board breathes. Professor Taylor certifies to the correctness of this expression. “The wind produced by the bellows is driven into a reservoir, called the wind-chest (above which is placed the sound-board) and then by intricate contrivances conveyed to each row of pipes. When a stop is drawn, the supply of wind is prepared for every pipe in it, and it is admitted when the organist presses the key he wishes to speak.' (Keightley’s Life, p. 433.)

1. 710. On Twelfth-night 1637, at a court masque, a palace with •Doric pillars,' &c., rose out of the earth, of course to music, which was the invariable accompaniment of such scenic effects. Pilasters' are the flat pillars sunk in the walls of buildings. On the summit of the row of columns rests the architrave (or chief beam), above this is the frieze, which (except in the Doric order) is a flat surface, frequently ornamented by figures in relief. Above the frieze projects the cornice.

1.711. Cf. Iliad, i. 359.

1.717. fret ;-either from A.S. frætewian, to trim, adorn ('fretted' is used for adorned' in Cymbeline, ii. 4); or from Ital. fratto, broken, from the interrupted character of the ornament.

1. 718. Memphis is meant by Alcairo, which latter was not built till the tenth century, by the Moslems. (Keightley.)

1. 720. Serapis ;-an Egyptian deity typifying the Nile and fertility. Keightley remarks that Milton follows the Greek accentuation, and not the quantity of the ā.

1. 721. Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses, iv. 761.

1.728. сresset;—probably from Fr. croiset, a crucible, or the open pot which always contained the light. The cresset light was made of ropes wreathed, pitched, and burnt in an open cage of iron in an enclosed open pot. . 1. 729. asphalt ;- bitumen forming in lumps on the surface of some waters, especially near Babylon. Naphtha is the liquid asphaltum. (Keightley.)

1. 736. gave to rule ;-Latinism. Cf. Aeneid, i. 66; Paradise Lost, iii. 243; ix. 818.

1. 738. bis name=himself. So in ii. 964. Cf. Aeneid, vi. 763.

1. 740. Milton has chosen the designation of Vulcan as applicable to his office of a founder (from Lat. mulcere, mollire).

1. 741. sheer ;-clear, clean. It is used of water by Spenser (Faery Queene, IV. xx. 8,) and Shakespeare (Richard II. v. 3), and here in its secondary and now ordinary sense. It is derived from A.S. scearan, sciran, to divide (shear, share,) and signifies separated from pollution or contact, &c.

l. 742. Cf. Iliad, i. 590; Odyssey, vii. 288.

l. 745. Cf. Iliad, iv. 75. •Zenith’is that part of the heavens which is immediately above the spectator's head.

1. 746. Ågean. This word in the early editions is printed ' Ægæan,' but the accent seems, from the elision preceding, to have been laid on the first syllable. Cf. • Thyéstean’in x. 688.

1.747. rout;-cf. Lycidas 64. From Lat. rupta, Fr. route, breaking in, or from Lat. rota, a globe, compact body of men.

1. 748. nor aught availed ;-Cf. Iliad, v. 53; Aeneid, xi. 843.
1. 750. engines ;-contrivances, from Lat. ingenium.
1. 758. squared regiment ;-squadron. Cf. note on ii. 570.

1. 760. bunderds. This form is, in the errata list of the first edition, substituted for 'hundreds.'

1. 763. The champ clos' (or lists) was not covered, but enclosed.

1.766. The two kinds of jousting are here meant, à l'outrance' (or mortal combat), and the bloodless passage of arms.

1. 768. Cf. Aeschylus, Prometheus, 125; Iliad, ii. 87; Aeneid, i. 430, vi. 707.

biss ;--the kivádloua of Aeschylus (Prometheus Vinctus 124).

As bees ;-Cf. Iliad, ii. 87; Aeneid, i. 430, vi. 707. 1. 769. with = apud. rides, alluding to the chariot of the sun. 1.770. Cf. Georgics, iv. 21. 1.774. expatiate ; — walk abroad,' Latinism. (Aeneid, iv. 62.)

confer; —like think submission,' l. 661. 1.777. Cowper justifies this by Scripture authority. (Mark v. 9.) 1. 780. Cf. line 575.

1. 581. The Indian mount is Imaus, a name of the Western Himalaya range.

1.784. Or dreams be sees ; cf. Aeneid, vi. 45 1.
1. 785. Cf. Horace, Odes, i. 4. 5, and Il Penseroso 6o.
1. 586. Aeneid, v. 738.
1.790. Cf. line 213.

1. 795. conclave;-alluding perhaps to the cardinals, who, when assembled to elect a pope, are shut in together (con, clavis).

recess ;-retreat, retirement, as in iv. 258, xi. 304. I. 797. frequent ;-numerous, as in. frequens senatus,'• full senate,' literally translated by Ben Jonson in his Catiline, 'frequent senate.'

l. 798. Dr. Major remarks that analogy would require the accent to be placed on the first syllable of consult, to distinguish it from the verb (like 'exile,' 632.) In Shakespeare it is only found as a verb.

