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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
ST. DUNSTAN'S IN THE WEST, familiar objects have been removed to the Marquis of
Hertford's house, in the Regent's Park.
We are told that “ St. Dunstan's was a fair and Dunstan, from whom this church is called, was, beautiful church in 1632.” It narrowly escaped the if we may judge from the many religious edifices in this country that bear his name, a favourite saint ravages of the fire of London in 1666, as well as
a dreadful conflagration which happened in the among our Roman Catholic ancestors. He was born, some time in the tenth century, at Glastonbury, from the almost universal fate of city churches by
neighbourhood in 1730. Owing to this exemption Somersetshire, a town not more famous for its ancient fire, St. Dunstan's in the West was rich in old abbey than for the Christmas-blossoming thorn, monuments, which are transferred to the present which Joseph of Arimathea was fondly alleged to building, and are well worthy the notice of the have stuck, as a dry staff, into the ground, on founding there the first Christian church in Great considerable repairs, there being, then little pro
curious. As lately as 1820 this church underwent Britain. Dunstan, like some others on record, paid a tax for his reputation in science and art during a place. These, namely, the widening of that part of
of period of thick darkness: he was accused before Fleet-street by an addition of thirty feet, and the King Athelstan of practising magic ; and from his erection of a spacious and elegant church in place of skill in music, probably, arose the serious charge the old one, which, certainly, never struck us as of his harp (which might have been an Æolian, remarkably “fair or beautiful," we consider as among playing of itself !
the most valuable and important improvements St. Dunstan's harp, fast by the wall,
that have been made in London. The view of such Upon a peg did hang-a;
obvious benefits to the public is gratifying to every The harp itself, with ly and all,
Englishman who loves his country.
The present St. Dunstan's, as represented in the Banished from court in consequence of this foolish engraving, was finished in 1832, from the designs, accusation, he retired, according to the monkish and under the superintendence, of the late John legend, to a solitary cell at Glastonbury, carrying Shaw, Esq., who was suddenly called hence at the with him his taste for the black art. But his talents very period of its completion. The gothic tower, lay not only in music and painting : he is said to together with the beautiful stone lantern with which have been an admirable worker in iron and brass,-a it is surmounted, is of a commanding height, and circumstance which may have furnished materials is seen from various points to great advantage. At for the story of his having seized the arch-fiend, the foot of the tower is an ornamented doorway, in who came to see him in female disguise, by the nose, front of which runs an iron railing, so near to the with a pair of red-hot, tongs.
building, as to impair the general effect. The tower The real history of Dunstan is, that he became is square, but at the height of nearly ninety feet, abbot of Glastonbury; was received at the court of takes an octagon shape : its summit is embattled, Edgar at the death of Athelstan and Edmund; was and surmounted with four lofty octagonal pinnacles. made Bishop of London and Worcester together, The rich and elegant lantern springing from the and, subsequently, Archbishop of Canterbury, where tower, and formed of beautiful freestone, is crowned he died in 987. Fiction, however, followed the holy with a florid and delicately-wrought parapet, the man into his grave; for when the son of Earl height of which is 130 feet from the ground. The Harold was buried near him, in the church of Can- body of the church is connected with the tower by a terbury, St. Dunstan, unable to find rest, is said to passage, and built of brick : it is an octagon about have got up from under the high altar, to complain 50 feet in diameter, capable of seating 800 persons, of the affront.
