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A person with a stick of phosphorus once wrote upon

the wall of a friend's bed-chamber, 'This night thou must I. PREVALENCE OF SUPERSTITION. TERRORS INSTILLED

die.' The light of the lamp prevented his observing the INTO THE Minds of CHILDREN. Jack a' LANTERN. light of the phosphorus; but as soon as the light was PHOSPHORUS. REFLECTION IN A CONCAVE MIRROR.

extinguished, the phosphoric effect flickered upon the Few persons will acknowledge themselves to be supersti- wall. But he happened to be acquainted with the nature tious; but still fewer are those who are not, in some

of phosphorus, laughed heartily at the attempted deception, degree, under the influence of superstitious fears : for and quietly fell asleep. The experiment, however, was there is an almost universal apprehension of something hazardous and wicked, for an ignorant person, and one of supernatural. Those who laugh the loudest at the mention sensitive nerves, might thus have received an irrecoverable

shock. of ghosts and hobgoblins, will sometimes quicken their pace, if they hear an unusual sound in passing the church-yard

Sir Walter Scott records the following instance of the at the gloomy hour of midnight, and even the calm and application of philosophical principles in effecting a decep

• At a certain old castle, on intellectual philosopher, whose reason spurns imaginary tion of a different kind. evils, may, at times, feel ashamed of himself, on finding the confines of Hungary, the lord to whom it belonged, that the imagination has gained a mastery over the judg-determined upon giving an entertainment, worthy of his ment. The reason of the universal prevalence of these feel

own rank, and of the magnificence of the antique manings is, in a great degree, to be found in impressions received sion which he inhabited. The guests, of course, were in childhood. The tales of the nursery awaken a belief, numerous, and among them was a veteran officer of hussars which the future judgment may pronounce to be foolish, remarkable for his bravery. When the arrangements for but the influence of which, in a greater or less degree, is

the night were made, this officer was informed that there felt through life. It is in childhood that we generally

would be difficulty in accommodating the whole of the receive those impressions which future years are unable company in the castle, large as it was, unless some one to erase, and it is a humiliating fact, that there is scarcely

would sleep in a room supposed to be haunted; and as an individual who does not at times experience momentary

he was known to be above such prejudices, the apartinconveniences from feelings more or less tinctured by ment was proposed for his occupation, he being the person superstition; and there are multitudes who have an un

least likely to suffer a bad night's rest from such a cause. doubting confidence in the reality of ghostly interference The major thankfully accepted the preference, and having in mortal concerns.

shared the festivity of the evening, retired after midnight, Those who are not habituated to reflection, often retain denouncing vengeance against any one who should attempt undiminished till a dying hour, a belief in signs and omens

to disturb his repose; a threat which his habits would, it which they were taught in childhood. Such persons do

was supposed, render him sufficiently ready to execute. not question the truth of ideas instilled into their minds in The major went to bed, leaving his candle burning, and earliest infancy, and to which their parents may have laid his pistols carefully loaded upon his bedside. appealed, in their imbecile efforts to govern. How often

• He had not slept an hour, when he was awakened by has a child been told that unless he ceased crying, he

a solemn strain of music. He looked out. Three ladies should be shut up in a dark closet, where ghosts would fantastically dressed in green, were seen at the lower end come and get him? And what an indelible impression of the apartment, and they sung a solemn requiem. The must such a threat produce upon the pliant mind ?

With major listened for some time with delight, but at length grew the unreflecting, therefore, superstition is consequently

tired. “ Ladies," said lie, “this is very well, but somewhat strong, their minds not being sufficiently cultivated to monotonous, will you be so kind as to change the tune." throw off the load which has been imposed upon them. The ladies continued singing. He expostulated, but the The better informed, who are accustomed to examine their music was not interrupted. The major began to grow feelings, and inquire into the grounds of their belief, eman

angry. “ Ladies," he said, “I must consider this a trick, cipate their judgments from these unreal fears, but are for the purpose of terrifying me, and as I regard it as an generally through life in some degree under the control impertinence, I shall take a rough mode of stopping it." of such strong prejudices as were early inculcated. The With that he began to handle his pistols. The ladies sung belief in supernatural appearances, though less general

on. He then got seriously angry...“ I will wait but five than it was in former times, is still a subject upon which minutes," he said, “ and then fire without hesitation." The the minds of many persons require to be disabused. song was still uninterrupted,--the five minutes were expired. Let us first consider some of those appearances which