Book II. 1. 1. Cf. the opening of the Second Book of Ovid's Metamorphoses and Spenser's description of the Presence-chamber in the House of Pride (Faery Queene, I. iv. 8).

l. 2. Ormus; an island in the Persian Gulf, a mart for diamonds.

1. 3. Since Ormus and Ind are both within the gorgeous East, Landor proposes there, where,' &c.

1. 4. An eastern coronation ceremony was the sprinkling of the monarch with gold-dust and seed-pearl. barbaric gold is Virgilian (Aeneid ii. 504).

1. 9. success is used by Shakespeare for event,' either good or bad (Coriolanus, i. 9; Antony and Cleopatra, iii. 5), and for bad success, as here (2 Henry VI. ii. 2; Troilus and Cressida, ii. 2).

1. 11. Coloss. i. 16.
1. 18. me is placed first as emphatic. Cf. Horace (Odes, i. 5. 13).

1. 32. An elliptical construction, which is repeated in the next line, * (there is) none,' &c.

1. 41. open force or hidden guile ;cf. Faery Queene, II. xi. 7. 1. 43. The scepter'd King' is Homeric (Iliad i. 279).

1. 50. To reck = to reckon, make account of, to care for (A. S. recan). So in As You Like It (ii. 4):

*My master is of churlish disposition,

And little recks to find the way to heaven.' 1. 51. sentence ;-opinion, like Lat. sententia.

1. 64. when to meet the noise, &c;—In the Prometheus of Aeschylus (920) the hero utters a similar threat. · 1. 69. mixt here = filled with, a Latinism. Cf. Aeneid, ii. 487.

1. 73. drench ;-anything drunk (A. S. drincan, drencan, to drink). Used by Shakespeare, but only of a horse's drink (1 Henry IV. ii. 4).

1. 89. exercise ;-discipline, chastise, like Lat. exerceo (Virgil, Georgics, iv. 453). So in Othello, iii. 4,

Much castigation, exercise devout. l. 90. Cf. line 252. Milton has 'vassals of perdition' in end of Bk. ii. of Reformation in England. But'vessels' has been suggested as a reading here. (Rom. ix. 22.)

1. 91. The Ghost in Hamlet speaks of his hour' of torture; and 'torturing hour' occurs in Midsummer Night's Dream, v. I.

1. 94. The commentators refer to a somewhat similar exhortation by Ajax (Iliad, xv. 509).

1. 97. this essential ;-adjective for substantive, a frequent Miltonic usage ; cf. line 278.

1. 104. fatal ;-cf. i. 133.

1. 113. could make the worse, &c.;—This was the accusation brought against the Sophists.

1. 114. dash;-cf. note to Comus 451.

1. 124. In fact of arms;-literal translation of the Fr. 'en fait d'armes.' Cf. line 537.

1. 132. obscure ;-accented on the first syllable, as sometimes in Shakespeare (Merchant of Venice, ii. 7; Hamlet, iv. 5; Macbeth, ii. 3).

1. 151. Cf. Claudio's speech 'Ay, but to die,'&c. (Measure for Measure, iii. 1).

1. 163. These repeated interrogations remind the cominentators of a similar passage in the Iliad (ix. 337).

1. 170. Cf. Isaiah xxx. 3.3. So in Aeschylus, Oceanus advises Prometheus to submit to the will of Zeus, lest yet greater sufferings should be laid upon him. (Prometheus Vinctus 307–329.)

1. 174. red right band is the 'rubente dextera' of Horace (Odes, i. 2. 2). 1. 182. Of racking whirlwinds, &c ;-cf. Aeneid, vi. 75, 740. i

1. 185. Similar instances of emphasis obtained by repetition of adjectives with the same prefix are found in Spenser (e. g. his description of Death, quoted in note to line 666), Shakespeare (*Unhousell’d, unanointed, unanealed'), and in Milton's prose (“A bishop should be undiocesed, unreverenced, unlorded. Reformation, Bk. ii.). ,

1. 191. Psalm ii. 4.
1. 199. Cf. i. 158.
1. 209. doom ;-judgment (A.S. deman, to deem, judge).

1. 210. súpreme is accented thus in Comus 217; On Time 17; Paradise Lost, i. 735. Elsewhere in Milton it has the usual accent.

1. 226. Cf. Comus 759.
1. 227. ignoble ease is Virgil's phrase (Georgics, iv. 564).
1. 234. argues ;—proves. So in iv. 830, 931.

1. 245. Bentley suggested from ambrosial flowers,' but cf. Samson Agonistes 987.

1. 254. The wish of Horace (Epistles, i. 18. 107).

1. 255. Prometheus declares that he would not change his evil plight for the servile condition of Hermes. (Prometheus Vinctus 968.) Cf. Samson Agonistes 270.

1. 263. Psalm xviii. 11, 13; xcvii. 2; 1 Kings viii. 12.
1. 285. As when bollow rocks, &c. ;—Iliad, ii. 144; Aeneid, x. 98.
1. 301. aspéct ;-always thus accented in Milton and Shakespeare.