there being, by Act of Parliament, 200 sittings for The church which forms the subject of our pre- the use of the poor. The windows are filled with sent memoir, is, of very ancient foundation ; but the richly-stained glass, “ casting a dim religious light" first mention of it is in 1237, when the abbot and upon the walls and monuments, and giving that convent of Westminster bestowed it on Henry the mingled aspect of gravity and beauty so appropriate Third. That monarch assigned the profits to the to the place where God's honour dwelleth. As the Domus conversorum, or house for converted Jews, front range of the building has a southern aspect, which afterwards became the Rolls in Chancery-lane. the communion-table is at the northern end of the Many of our readers recollect the late church of St. church instead of the east. Dunstan, Fleet-street, with its large projecting clock, It will be perceived, on reference to the engraving, so useful in that busy part of the town; the imposing that a suitable character of antiquity has been imstatue of Queen Elizabeth, in a niche in the eastern parted to the house adjoining the church westward. wall; and above all, the two grim figures of This fabric has been erected for the Law Life Assu“ Hercules's," as they are called in an old account rance Society, established in 1823. of London, “or wild men, appearing as big as life, Immediately beyond, on the same side, is Clifwith each a knotty club in his hand, wherewith they ford's Inn, so entitled from having formerly bealternately strike the quarters; not only their arms, longed to Robert Clifford, to whom the estate but even their heads, moving at every blow. They was given by King Edward the Second: at the are placed so as be visible to such as pass on the death of this Robert, his wife Isabel granted it to south side of the street, whence they are more ad students of law. Further on is Chancery Lane, mired by many of the populace on Sundays, than once called New Street, but which, some centuries the most eloquent preacher from the pulpit within. since, received its present name from the places They were set up in 1."
it contains for the despatch of Chancery business; These giants did not escape the notice of Sir amongst others, the Rolls. This is a repository Walter Scott, who, however, gives them their being for all rolls in Chancery, and other records since more than fifty years too early, when he mentions the year 1377. It was first a house of converted Richie Moniplies as entering Fleet-street when “ the Jews, founded by Henry the Third in 1233, when twa iron carles yonder, at the kirk beside the port, à chapel was erected for their use, and they were were just hanging out sax o' the clock,” These once instructed in the Christian faith: but in 1290, all
" It is a
Jews were banished this kingdom; and, the object not
THE FLESH-FLY. answering, Edward the Third gave the house to E. The history of the Flesh-fly (musca carnaria) is Burstall, clerk, the first master of the Rolls, whose better known than that of the common It successors in that office have had a residence there deposits its eggs on flesh, and then the latter is said over since.
to be fly-blown. It is a law of nature, that the parAs Temple Bar, to which the parish of St. Dunstan's ticles which form an organized body, shall, on its extends, is included in our engraving, we cannot dissolution, serve for the sustentation of others; and close this paper without some mention of that famous hence, when an animal dies, it is taken possession of, gate. Before the fire of London, the liberties of the in one way or another, by those which are living. cities of London and Westminster were divided only In hot weather a dead body runs rapidly into putreby posts, rails, and a chain; as was the case with faction, and in that state attracts, by its odour, those Holborn, Smithfield, and Whitechapel bars. Hence flies which lay their eggs in flesh, and the carcass is the terms, Holborn bars, Paul's chain, &c. The editor very soon occupied by myriads of maggots, which of Stow's Survey, describing the present Temple Bar, are hatched from those eggs, and are flies in the upwards of a hundred years since, says,
larva state. When we think of the horrible odour stately gate with two posterns, one on each side, for which a putrefying animal emits, we cannot but the convenience of foot-passengers, with strong gates admire the wise arrangement by which its very odour to shut up in the nights, and always good store of is made agreeable to multitudes of living creatures; watchmen, the better to prevent danger. It is built for, as Paley remarks, maggots revel in putrefaction. all of Portland stone, and of rustic work below.