“ I still give you leave, ladies," he said, “ while I count are unusual, and which to the uninformed seem superna- twenty." This produced as little effect as his former threats. tural, but which are capable of explanation from known He counted, one-two-three-accordingly, but on apprinciples of philosophy or natural science. The fire- proaching the end of the number, and repeating, more balls, usually known by the name of Jack with the than once, his determination to fire—the last numbers, Lantern, or Will o' the Wisp, so often seen dancing seventeen-eighteen-nineteen-were pronounced with over the marsh, produce great terror, and often serious considerable pauses between, and an assurance that the injury. Now here there is no delusion.

pistols were cocked. The ladies sung on. actually sees a light where there is no human being who nounced the word twenty, he fired both pistols against the bears it , and, not being acquainted with the chemical musical damsels—but the ladies sung on.

The major, principles of inflammable gases and spontaneous com

overcome by the unexpected inefficacy of his violence, bustion, concludes that it must be an apparition. In a

had an attack of illness which lasted more than three few days, some accident may occur, or a neighbour may by the fact, that the female choristers were placed in an

weeks. The trick put upon him, may shortly be described die, an event of which a superstitious person would convince himself that he had received a supernatural warning. adjoining room and that he only fired at their reflection, The man conversant with natural science, on the contrary, thrown forward into the chamber in which he slept, by would behold, in this appearance, no cause of fear, but the effect of a concave mirror.' rather an interesting natural phenomenon. An inflam- Here the plain and well-known laws of the reflection mable gas which oozes from the ground, is set on fire by of light, account for the whole appearance. But suppose spontaneous combustion ; and a person acquainted with the deception had never been explained, what reasoning gases, might, by going to the marsh, fill a vessel with

could ever have satisfied the man, that the room was not this gas, with which he could return to his house, and burn in reality haunted. It would have been one of the most it there. But how is it set on fire, down in the marsh, conclusive ghost-stories, that ever was heard. Had he rose where every thing is damp? It is well known that barns from the bed to investigate, the ladies would merely have are frequently burnt in consequence of hay being put into withdrawn from before the mirror, and the apparition them before it has been sufficiently dried. The damp hay would have vanished; and by again resuming their place, inflames itself. In the same manner this gas, which is

as he laid down, the vision would again have appeared so very combustible, may take fire, and the innocent flicker- before him. ing of its feeble flame, send dismay through an ignorant and superstitious village.

The light frequently emitted by decayed wood is pro- Sum up at night what thou hast done by day, duced by a substance called phosphorus, a most useful

And in the morning what thou hast to do; substance when properly prepared for use by chemists.

Dress and undress thy soul, mark the decay The light which it emits is so pale, that it cannot be

And growth of it; if with thy watch, that too

Be down, then wind up both; since we shall be seen in day-light, but is easily discernible in the night. More surely judged, make thy accounts agree.- HERBER I

A person

As he pro

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No. III.-SPLUGEN. VALLEY OF THE RHINWALD. I once made the attempt to push on with a guide to the VEGETATION IN THE SNOWY ALPS. SOURCE OF THE

head of the Rhine, where it flows from the Moschelhorn RHINE. CROSSING THE ALPS. LAKE OF Como.

glacier; but the clouds so entirely and closely envelopeck

us, that independently of the inconvenience of getting AFTER the fatigues of our journey from Wesen to the vil- so thoroughly drenched with rain, at a place where we had lage of Splügen, we were in a right condition to enjoy the no means of changing our clothes, the journey would have luxury of a comfortable repose. My surprise and regret, been very unprofitable, as we could see but a very few however, may be imagined, when, on the following morn- yards around us, and must actually have crawled up to the ing, I perceived the rain pouring down in torrents. This mouth of the glacier, to see the Hinter-Rhein issuing was an event wholly unlooked for, but the only course from it. that remained was to rise and take breakfast, and if the The weather cleared up a little during the latter part rain still continued, to stay and take dinner. This soon of the day, but it was then much too late to start; so that appeared to be the general will; and as Splügen is high we were actually kept in doors throughout the whole day. among the snowy Alps, and has a very cold climate, we As this was a new occurrence, and one quite unlooked for, kept up cheerful fires, and were very happy in each other's we had time to talk over the past at our leisure, to scribble society, the ladies congratulating themselves on the happy down our thoughts, and render more legible our notes, and mischance of a thoroughly wet day. They had undergone to mend two or three slight rents in our garments. much fatigue on the previous day; for during ten succes- When the next morning dawned, the rain was seen desive hours, they had been either jolted in that intolerably scending as before, in a steady continued heavy shower. rough conveyance, the jaunting carts, without springs or But on this occasion no deliberation was required, it had cushions, or were sitting on the backs of mules, and they never entered into our minds to stay at Splügen two days; had eaten very little.

