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Glenelg, Ross, Sutherland, and Caithness, Orkney, and
SMALL ISLES. ÉGG. Zetland, situated chiefly in the Highlands and Islands, and containing only 143 parishes, and a population of Ox leaving Arisaig, we were driven by a contrary wind 377,730 persons, are, as stated in the parochial returns, in into Eng. Its harbour is formed by a sound, sheltered by the most urgent noed of not less than 250 additional å rocky island, and capable of admitting a vessel of serenty schools.
A few cottages, and two decent houses, appear on The number of scholars that would attend each of these the sloping side of an adjoining ridge. One of these is 250 schools, it is computed, at a low average, would amount the Manse: In one day they were deprived of their pos to forty-two. It follows, therefore, that in these synods, sessors; the late minister and physician, who were there are 10,500 children left without any adequate means drowned within pistol-shot of the shore. Such are the of education; and the Committee are quite satisfied that accidents to which the function of minister is liable in the number is, in fact, much greater than the calculated these islands. The last incumbents of Stornaway, in number of 10,500. These 10,500 children alluded to are Lewis, and of a parish in Arran, perished in a similar all, it is to be noticed, under fifteen years of age. If
In our walk to the Manse, we experienced that persons of all ages are included, the number of those not sort of molestation to which pedestrians are perpetually taught to read almost exceeds belief. But how could it be subject in Scotland. A man of very respectable appearance otherwise, when more parishes than one are described, as
accosted us, and asked us each successively respecting the not having a sufficient number of schools to accommodate names of the others of our party, requesting us to inform him one-tenth of their population ? Several are said to be in accurately, as he should be questioned concerning us by the need of three and four, and one of even six schools.
whole island. What is your name ? your object in In the first ten synods above mentioned, there are only travelling? whence came you? whither are you going ? six catechists stated to be necessary for the due means where are you staying when you will be at home?" are of religious instruction to the people, and this necessity customary queries. The answer by no means satisfies: arises from the large territorial extent of some particular suspicion questions its correctness: and the sight of a parishes.
stranger, and the speculations which it suggests, often In the other six synods also above mentioned, no fewer | interrupt the work of a field, during the long period in than 130 catechists are required! Nor will this lament- which he is visible in the open country over which he is able deficiency seem surprising, when the physical locali- travelling. The advice of Burns is in conformity to this ties of the country are considered. There are many islands practice in it at great distances from the coast. The coast of the Conceal yoursel as weel as ye can from critical dissection, main-land is often indented by long arms of the sea, and But keek thro' every other man with closest sly inspection. its whole surface is intersected, and in many places, rendered impassable by precipitous mountains, and by rapid
The pathway to the hospitable manse was rough, crossing rivers.
a broad and rapid torrent. The principal object of interest By the authority of the General Assembly, congregational
in the island, is the Scuir, the summit of which rises to an collections, throughout the parishes of Scotland, were
elevation of 1340 feet above the level of the sea, shooting recommended, and materially augmented the fund for the loch, from 470 to 350 feet in height, and composed of black
up into columnar precipices, varying, according to Macculformation of schools.