We observe, also, that the odour is most powerful at Over the gateway on the east side, are the effigies in those times when flies are most numerous and active, stone of Queen Elizabeth and King James, and on that is, in hot weather. the west side are Charles the First and Charles the In the egg itself there is the very wise provision, Second in Roman habits. The statues are good, the that it is hatched in a few hours, and the maggot only disadvantage being, the hurry of the place arrives at its full growth in a week; and thus we see where they are to be viewed, which makes it dan- how divine wisdom is displayed in every thing, even gerous to be curious, and prevents the attention to in what, to ordinary comprehension, is most disagreethem which they would otherwise command. Tem
able or disgusting. If the fly's egg did not hatch in ple-bar is the handsomest gate about town, and
a very short time, and the larva soon attain its full deserves some degree of applause." On Temple growth, the object in view would not be gained. Bar it was customary to fix the heads of men who In some other species of flies whose larvæ feed un had been executed for crimes against the king and flesh, not a single moment is lost; for, instead of an government. The last dreadful display on this gate egg being laid, the larva is deposited in the living was in 1746 and 1747, when the Lords Kilmarnock, state, the egg having been previously hatched within Balmerino, and Lovat, and Charles Ratcliffe, suffered the body of the parent; this, indeed, is stated to on Tower-hill, for their treasonable attempts in
occur very often with the common flesh, or bluwfavour of the prince-pretender.
fly.--Letters to a Young Naturalist. The houses in this district were formerly in great request; in proof of which, we extract from a faithful work, entitled, A New View of London, 1708. “One In riding from Portrush to the Giant's Causeway with house is let near Temple Bar for 3601. sterling per some company, we had occasion to ford the river Bush, annum, with 14001. fine; and few or none let under 401. near the sea; and as the fishermen were going to haul or 501. I find it recorded that one James Farr, a barber, their net, we stopped to see their success. As soon as the who kept the coffee-house, which is now the Rainbow, dog perceived the men to move, he instantly ran down the
river of his own accord, and took post in the middle of it, by the Inner Temple gate (one of the first in Eng
on some shallows, where he could occasionally either run land), was, in the year 1657, presented, by the inquest or swim, and in this position he placed himself, with all of St. Dunstan's in the west, for making and selling the eagerness and attention so strongly observable in a a sort of liquor called coffee, as a great nuisance and pointer dog, who sets his game: we were for some time at prejudice of the neighbourhood, &c. And who a loss to apprehend his scheme, but the event soon satisfied would then have thought London would ever have us, and amply justified the prudence of the animal, for the
fish, when they feel the net, always endeavour to make had near three thousand such nuisances ? and that
directly out to sea. Accordingly, one of the salmon, coffee would have been (as now) so much drank by escaping from the net
, rushed down the stream with great the best of quality, and physicians ?"
velocity, toward the ford, where the dog stood to receive him at an advantage. A very diverting chase now commenced, in which, from the shallowness of the water, we
could discern the whole track of the fish, with all its rapid Judge Boller, when in the company of a young gen- turnings and windings. After a smart pursuit, the dog tleman of sixteen, cautioned him against being led astray found himself left considerably behind, in consequenee of by the example or persuasions of others, and said, “ If Í the water deepening, by which he had been reduced to the had listened to the advice of some of those who called necessity of swimming. But instead of following this themselves my friends when I was young, instead of being desperate game any longer, he readily gave it over, and a judge in the court of King's Bench I should have ran with all his speed directly down the river, till he was died long ago a prisoner in the King's Bench."
sure of being again sea-ward of the salmon, where he took post, as before, in his pointer's attitude. Here the fish a
second time met him, and a fresh pursuit ensued, in which, Since a few minutes can turn the healthiest bodies into after various attempts, the salmon at last made its way out breathless carcasses, and put those very things which we to the sea, notwithstanding all the ingenious and vigorous had principally relied on, into the bands of our enemies, exertions of its pursuer. it were little less than madness, to repose a distrustless trust Though the dog did not succeed at this time, yet I was in these transitory possessions, or treacherous advantages, informed, that it was no unusual thing for him to run which we enjoy but by so fickle a tenure. No; we must down his game; and the fishermen assured me, that he never venture to wander far from God, upon the presump- was of very great advantage to them, by turning the tion that death is far enough from us; but rather, in the salmon toward the net; in which point of view, his efforts very height of our jollity, we should endeavour to remem- in some measure corresponded with the cannonade of stones, ber, that they who feast themselves to-day, may, themselves, which I mentioned at Carrick-a-rede.—Hamilton's prove feasts for the worms to-morrow. - Boyle,
COTTON. No. II.