and no weather which it was possible to face, would have The engraving which accompanies this article, is a view induced us to do so. Besides, I had travelled sufficiently of the valley called the Rhinwald, in which the village of far to know, that if it rains on your side of the mountain, Splügen is situated.

This valley is enclosed by lofty and you wish for fine weather, you had better pass on to mountains, covered with enormous glaciers; and this the other side, and place the mountain at once between you situation exposes it to frequent avalanches. It derives and the clouds. It must be a very high wind that will its name from the Hinter-Rhein, or Lower Rhine, which carry them over such heights as the Splügen and the runs along it, and which has its source in the further Moschelhorn. As soon, therefore, as breakfast was desextremity of the valley, at the great glacier of the Rhin- patched, and the ladies properly habited for the occasion, wald, called the Moschelhorn. The elevation of the valley and thoroughly protected from all possible chances of is very considerable, and the climate is cold. The winter suffering from the rain, we started, trusting in about three lasts during nine months of the year; at the end of hours to clear the ridge, and to descend amidst warmth June the grass begins to grow, and the crops must be and sunshine into the Italian vale of St. Giacomo. gathered in before the commencement of the month of Quitting the village of Splügen, we crossed the September. Nevertheless, in the neighbourhood of Splü- Rhine by a wooden bridge, and immediately began to gen, flax is grown, and barley and peas ripen. But the ascend the mountain along a winding road, shut in by gradual ascent of the valley from that village, causes a lofty rocks, and overhung by dark pines. We gained the corresponding increase in the severity of the climate; and narrow crest which forms its summit, whence the road even small differences of elevation are sensibly marked in rapidly descended to the Austrian Custom-house. The the vegetable productions, insomuch, that at the village of pass was occasionally very magnificent; and one frightful Hinter-Rhein, which is only 170 feet above the level of gorge, called the Kardinell, made a deep impression. It Splügen, barley seldom comes to maturity.

was by this route, that Macdonald, one of Buonaparto's


generals, led an army of reserve into Italy, towards the

TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES. close of the year 1800.

The difficulties and dangers of crossing the mountains The object of Temperance Societies is to check the would have interrupted the passage at different times, had progress of intemperate drinking, as the most prolific it not been for the perseverance of the general. He led in cause of ruinous expenditure, guilt, and misery, and person the pioneers to the tracts of the road near the as presenting a most formidable obstacle to all moral summit of the Splügen, which were filled up and totally improvement; the means which they employ, PEReffaced by the drifted snow. He himself set the example

SUASION COMBINED WITH ASSOCIATED EXAMPLE. of working to open a path, on the 5th of December, about However simple these means appear, they have two leagues from the village of Splügen, which was effected. This foremost party had not advanced far, when effected a change of public opinion and custom which the path was again covered, and his grenadiers, sinking in has awakened the attention of civilized nations. the snow, began to believe that it was impossible to proceed The first European Temperance Society was estabfurther; for even the poles which were set up for marks, lished in 1829, at New Ross, in the South of Ireland; had been covered by the snow, which was still falling and others were early formed in the north of that But the general, at the head of the pioneers, himself examined the road, and animating all who were near him island, and in Scotland. Their principles have been by his voice and example, at length conducted his troops spread with much zeal and perseverance, and with through all the dangers of the Splügen.

most cheering success, among the manufacturing In a short time, our highest expectations were realized. population of the north of England; Lancashire and No sooner had we reached Isola, than we lost sight of the Yorkshire alone, where the earliest efforts were made, clouds, and of all remembrance of them, and so different containing above 30,000 members. already was the temperature, that the extra cloaks and wrappers, which had recently been in such great request, Associations have been formed in England, including

Above four hundred Temperance Societies and halted, and very gladly deposited them again in the the interesting islands of Guernsey, Jersey, and travelling-bags, and in high glee pursued our way to Man; the whole comprising more than 80,000 Chiavenna, where we engaged a car to Riva, and a boat, members. with six rowers from Riva to Cadenobio, on the Lago Scotland, under the direction of the vigorous di Como; we were, I believe, six hours on this, the most