In November 1825, the first school was opened in the porphyritic pitch-stone: 'a stately pile of natural architec parish of Lochbroom: and in May 1827, the number of
ture*. The island, seen from its summit, exhibits a wild, schools had amounted to thirty-five; whilst others were in chaotic waste, interspersed by a multitude of small lakes, progress, and the number of children and adults receiving enclosed in the rugged hollows of the hills
From the Scuir, we descended to the beach on the education amounted to nearly 3000. In these schools both
eastern side of the island, and visited the cave. Its Gaelic and English are taught; and according to the returns received from 23 schools, 681 were reading Gaelic, hands and knees. Its interior extends about 20 or 30 feet
entrance, choked by long grass, can be penetrated only on and 1433 English. In justice to the Catholics, it must be stated that they strewed with bones, remnants of the black mouldering relics
in height and breadth, and about 250 in length. It is yet are eager for knowledge, and that in many instances, their efforts to satisfy their desire, have received the co-operation victims of vengeance in a lawless age. The tale, horrible as
of the entire population of the island, who perished in it, of their clergy. At Kinloch Moidart, near Arisaig, the Gaelic School Society has a seminary, respecting which it it is, is well authenticated. Some clansmen of Macleod of is stated in the report of 1827, “ that though the school has Macleod, in Sky, were driven into Egg by contrary winds been established here but a year, many evince an extensive
when on their return from a southern cruise, and seriously acquaintance with the blessed truths contained in the
offended the natives, who had hospitably entertained them. Bille, which is peculiarly pleasing, as the prevailing These, resenting their conduct, turned them adrift upon tive
sea, in a boat without oars. The
The tide fortunately set religion in this quarter is the Roman Catholic. parents seem deeply sensible of their obligations to your
towards Sky, and landed them in that island. The people
of their clan, incensed at this outrage, instantly repaired to society; and some employ their children in reading to them out of the Scriptures, which heretofore were to them
Egg to avenge the injury. The poor natives, perceiving as a sealed book."
the approach of the hostile flotilla, took refuge in the cave, In the neighbourhood of Arisaig, the British and Foreign and were sought in vain by the invaders, who could not Bible Society distributed, during this year, upwards of discover their retreat, till unhappily, one of them who was one hundred Bibles, gratuitously, among the Catholics, on
sent out to ascertain whether the enemy had departed, was their own application. In the neighbouring islands the observed, and traced to his hiding-place. A fire was Gaelic School Society received no opposition; and the
kindled at the entrance, and the inmates were suffocated. following extract from the Report of the Committee of the An aged gentleman in Sky, whose memory is richly stored General Assembly, for increasing the Means of Education
with local traditions, informed me, that he had read several and Religioas Instruction in Scotland, by means of Schools,
of the songs celebrating the achievements of the hero by is equally satisfactory. "The Sub-Committee feel cordial
whom this deed of summary vengeance was perpetrated.
He was renowned for his prowess, had defeated Clanronald gratification in reporting, that one extensive Roman Catholic proprietor, has joined cheerfully in providing a
on the mainland, and perished in a sea-fight in Bloody Bay, portion of the required accommodations for a school in the Sound of Mull. But of all his feats, the burning
the cave in Egg obtains the greatest meed of applause: master; nor can they, without injustice to the present Roman Catholic Bishop in the isles, avoid recording, that
an unequivocal proof of the spirit of the age. Yet some he has promised to be the convener of the Committee, with extenuation of this act of barbàrous indiscriminate masthe 'most enlightened and liberal frankness; and to employ
sacre may be supplied, by the recollection, that in the his influence, for encouraging the attendance of the children period of anarchy in which it occurred, the islanders were of the Catholic persuasion in the General Assembly's frequently compelled, in self-defence, to take the law into Schools." The venerable and benevolent Principal of the
their own hands, and to inflict on each other punishments, University of Edinburgh, who proposed, and has promoted,
on a principle, which, in the intercourse of states, becomes by his visits to the islands, this scheme for the education
a mainspring of international security.
The harbour of Egg was much crowded when we reof the people of these regions, personally received from the above-mentioned bishop, and several priests in the It was first brought to notice at the commencement of the present Long Island and elsewhere, the frank and cordial offer of century, by Professor Jamieson of Edinburgh. (In the first part of their co-operation.
these sketches, the discovery is inadvertently ascribed to Playfair.)