carding-teeth. These teeth, however, do not cover the The first process which the cotton wool has to undergo whole of its surface, but form, as it were, a broad on reaching British ground, is that of BATTING ; this is belt, bound in a spiral manner round the roller, only a more perfect separation of the seeds from the which acts the part of the lower card in the handwool, than has as yet taken place, and is performed cards ; B, the upper card, is in this case a fixture. by what is called a batting machine. The batting The cylinder, loaded with cotton-wool, being put machine consists of two rollers, moved by machinery, in motion, the wool is quickly disentangled ; at through which the cotton is passed. It is at the certain intervals, the smaller roller , also covered same time struck with a series of scutchers, which act with card-teeth, approaches the roller a, and, its like flails, while the seeds, being loosened, are driven teeth being properly inclined for that purpose, reoff by a number of fanners.
moves the carded cotton from it. This small roller The next branch of the manufacture is the opera- the form of a long fleece or belt, passes it between
is called a taker off, and having received the cotton in tion of CARDING; that is, of placing, by the assistance of a kind of iron combs, or cards, all the fibres of the rollers E and F, which draw it out into a long the cotton in one direction, parallel to each other.
roll, and deposit it in the tin box g. The mode in which these cards act, may be under
These rolls are now, by a process called drawing, or
stood by reference to the roving, drawn out into greater lengths, and rendered
more fit for the purpose of being spun into a thread.
SPINNING, or converting cotton-wool into thread, a quantity of cotton-wool, is the next process in the manufacture of this useful and the upper card is material. The rudest, and at the same time, the most moved in the direction B c,
ancient implements employed for this purpose, were a certain portion of the the distaff and spindle. It is worthy of notice, that wool will be removed from the same plan has been resorted to, by the early the card A, and the fibres inhabitants of every country yet discovered, and
will be partially drawn out that the natives of India, and of some other parts
it is evident, from the
reference to those of the her has a lower card, A, that if it is
drawn in the direction c B,
This operation was origi-
By referring to the engraving, it will be seen, that the workman thereby had both hands at liberty to employed, and that great practice and dexterity manage the upper card, and was consequently able would be necessary, to produce a thread even to work with greater rapidity and less exertion ; tolerably fine or even; and, at the same time, the subsequently, when machinery began to be applied quantity made could not be very considerable. more extensively to this manufacture, the card
The hand-wheel was the next invention: by this, ing-machine was invented. The engraving shows a section of such portions of this machine, as are necessary to explain the principle on which it acts,
SPINNING WITH SPINDLE
The next improvement was that of causing the wheel to be turned by means of a treddle moved
by the foot, so that both hands were at liberty A, is a large roller, revolving on its axis at c, the to attend to the thread. In this state the cottoncircumference of which is covered with a quantity of spinning remained, till the invention of the Spinning
Jeny, in the year 1767, by James Hargreaves, a after removed to Nottingham, whither he was inweaver at Stanhill near Church, a few miles from vited by the stocking. weavers, and where he assisted Blackburn, in Lancashire.