Committee of the Scottish Society, numbers about beautiful lake, perhaps, in the world. It was my first view of Italy; and a lovelier view, perhaps, never subsequently

400 Societies, and 54,000 members. In Ireland, met my eye. The scenery on the banks was exquisite, not withstanding numerous disadvantages and diffiand was every minute varying in kind, and increasing culties, about 20,000 persons have joined the standard in beauty, as the boat passed on; first a village-church of Temperance Societies. would open on the sight, then a promontory, then a bay. The Canadas and other distant colonies are known the air, besides, was clear, and warm, and bright; every

to comprise several thousand members, making a thing glittered in the rays of such a sun, even the transparent waters of the lake sprinkled their little showers of total of more than 150,000 British subjects volunsight, when struck and scattered about by the boatien's tarily engaged to abstain from distilled spirits, except

as a medicine, and to discourage intemperance in The inn of Cadenobio is a villa, placed on the very spot general. where the lake appears to have concentrated all its beauties; Temperance Societies are formed in Newfoundland, the garden-terrace rises from its waters, and we who had

at Calcutta, and in Van Diemen's Land. in the morning of this day been enveloped in clouds, and surrounded by mountains of snow, were now walking Good Hope, who were thought to be “ beyond the

The Hottentots in the vicinity of the Cape of among myrtles, and pomegranates, and fig-trees, and orange-trees, in full flower and fruit; and looking on the reach of good example," take a lively interest in magnificent scene before us, varying erery instant its this reformation; and the inhabitants of the Society shadows and its hues, and made still more resplendent by Islands of the Pacific have formed themselves into the last rays of the setting sun.

E. D, B.

numerous and zealous Societies to deliver their

nations from the curse of spirit-drinking. TIIERE IS A TONGUE IN EVERY LEAF.

The King of Sweden, though surrounded by THERE is a tongue in every leaf !

noble distillers, has officially expressed his distinct A voice in every rill!

approbation of Temperance Societies; and the Crown A voice that speaketh every where,

Prince takes an active interest in their proceedings. In food and fire, through earth and air ;

The Government of Prussia has applied to the A tongue that's never still !

New York State Committee for a complete history 'Tis the Great Spirit wide diffused

of the temperance reformation, “and a sketch of Through every thing we see, That with our spirits communeth

the machinery necessary to be set in motion to Of things mysterious—Life and Death,

enable Government to establish Temperance Societies Time and Eternity!

throughout the kingdom of Prussia.' I see Him in the blazing sun,

The quantity of spirits which pay duty for home And in the thunder-cloud;

consumption in this kingdom, has more than doubled I hear Him in the mighty roar

within a few past years. According to Parliamentary That rusheth through the forests hoar,

returns, made in 1833, it amounted to 25,982,494 When winds are raging loud.

gallons at proof, which, with the addition of oneI feel Him in the silent dews,

sixth for the reduction of strength by retailers, By grateful earth betray'd;

amounted to 13,429,3311. 5s. 10d.; and this sum I feel Him in the gentle showers,

does not include any part of the many millions of The soft south wind, the breath of flowers, The sunshine, and the shade.

gallons known to be illicitly distilled, or imported

without paying duty.
I see Him, hear Him, every where,
In all thingsdarkness, light;

In the neighbourhood of our large towns, the habit
Silence, and sound; but most of all,

of drinking spirits especially is found to be the chief When slumber's dusky curtains fall,

source of misery among the poor. Dram-drinking I'the silent hour of night.

offers to them a ready, though fatal oblivion of their

sorrows; and thousands seek refuge from distress in WHATEVER is glorious and excellent in the world, cannot

this insidious indulgence, which obstructs all attempts be aoquired without care and labour. No real good, no

to afford them substantial relief, and baffles exertions true happiness, is given to men upon any other terms. for their moral and spiritual advancement. It

destroys domestic happiness, and cuts off all hope | abstain; none endure so well hardships and exposure, of rising by industry and frugality to an honest the inclemency of the weather, and the vicissitude of independence.

season." The customs of principal towns rapidly extend to The public attention being called to the subject, a smaller places. Debasing habits of excess in beer- mass of medical evidence to the same effect was drinking too often prepare for the cheaper and readier readily collected; and several hundred physicians excitement of spirits; and in many country towns of and surgeons, including some of the most eminent England, gorgeous gin-shops now glare among modest practitioners, have publicly declared, that so far and useful trades, and thrive upon the want, and mi- from spirits affording any nourishment, the entire sery, and moral ruin which they spread around them. disuse of them would powerfully contribute to the