turned to our cutter for the night. The shore and the Haskeval are indeed elegant, and render the island a boats were filled with people, young and old, fishing for the beautiful and striking object from the sea. In some places, coal-fish, which bears different names, cuddy, sithe, sillock, extensive surfaces of bare rock are divided into polygonal &c., according to the period of its growth, not attaining its compartments, so as to resemble the grand natural pavefull size till the fourth year of its age. It affords a plentiful ments of Staffa, but with an effect infinitely more striking. barvest to the fisherman. The readiness of these and If it is not always bad weather in Rum, it cannot be good other fish to bite on this prosperous evening, was quite very often, since, on seven or eight occasions that I have astonishing. The real benefit which the islanders derive passed it, there has been a storm, and on seven or eiglit from this easy substitute for more adventurous and far more in which I have landed, it was never without expecta more lucrative sea-fishing, may be questioned. There are tion of being turned into a cod-fish." few people, to whom the temptation to the indolent
enjoy- The mountainous islands among which Rum is promiment of slender profits, purchased at the cost of little nent, are, in fact, barrier crags which intercept the vapours labour, is more agreeable, and consequently more dangerous, of the Atlantic. Thus Ireland, to borrow the peculiarly than to these islanders: a people when fairly put upon poetical metaphor of a physician residing in Cornwall
, who their mettle, capable of arduous and daring exertion, but has written a book in commendation of its climate, serves ready to grasp at every pretext for avoiding it, when not as "an umbrella" to that fortunate extremity of our island. absolutely necessary. The coal-fish furnishes not only But to the difference of climate resulting from local cirfood, but oil to the rude lamp of the Highlander. Thus, cumstances, we shall have occasion to advert hereafter; a according to the benignant economy of Providence, the subject on which the pedestrian can offer the testimony of ocean supplies, at his own door, the materials for illumi- personal experience. nating the page, from which the light of fancy, of rea- The principal curiosity in Canna, is a rock possessing son, or of religion, beams on the mind of the imagi- magnetic influence, which affects the compass. « But such native and intelligent native of these dark and stormy disturbances," says Macculloch,“ are neither peculiar to regions.
that point, nor even to this island. Deviations of the Egg, Rum, Muck, and Canna, form the group called needle, produced by the influence of rocks or land, are very the Small Isles. Egg contains 6000 acres, of which one frequent throughout all the basaltic islands of this coast; sixth is arable. Its population has been diminished by and, in many places, the intluence is such, and so extenemigration. These islands constitute one parish, served sive, as to affect the ordinary variation of the compass when by two ministers, one of whom is a missionary. The at sea." The scenery of this island is highly picturesque. Catholic priest who officiates in Egg and Canna, resides Muck yields good pasturage. This island frequently in the former. It must be regretted, that the School of suffers extremely from the want of fuel, occasioned by the the Gaelic School Society has been discontinued, that deficiency of peat, a source of wealth and comfort, the institution shifting the position of its schools, in order to value of which can be only fully appreciated when severely diffuse instruction to the utmost extent of its funds. felt. The peat is conveyed to Muck from the main-land
Rum, a huge pile of mountains, is famous for its breed in boats, often so heavily laden as to risk being swamped. of horses, originally planted here by a vessel belonging to We found Egg subject to a similar inconvenience, caused the Spanish Armada, and for the production of a beautiful by the perpetual rain, which had prevented the drying of the blood-stone. To the mountains of Rum Sir Walter Scott peat. The more prompt and industrious among the highhas most appropriately applied the epithet “dark." Ofianders will not, however, admit this excuse, and assert this island Dr. Macculloch observes: “ There is a great deal that whenever the people are quick in seizing the opporof stormy magnificence about the lofty cliffs, as there is tunity, they infallibly secure a good dry stock of fuel. On generally all round the shores of Rum; and they are in the opposite coast the peat is piled under the roofs of the most places as abrupt, as they are inaccessible from sea. houses. It is thought that the increased facilities for proThe interior is one heap of rude mountains, scarcely pos- curing coal, would enable the people to purchase it often sessing an acre of level land. It is the wildest and most nt a cheaper rate than peate repulsive of all the islands. The outlines of Halival and
P. S. Q. R.
LONDON : Published by JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, West STRAND; and sold by all Booksellers,
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
THE FORBIDDEN FRUIT,
ablest of the natives regularly instructed in botany.