1. 302. The peers of England are called 'pillars of the state' in Shakespeare (2 Henry VI. i. 1).

1. 306. Atlantéan ;-referring to Atlas, who bore up the columns that keep asunder earth and heaven. (Odyssey, i. 52.)

1. 310. offspring of Heav'n ;-Paradise Lost, v. 863.

1. 318. Milton appears to have been thinking of Alsatia, with its sanctuary privileges.

1. 327. iron sceptre;-cf. Psalm ii. 9.

1. 330. determin'd; ended (our hopes) as in v. 879; or perhaps in the sense of limited, restrained in custody severe.

1. 333. The construction here is taken from a very rare usage in the Latin classics, e. g. in Plautus (Menaechmi, Prol. 59)—

Ei liberorum, nisi divitiae, nihil erat.' Lambinus censures the expression as too unusual, for nisi can except none but things of a like kind. Cf. note on l. 678.

1. 337. reluctance ;-in its original sense of struggling against.' Cf. x. 515, 1045. Cf. 'reluctantes dracones,' Horace, Odes, iv. 4. 11.

1. 341. want ;-be wanting, as in i. 715, and · need' in iii. 340. 1. 352. Hebrews vi. 17. Iliad, i. 528–530; Aeneid, ix. 104. 1. 359. arbilrator ;-governor, as Horace uses “arbiter' (Odes, i. 3. 15).

1. 367. puny is from Fr. puis né, younger. It is here used in its primary sense. Cf. note on iv. 567.

1. 369. Genesis vi. 7.

1. 376. advise ;consider (Fr. aviser). Cf. 'lay hand on heart: advise' (Romeo and Juliet, iii. 5), and use of advice' for consideration' in Henry V. ii. 2, and Comus 138.

1. 379. first devis'd ; cf. i. 650, &c.

1. 391. The demon assembly has been called a 'conclave' (i. 795). It is now a 'synod,' and in Paradise Regained, i. 42, is a consistory."

1. 396. chance ;-either with ellipse of 'toor as an adverb (=perhaps) as in Benedick's speech, “I may chance have some odd quirks and remnants of wit broken upon me' (Much Ado about Nothing, i. 3).

1. 409. arrive ;-used here and at l. 979 absolutely (as in Julius Caesar, i. 2; 3 Henry VI. v. 3), but elsewhere in Milton arrive at.' See Glossary to Chaucer.

1. 410. the bappy ile ;-i. e. earth, hanging in the sea of air.

1. 412. senteries ;-derived from Lat. sentire, to perceive, watch. stations = guards (stationes).

1. 420. Milton is supposed to have had in his thoughts the picture of the senate sitting mute before their choice of a commander for the army in Spain (Livy, xxvi. 18).

1. 431. demur ;-hesitation (Lat. demoror).

1. 432. Cf. Aeneid, vi. 123. Dante, describing the ascent from Hell, says that the way is long and the road hard to travel (Inferno, xxxiv. 95).

1. 434. convex ; — should be concave' from Satan's point of view. Cf. 1. 635.

1. 436. Cf. Aeneid, vi. 439, 552.
1. 438. void profound ;-i. e. the inane profundum’ of Lucretius.

1. 439. unessential ;-void of being, having no substance, a mere vacuum or negation. (Keightley.)

1. 441. abortive ;-i. e. rendering so, like 'forgetful' in line 74.

1. 443. remains him ;-awaits him. Cf. Paradise Lost, vi. 38; and Aeneid, vii. 596, for a similar use of maneo.'

1. 445. Cf. Paradise Regained, ii. 463-465.

1.457. intend; -attend to, as in Timon of Athens, ii. 2, 'intending other serious matters.' So the Latin phrase "intendere animum,' to bend, apply the mind.

1. 462. mansion ;-resting-place, dwelling. Cf. Comus 2. 1. 467. prevented ;-cf. Nativity Ode 24.

1. 471. opinion is here used for public opinion ;' so in Shakespeare, King Henry speaks of the descent of his crown to his son with better opinion, better confirmation' (2 Henry IV. iv. 4); and opinion' is personified in Troilus and Cressida, i. 3, as crowning Achilles with an imperial voice.'

l. 487. Cf. Iliad, vii. 214. 1. 490. Heav'ns cheerful face ;—The phrase is Spenser's (Faery Queene,

II. xii. 34).

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element. The Clown in Twelfth Night (v. 1) declares this word to be 'over-worn,' and prefers its synonym welkin' (the rolling heaven, from A. S. wealcan, to roll). Element' is used for sky or air in the first scene of the same play. Cf. line 538.

1. 492. Keightley points out that the same simile occurs in Spenser's fortieth sonnet.

1. 508. paramount ;--supreme (Fr. par-monter). Blackstone says the king is styled lord paramount, or above all.'

1. 512. globe ;-compact body-guard (as .globus' in Aeneid, x. 373). Cf. Paradise Regained, iv.581.

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