Four-fifths of all the crimes in our country have health and comfort of the community. been estimated to be committed under the excitement The testimony of eminent medical men proves of liquor. During the year 1833, 29,880 persons that distilled spirits “often bring on fatal diseases were taken into custody by the metropolitan police without producing drunkenness; that many persons for drunkenness alone, not including any of the have been destroyed by them, who were never comnumerous cases in which assaults or more serious pletely intoxicated in their lives;" and that madness offences have bee committed der the influence of in its most awful form, “has occurred to persons drinking; and it should be observed, that this state- rarely or never known to be intoxicated.” ment relates only to the suburbs of London, without Public admonitions against excess, and private any calculation for the thousands of cases which entreaties to moderation, in the use of these danoccurred in the city itself.

gerous liquors, have been tried for centuries, in vain. Our parochial expenses, which have been nearly Moderation has produced appetite, and appetite doubled since 1815, are principally occasioned by excess; and the evil has become enormous. If, exeessive drinking. Of 143 inmates of a London indeed, it can be proved, that not any nourishment parish workhouse, 105 have been reduced to that is contained in the flood of distilled spirits which we state by intemperance; and the small remainder yearly consume at the expense of so many millions, comprises all the blind, epileptic, and idiotic, as well wrung chiefly from the wages of the labourer and as all the aged poor, some of whom would also drink the mechanic, and from the hard fare and scanty to intoxication if opportunity offered.

clothing of their families; if it can be proved that More than one-half of the madness in our country they excite to exertion only by inflaming the imagiappears to be occasioned by drinking. Of 495 nation,—that they add strength to the sufficiently patients admitted in four years into a lunatic asylum fierce temptations of our corrupt nature, while they at Liverpool, 257 were known to have lost their reason blunt and obliterate the affections and feelings which by this vice.

distinguish man from the inferior creation ; if, on The pecuniary interests of all temperate persons are examination, it is evident that spirit drinking is deeply involved in this question. Every drunkard closely connected with abuse of the Sabbath, and knows well, while he is drinking himself, his wife, contempt of religious institutions, and that it presents and his children to beggary, that the temperate must

one of the most serious obstructions to the progress support him. He is as truly and certainly their heir of the gospel of truth,—the Christian, who seeks as one of their own children; and, either at their door not his own profit merely, will not long hesitate or in the workhouse, in the hospital or in the jail, whether he is at liberty to apply to the use of these they maintain him and his family."

dangerous liquids, the rule of abstinence which a The poor's rate and county rate, for England and great apostle recommends with regard to things in Wales only, amount to 8,000,0001. The proportion themselves lawful, and even useful and desirable, but of this expenditure occasioned by drinking, may be which circumstances render inexpedient as occasions most safely estimated at two-thirds, say 5,333,3331.; of stumbling or weakness to others. which, added to the cost of spirits alone, 13,429,331l., The proposed means of reformation are not gives the sum expended by this nation, in the last doubtful, complex, and theoretical ; they are harmfive years, on these two objects only, at 93,813,3211.; less and simple, and have proved efficacious beyond amounting, in only twenty years, to three hundred expectation. and seventy-five million pounds sterling; without Temperance Societies consist of persons of both including any computation for the enormous sums sexes, and of all ranks, who are convinced that it is consumed in the abuse of wine and beer, the expenses their duty, for their neighbours' sake, as well as their of prosecutions, the injury done to our foreign trade, own, to abtain from distilled spirits. They are not the loss of shipping, and the notorious destruction of persons bound by a reluctant vow to abstain from property in various other ways.

that in which they wish to indulge; they simply It has been an impression almost universal express their present conviction and determination, among the labouring classes, that ardent spirits, if rejoicing to give to others whatever advantage and not absolutely necessary, are of great use and im- encouragement may arise from their example, portance, as a support during labour, and that, moderately used, they are a salutary, or at least an It is in every man's power to assign proper portions of his innocent stimulus;" and the custom of persons of life to the examination of the rest, by putting himself better information, has confirmed an opinion so frequently in such a situation, hy retirement and abstracagreeable to our natural love of excitement.

tion, as may weaken the influence of external objects, Dr. John Ware created much sensation in North another state be not extinguished, must have the convic

Every man deeply engaged in business, if all regard to America, by publicly declaring, that no impression tion, though perhaps, not the resolution of Valdesso, who,

can be more unfounded, no opinion more fatally when he solicited Charles the Fifth to dismiss him, being false, than that which attributes to spirituous liquors asked, whether he retired upon disgust, answered, that he any power of promoting bodily strength, or support- laid down his commission for no other reason, but because, ing the systein under labour or fatigue. Experience the life of a soldier and his death."