We are indebted to Mr. Moon, the late superintendent or, Eve's APPLE TREE OF CEYLON.
of the garden, for having arranged, according to Tae island of Ceylon is situated between the sixth that system, a valuable catalogue of Ceylonese plants, and tenth parallels of North latitude; winter is con
in the English and Singhalese languages. sequently unknown, and it enjoys a summer which
The subject of our sketch occurs in this catalogue, may be styled perennial. The richness and variety as the Tabernæmontana dichotoma of the Hortus of its natural productions are indescribably great, Kewensis. Its native name is Diwi Kaduru, and though it is remarkable that the soil of the country nine species of the tree are enumerated. Kaduru contains a very small proportion of vegetable matter; signifies " forbidden," and Diwi "tiger's." It thrives a fact attributable, probably, to the high temperature in a low situation with a light mixed soil, and is found of the climate *, which produces rapid decomposition, near Colombo. and to the heavy rains which prevent its accumulation.
The flower of this extraordinary production is said The soils, according to Dr. Davy, are derived from to emit a fine scent; the colour of the fruit, which the decomposition of gneiss, of granitic rock, or of hangs from the branches in a very peculiar and clay iron-stone; and in many cases, quartz constitutes striking manner, is very beautiful, being orange on more than nine-tenths of the whole. Of this the the outside, and a deep crimson within; the fruit itself principal cinnamon-garden, in the neighbourhood of presenting the singular appearance of having had a Colombo, is a singular instance; in many places the piece bitten out of it. This circumstance, together surface of the ground is as white as snow, being a with the fact of its being a deadly poison, led pure quartz-sand: a few inches below the surface, the Mohammedans, on their first discovery of Ceylon where the roots of the plant penetrate, it is of a gray (which they assigned as the site of Paradise), to colour, and, upon being analyzed, was found to consist represent it as the “ forbidden fruit” of the garden of more than ninety-eight parts of siliceous sand, to of Eden; for, although the finest and most tempting one part of vegetable matter. It would appear, in appearance of any, it had been impressed, such therefore, not a little surprising, that cinnamon
was their idea, with the mark of Eve's having bitten should succeed best on so poor a soil, but this success is attributable to the operation of other circumstances. possessing such noxious properties t.
it, to warn men from meddling with a substance The peculiarities of the climate of Ceylon cause
The traditions which connect the history of our its productions to differ very much on the opposite | first parents with various localities, both in Ceylon coasts; the Palmyra-tree (Borassus flabelliformis,) and other eastern islands, are of such ancient date, for instance, which is extensively cultivated on the that their origin becomes a subject of curious specunorthern side, is hardly to be met with on the lation. Adam is represented by the Moormen, or south; while, on the contrary, the Coco-tree, (Cocos Mohammedans of Ceylon, on his expulsion from nucifera), which forms a sort of continuous garden Paradise, to have lamented his offence, standing on in the south, cannot be grown on the north: in
one foot on the summit of the mountain which now fact, all vegetable productions requiring a moist bears his name; the figure of a foot is still to be soil succeed best on the south-west side, and those traced there, but this, the Buddhists claim as a relic requiring a dry one, on the north and north-east of their deity. Again, the reef of rocks connecting sides of the island. The seeds of all European Ceylon with the island of Rámiseram, is usually plants degenerate very much, and, in a few years, I called Adam's Bridge; but the Hindús, on the other yield but very indifferent returns: to preserve the hand, term it Rámá's bridge, representing their hero quality, the importation requires to be renewed
to have crossed it, when about to attack the giant almost every year; but some of the indigenous Ravana in his strong-hold; and two large monuplants flourish with wonderful vigour.
