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dependent nations” have been erected, in South America, out of the ruins of the colonial governments. With these states, this country will probably have a great commercial and diplomatic intercourse. On the subject of neutrality, their interests will be the same ; and from their situation, they will be equally removed from the power and ascendency of Europe. The United States will naturally take the lead in all the concerns of this part of the world ; and, without entering into coalitions or associations of any description, the influence of their institutions will be more extensively felt,—and the doctrines of their neutral policy and commercial intercourse will, hereafter, find a wider sympathy, and will be asserted with a greater prospect of support and encouragement. A portion of Europe is engaged in resisting and counteracting this spirit and disposition ;-in re. instating, in its ancient strength and grandeur, what, in the French idiom, is called the monarchical principle. We have no reasons, perhaps, to expect wars from the opposition or rivalry of these systems,—but different races of men will certainly be prepared under their influence ; and, whatever effect the spirit of free enquiry and general education may have on the relations of nations with each other, (for the experience of the world has not yet shown, that the most enlightened states are the least exposed to wars) there can be no doubt but that changes and improvements in governments will, hereafter, be accomplished in a more gradual and satisfactory manner, and with less danger of violence and bloodshed.

APPENDIX.

( No. I.)

TREATIES WITH FRANCE.

1. Of amity and commerce, of the 6th of February 1778; negotiated at Paris, by C. A. Gerard, B. Franklin, Silas Deane and Arthur Lee. Ratified by Congress on the 4th of May 1778. Annulled by act of Congress of July 7, 1798.

2. Of alliance, of the 6th of February 1778 ; negotiated at Paris, by C. A. Gerard, B. Franklin, Silas Deane and Arthur Lee. Ratified by Congress on the 4th of May 1778. Annulled by act of July 7, 1791.

3. Contract concerning the loan and repayment of money, of the 16th of July, 1782 ; framed at Versailles, by Gravier de Vergennes and B. Franklin. Ratified by Congress on the 22d of January 1783.

4. Convention concerning consuls and vice consuls, of the 14th of November 1778; negotiated at Versailles, by L. C. de Montiporin and Th: Jefferson. Annulled July 7, 1798.

5. Convention for terminating differences, of the 30th of September 1800; negotiated at Paris, by Oliver Ellsworth, William Richardson Davie, Willian Vans Murray, and Joseph Bonaparte, Charles Pierre Claret Fleurieu and Pierre Louis Ræderer. Provisionally ratified on the 18th of February 1801 ; and finally declared to have been ratified on the 21st of December 1801. Expired.

6. Ceding Louisiana, of the 30th of April 1803; negotiated at Paris, by Robert R. Livingston, James Monroe and Barbe Marbois. Ratified on the 21st of October 1803.

7. Convention for the payment of sixty millions of francs to France for the cession of Louisiana, of the 30th of April 1803; negotiated at Paris, by Robert R. Livingston, James Monroe and Barbe Marbois. Ratified on the 21st of October 1803.

8. Convention to secure the payment of the sum due by France to citizens of the United States, of the 29th of April 1803 ; negotiated at Paris, by Robert R. Livingston, James Monroe and Barbe Marbois. Ratified on the 21st of October 1803.

9. Convention of navigation and commerce of the 24th of June 1892; negotiated at Washington, by J. Q. Adams on the part of the United States, and S. Hyde de Neuville on the part of France. Ratified 12th of February 1823. In force till one of the parties renounce it, giving six months notice.

TREATIES WITH THE STATES GENERAL OF THE

UNITED NETHERLANDS.

1. Of amity and commerce, of the 8th of October 1782 ; negotiated at the Hague, by John Adams, George Van Randwyck, B. V. D. Santheuvel, P. V. Bleiswyk, W. C. H. Van Lynden, D. I. Van Heeckeren, Joan Van Kuffeler, F. G. Van Dedem and H. Tjassens. Ratified by Congress on the 23d of January 1783.

2. Convention concerning vessels recaptured, of the 8th of October 1782 ; negotiated at the Hague, by John Adams, George Van Randwyck, B. V. D. Santheuvel, P. V. Bleiswyk, W. C. H. Van Lynden, D. I. Van Heeckeren, Joan Van Kuffeler, F. G. Van Dedem and H. Tjassens. Ratified by Congress on the 23d of January 1783.

3. Treaty of commerce and navigation with the free cities of Lubeck, Bremen and Hamburgh. The treaty was negotiated for twelve years, and the ratifications were exchanged in June 1828.

TREATIES WITH SWEDEN.

1. Of amity and commerce, of the 3d of April 1783; negotiated at Paris, by Gustavus Philip de Creutz and Benjamin Franklin. Ratified by Congress on the 29th of July 1783. By a separate article to this treaty, it was to have full effect only for fifteen years, counting from the day of the ratification. It consequently expired on the 29th of July 1798.

2. Treaty of amity and commerce, of the 4th of September 1816; negotiated at Stockholm, by Jonathan Russell, on the part of the United States, and the Counts d'Engerstroem and A. G. de Morner for Sweden.

Ratified September 25, 1818. In force for eight years from the day of ratification.

3. Treaty of commerce and navigation ; negotiated in July 1827, at Stockholm, by J. J. Appleton for the United States, and the Count de Wetterstedt for Sweden. In force

for twelve years.

TREATIES WITH GREAT BRITAIN.

1. Provisional articles of peace, of the 30th of November 1782 ; negotiated at Paris, by Richard Oswald, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay and Henry Laurens. Sanctioned by Congress on the 11th of April 1783.

2. Armistice, declaring a cessation of hostilities, of the 20th of January 1783; negotiated at Versailles, by Alleyne Fitz Herbert, John Adams and Benjamin Franklin. Sanctioned by Congress on the 11th of April 1783.

3. Definitive treaty of peace, of the 3d of September 1783 ; negotiated at Paris, by David Hartley, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin and John Jay. Ratified by Congress on the 14th of January 1784.

4. Treaty of amity, commerce and navigation, of the 19th of November 1794 ; negotiated at London, by William Wyndham (baron Grenville), and John Jay. The ratifications were exchanged at London, on the 28th day of October 1795. The first explanatory article to this treaty was ratified on the 9th of May 1796. The second explanatory article was ratified on the 5th of June 1798. The former of these explanatory articles was negotiated at Philadelphia, on the 4th of May 1796, by P. Bond and Timothy Pickering; and the latter at London, on the 15th of March 1798, by Lord Grenville and Rufus King.

5. Convention relative to the execution of the 6th article of the treaty of the 19th of November 1794, of the 8th January 1802; negotiated at London, by Robert Banks Jenkinson (Lord Hawkesbury), and Rufus King. Ratified on the 26th of April 1802.

6. Of peace and amity, of the 24th of December 1814; negotiated at Ghent, by James lord Gambier, Henry Goulbourn and William Adams, and John Quincy Adams, James A. Bayard, Henry Clay, Jonathan Russell and Albert Gallatin. Ratified on the 17th of February 1815.

7. Convention to regulate commerce between the territories of the United States and his Britannic Majesty, of the 3d of July 1815, negotiated at London, by John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay and Albert Gallatin, on the part of the United States, and Frederick J. Robinson, Henry Goulbourn and William Adams, on the part of Great Britain. Ratified by the Prince Regent, on the 31st of July 1815, and by the President and Senate on the 22d of December 1815 ; on which latter day ratifications were exchanged at Washington.

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