in the erection and management of a mill. “He was a plain, industrious, but illiterate man, Hargreaves appears to have been little qualified, and possessed little mechanical skill or talent. An either by education or address, for the sphere of life anecdote is still recorded in the neighbourhood, into which he was now removed; and after having which ascribes to accident, the parent of so many assisted various persons in the construction of useful discoveries, the first invention of the Jenny. machinery, and communicated to each, by turns, the A number of young people were one day assembled whole of what he knew, he died in poverty, illat play at Hargreaves's house, during the hour requited by his employers, and little known to the generally allotted to dinner, and the wheel at which he country which has since reaped such important beneor some of the family were spinning, was by accident fits from his discovery. After the death of Haroverturned. The thread still remained in the hands greaves his invention received many improvements, of the spinner, and as the wheel itself was prevented which rendered the Spinning Jenny a much more by the frame-work from coming in contact with the manageable and useful machine. ground, the velocity it had acquired, still gave motion The next great improvement which took place in to the spindle, which continued to revolve as before. the art of spinning was the invention of Mr. (afterHargreaves surveyed this with mingled curiosity and wards Sir Richard) Arkwright. The improvement attention. He expressed his surprise in exclamations of Hargreaves may be considered as, in a great meawhich were long remembered in the neighbourhood, sure, the result of accident; that of Arkwright was and continued again and again to turn round the brought about chiefly by unwearied application and wheel as it lay on the floor, with an interest which experiment. It is said that the sight of a red-hot was at the time taken for mere indolence. He had | bar of iron being lengthened by passing it between before attempted to spin two or three spindles, | two rollers, gave a hint for this improvement, but affixed to the ordinary wheel, holding the several the mode of drawing out a thread by Arkwright's threads between the fingers of his left hand, but the plan, and of lengthening the bar of iron by the rollers, horizontal position of the spindles rendered the are perfectly distinct in principle. attempt ineffectual. It is not improbable, that this If a roving, or loosely-twisted cord of cottoncircumstance paved the way to his subsequent improvements."
The engraving will explain the principle on which the Spinning Jenny. acts. A and B are two pieces
A of wood, between which the rovings are drawn; these, when pressed together, act like the finger and wool is passed between the rollers A and B, and c thumb, and allow the thread to be drawn out by the and d, and these two pair of rollers are moved with spindles, c c, which are turned round by machinery; the same velocity, the only effect produced on the of course the annexed diagram must not be supposed cotton-cord will be that of flattening it; but if the to represent the machine itself, or even any part of rollers c and d are made to revolve with twice the it accurately, it is merely an illustration of the prin- rapidity of A and B, it is clear, that if a yard of ciple. It has already been stated, that Hargreaves cotton-cord is passed between these last rollers, it possessed but little mechanical skill; his first machine, will, in passing through c and D, be extended to therefore, was naturally clumsy and imperfect; it is twice that length; and if c and d had revolved three said to have been almost wholly made with a pocket- times faster than A and B, to three times its original knife, and the clasp by which the thread was drawn length. In this consists the principle of Arkwright's out was the stalk of a brier cut in two. The secrecy improvement, and by different modifications of this with which he was obliged to work, prevented his principle, the cotton-wool can be drawn out into the obtaining the assistance of a good mechanic. Rude, most delicately fine cotton-thread, and with the however, as this first attempt was, and although it greatest certainty as to equality of thickness. only worked eight spindles, still the improvement The power of this machine may be well understood upon the old system was very manifest. The great by the fact that, by its assistance, one pound of cottonadvantage of the Spinning Jenny consists in one wool has been drawn out into a sufficient length to hand being able to spin a great number of threads form 356 hanks, each hank containing 840 yards of at once, and although at first that number was small, thread, so that one pound of cotton would form a yet it was materially increased as the machine became thread 1687 miles and 280 yards in length. The more perfect.
usual average number of hanks is, however, from 200 For some time Hargreaves contrived to conceal his to 250 to the pound. invention, and only employed it for his own pur- The system of spinning introduced by Arkwright, poses. It soon, however, became known that he had was found more particularly applicable to the proinvented a spinning-machine; and his wife, or some duction of thread for warp, while the Jenny of of his family, imprudently boasting of having spun Hargreaves was chiefly employed in spinning the woof, a pound of cotton during a short absence from the or weft, for the coarse kinds, for which it was better sick-bed of a neighbour, the minds of the ignorant adapted indeed than the more perfect machine of and misguided multitude became alarmed, and they Arkwright's. shortly after broke into his house, destroyed his Sir Richard Arkwright was originally a country machine, and also part of his furniture. He soon barber, who by dint of his indefatigable perseverance,