ments, like Mohammedan tombs, on the island of Dr. Davy remarks, that the geology and mineralogy Rámiseram, are represented by the Mohammedans to of Ceylon, have not yet received that attention which be the tombs of Cain and Abel. Many other instances their importance demands; the same observation is might be adduced, but they may be more properly fairly applicable to the other branches of the natural traced at another opportunity, with the aid of the history of this beautiful and valuable possession of additional information wltich Oriental scholars are the British Empire. We are thus unfortunately precluded from giving any very detailed description so actively engaged in gathering for the illustration of the botanical curiosity, of which we this week present an engraving, executed from original draw- + We find that these particulars were furnished by Sir. A. Johnston ings, kindly furnished to us with that view, by the
to Captain Grindlay, in illustration of a vicw of the cinnamon-gardca
from the back of Sir Alexander's house, published by Captain G. Right Hon. Sir Alexander Johnston, who, while in his beautiful work on the scenery, architecture, &c., of Western inquiring into the history of the island, had drawings India and Ceylon made of a great many of the trees, plants, and other vegetable productions, to which any religious, political, or moral interest was attached by the native No one in his heart derides religion long. What are weHindús, Buddhists, Mohammedans, or early Christians. any of us? Religion will soon be our only care and friend.
-PALEY. To that gentleman is to be ascribed, amongst other plans for the improvement of the island of Ceylon, No sound should be heard in the church but the healing and the developement of its resources, the suggestion, voice of Christian charity. The cause of civil liberty and in the year 1810, of establishing a botanical garden civil government gains as little as that of religion by connear Colombo, which was accomplished, and of fusion of duties. Those who quit their proper character, having the Linnean system translated into the to assume what does not belong to them, are, for the greater Singhalese and Tamul languages, and some of the part, ignorant both of the character they leave, and of the
character they assume. Wholly unacquainted with the • The following results are given by Dr. Davy as the annual world in which they are so fond of meddling, and inexmean temperature at the different places indicated, viz.,
perienced in all its affairs, on which they pronounce with Trincomalé, on the N.E. coast..
so much confidence, they have nothing of politics but the Colombo, on the S.W. coast..
passions they excite. Surely the church is a place where Kandy, in the interior.... The summit of Adam's Peak, about 7000 feet above the varied
one day's truce ought to be allowed to the dissensions and from 51° at 9 P.M., to 59° at 7 A.M., in April, 1817,
animosities of mankind. -BURKE,
.800 4 ...79 0
amuse him, and forgetting the toils of his journey, CONSIDERING how deeply the principle of imitation he steadily pursues his path till the sun reaches its is implanted in human nature, and how intimately it meridian height. At a little distance from the high is connected with all that we say, or think, or do; road he espies a shady-grove, which offers a temptand that the effect of this principle is to establish ing invitation to screen him from the glare of the an undistinguishing rule of action, and an indolent mid-day sun; he enters, and, enchanted with the subservience to custom, we need not be much sur- spot, strolls incautiously on, amusing himself with prised to find man, too frequently, the mere slave plucking flowers and listening to the sound of birds. of habit.
