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had not been joined with some vanity in themselves; like unto varnish, that makes ceilings not only shine, but last. But all this while, when I speak of vain glory, I mean not of that property that Tacitus doth attribute to Mucianus; "Omnium, quæ dixerat feceratque, arte "quadam ostentator :" for that proceeds not of vanity, but of natural magnanimity and discretion; and, in some persons, is not only comely, but gracious: for excusations, cessions, modesty itself well governed are but arts of ostentation; and amongst those arts there is none better than that which Plinius Secundus speaketh of; which is to be liberal of praise and commendation to others, in that wherein a man's self hath any perfection: for saith Pliny very wittily," In commending another you do "yourself right;" for he that you commend is either superior to you in that you commend, or inferior; if he be inferior, if he be to be commended, you much more; if he be superior, if he be not to be commended, you much less glorious. Men are the scorn of wise men, the admiration of fools, the idols of parasites, and the slaves of their own vaunts.


THE winning of honour is but the revealing of a man's virtue and worth without disadvantage; for some in their actions do woo and affect honour and reputation; which sort of men are commonly much talked of, but inwardly little admired: and some, contrariwise, darken their virtue in the shew of it; so as they be undervalued in opinion. If a man perform that which hath not been attempted before, or attempted and given over, or hath been atchieved, but not with so good circumstance, he shall purchase more honour than by affecting a matter of greater difficulty, or virtue, wherein he is but a follower. If a man so temper his actions, as in some one of them he doth content every faction or combination of people, the music will be the fuller. A man is an ill husband of his honour that entereth into any action, the failing wherein may disgrace him more than the carrying of it through can honour him. Honour that is gained and broken upon another hath the quickest reflec


tion, like diamonds cut with fascets; and, therefore, let a man contend to excel any com. petitors of his in honour, in out-shooting them if he can in their own bow. Discreet followers and servants help much to reputation; "Omnis fama a domesticis emanat.' Envy, which is the canker of honour, is best distinguished by declaring a man's self in his ends, rather to seek merit than fame: and by attributing a man's successes rather to divine Providence and felicity, than to his own virtue or policy. The true marshalling of the degrees of sovereign honour are these: in the first place are" conditores, imperiorum," founders of states and commonwealths; such as were Romulus, Cyrus, Cæsar, Ottoman, Ismael in the second place are " legislatores," lawgivers; which are also called second founders, or "perpetui principes," because they govern by their ordinances after they are gone; such were Lycurgus, Solon, Justinian, Edgar, Alphonsus of Castile, the wise, that made the "Siete patridas:" in the third place are "li "beratores," or 66 salvatores;" such as com pound the long miseries of civil wars, or de liver their countries from servitude of strangers


or tyrants; as Augustus Cæsar, Vespasianus, Aurelianus, Theodoricus, king Henry the se venth of England, king Henry the fourth of France in the fourth place are 66 propaga "tores," or "propugnatores imperii ;" such as in honourable wars enlarge their territories, or make noble defence against invaders: and in the last place, are "patres patriæ," which reign justly, and make the times good wherein they live; both which last kinds need no examples, they are in such number. Degrees of honour in subjects are first, "participes cu"rarum," those upon whom princes do dis charge the greatest weight of their affairs; their right hands, as we call them: the next are, "duces belli," great leaders; such as are princes lieutenants, and do them notable ser vices in the wars: the third are, "gratiosi," favourites; such as exceed not this scantling, to be solace to the sovereign, and harmless to the people: and the fourth, " negotiis pares ;" such as have great places under princes, and execute their places with sufficiency. There' is an honour, likewise, which may be ranked amongst the greatest, which happeneth rarely; that is, of such as sacrifice themselves to death

or danger for the good of their country; as was M. Regulus, and the two Decii.


JUDGES ought to remember that their office is "jus dicere," and not "jus dare;" to interpret law, and not to make law, or give law: else will it be like the authority claimed by the church of Rome; which, under pretext of exposition of scripture, doth not stick to add and alter; and to pronounce that which they do not find, and by shew of antiquity to introduce novelty. Judges ought to be more learned than witty, more reverend than plausible, and more advised than confident. Above all things, integrity is their portion and proper virtue. Cursed, (saith the law,) "Is he that "removeth the landmark." The mislayer of a mere stone is to blame; but it is the unjust judge that is the capital remover of landmarks when he defineth amiss of lands and property. One foul sentence doth more hurt than many foul examples; for these do but corrupt the stream, the other corrupteth the fountain: so

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