In these amusements his hours pass away unnoticed; From his earliest infancy, indeed, he is occupied, having wandered from the direct path, he knew not almost unconsciously, in forming a system of habits, which way to travel, and he stood pensive and conby which his daily life is regulated, and on which, fused, afraid to go forward lest he should go wrong, more or less, his future happiness or misery depends. and yet conscious that his time for loitering had It can scarcely, however, be supposed, that judgment long since expired. The day draws to a close. A or foresight have much, if any, part, in these first storm comes on, and, seeking for shelter, he arrives beginnings; and the result must mainly depend unexpectedly at the cell of a Hermit; his story is on the associations presented to the mind of each told, and the hermit takes occasion to read him an individual, and the character of those by whom instructive lesson, which it will be well for us all to he is surrounded. In maturer years, when this ponder and apply to ourselves. system comes to be submitted to the test of a strict “ Human life,” says he, “is the journey of a examination, and to be reformed by the rule of day; temptation succeeds to temptation, and one experience, often dearly bought, a task is frequently compliance prepares the way for another; we lose to be commenced, which it requires all the courage in time the happiness of innocence, and we solace of the most stout-hearted to engage in; and happy our disquiet with sensual gratifications. We entangle is he who, when he shall have detected the defects of ourselves in business, immerge ourselves in luxury, the structure which has been thus almost imper- and rove through the labyrinth of inconstancy, till ceptibly raised, can set himself resolutely, and without the darkness of old age begins to invade us, and hesitation, to pull down all that is unsightly, useless, disease and anxiety obstruct our way. We then or pernicious in its parts, even although the founda- look back on our lives with horror, grief, and tion itself is involved. Having formed his resolution, repentance, and wish, too often vainly wish, we had let him that instant set about the execution of it, not forsaken the ways of virtue and happiness. and let him rest assured he will have occasion for all “Happy are they who shall learn from thy example the energies he can bring to the task. If it be true not to despair, but shall remember that though the that a freedom from error, and an honest reception day is past, and their strength wasted, there yet of truth, constitute our happiness in this life, as well remains one effort to be made; that reformation is as our title to a better, it will follow that no sacrifice never hopeless, nor sincere endeavours ever unaswe can make in the pursuit of such an object can be sisted ; that the wanderer may at length return after too great; and if we proceed upon a well-grounded all his errors, and that he who implores strength and conviction that there is no uncertainty in the matter, courage from above, shall find dangers and difficulties it will also follow that the exertion must, in course give way before him.”
H. of time, succeed. But alas !
We are too willing to put off the evil day, and while we are dallying with every trifle in
THE COMMON BEE. our path, instead of resolutely girding ourselves up THE COMMON BEE, or Honey-Fly, is an insect of to the effort, time steals on, and life languishes, at the species of the fly with four wings. This fly is best only a succession of failures which serve but of the number of those who live in association. Man more strongly to rivet our chain.
has subjected them to his dominion, in order to To say nothing of the acknowledged consequences profit by their labour; and he has assembled them in of open and gross vice, how many a well-intentioned kinds of baskets, or boxes, called hives, which vary scheme do we not see frustrated by some circum- in form and size in different countries. stance which we readily impute to chance or accident, The Bees live in a state of society; the individuals but which, if the truth were told, may be fairly of a hive are perfectly known to each other, and they traced to a weakness, an indecision, a want of some- never admit a stranger into their community, exthing which we have long surrendered to the tyranny cepting accidentally at swarming-time, when circumof habit, and which we have not the courage to stances can so combine, that several swarms may reclaim. An undistinguishing submission to the unite and form a social brotherhood. Every society customs of the world, a dread of its censure, and an is a monarchy governed by a queen, subordinate to acute sensibility of its applause; an indolent accept- whom are several hundred drones, and a multitude ance of the plausibilities of error, and an aversion to of labourers, according to the size of the colony. It the investigation of abstract truth; are fetters which is of the latter that we are giving an account. we are too willing to permit to be thrown around us, These insects are called common, because they, in and under the constraint of which, many a good pur- fact, compose the community of the hive, of which pose languishes and dies. Yet, so satisfied are we the drones only form a part during a short period of with our bonds, so corrupt is our nature, so per- time. They are also called Working Bees, because versely indolent, yet so sensitively proud, there is no they alone bring provisions into the hive, construct self-deception we would not practise, rather than the combs, nourish the brood, defend the monarchy; encounter the evil, no error we would not fall into, in one word, because they perform all the labour rather than admit its existence,
useful to the community. I never think of this subject without recurring Some authors maintain that, in the monarchy of to the instructive story of Obidah and the Hermit in the Bees, a regularity and an admirable subordinaThe Rambler. Obidah is described as setting forward tion are to be observed ; that a well-regulated distri · on his journey through the plains of Indostan ; his bution of employment is remarked, as well as perfect are regaled by all that could delight or order and concert, which must result from minds