“there ought to be some time for sober reflection, between has in all quarters most abundantly proved the contrary. None labour so constantly, so cheerfully, When a man owns himself to have been in error, it is and with so little exhaustion, as those who entirely but telling you, in other words, that he is wiser than he was.

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nister an oath to them, to give in a true and perfect verdict relating to the matter of fact for which the said felon was executed, to the intent that a record might be made thereof in the Crown-Office.

When the party accused was condemned, he was to be executed ; if his condemnation took place on the Saturday, he was immediately led to the block; if on the Monday, he would be kept three market-days, but upon this point it does not appear that the law is clearly understood. When brought to the gibbet, he was to have his head cut off from his body.

This gibbet stood on an elevated plot of ground, a short distance at that day from the town; the place is still called Gibbet Hill; it is surrounded by a wall, ascended by steps; and an oblong block of stone marks the site of decapitation. On this elevation were placed two upright pieces of timber, five yards in height, joined at the top by a transverse beam; within these was a square block of wood four feet and a half in length, which moved up and down between the uprights, by means of grooves. In the lower end of this sliding block, an iron axe was fastened, which is yet to be seen at the gaol in Halifax, and which certainly ought to be de. posited in the increasing Museum of the Philosophical Society of the town. Its weight is 7 pounds 12 ounces, length 104 inches, 7 inches over at the top, and nearly 9 at the bottom; towards the top are two holes, for the purpose of fastening it to the block. The axe, thus fixed, was drawn up to the top by means of a cord and pulley, and at

the end of the cord was a pin, which being fixed A SINGULAR power was possessed by the Lord of the either to the side of the scaffold or some other part manor of Halifax, in Yorkshire, from time immemo-below, kept it suspended, till either by pulling out rial to the year 1650, for the trial and execution of the pin or cutting the cord, it was suffered to fall, any felon taken within the Forest of Hardwick. and the criminal's head was instantly severed from This custon, known by the name of THE GIBBET his body. It is said, that if the offender was to be Law, took cognizance of all thefts of the value of executed for stealing an ox, sheep, horse, or any thirteen-pence halfpenny and upwards; and the seve- other animal, the end of the rope was fastened to rity with which it was carried into execution at Hali- the beast, which being driven away, pulled out the fax, and the rigour with which vagrancy was visited pin. If the execution was not done by a beast, the at Hull, became notorious, and gave rise to a com

bailiff or his servant cut the rope. mon, but profanely expressed petition.

The bailiff, jurors, and minister chosen by the Whenever a felon was apprehended, he was com- prisoner, were always on the scaffold with him. The mitted to the custody of the Lord of the Manor's fourth psalm was played round the scaffold on bagBailiff, who kept the gaol, had the keeping of the pipes, after which the minister prayed with him, till gibbet-axe, and also officiated at times as the execu- he underwent the fatal stroke. tioner. The bailiff then summoned a jury, which The origin of this custom is hidden in its antiquity; was selected “out of the most wealthy and best the power to exercise it was kept up at Halifax for a reputed men, for honesty and understanding,” in four considerable time after it had expired in every other of the many Townships into which the Liberty is part of the kingdom, and it is probable it would not divided.

then have ceased, had not the bailiff been threatened, These jurors, sixteen in number, were not put upon after the last execution, A.D. 1650, that if ever he oath, nor do their duties appear to have been difficult, attempted the like again, he should be called to public merely consisting of an identification of the goods, account for it. that they were of such a value as to bring them The number of executions carefully collected from within the law, and an ascertainment that the the Parish Register, from the year 1541 to 1650, was offender had been taken either hand habend, in forty-nine,-one almost every two years ; certainly the act of stealing; back berand, carrying off the very many considering the smallness of the jurisdicstolen property ;

or confessand, by confession. tion, (not the whole of the present parish,) and the Before this assembly, the accuser and accused were sensitiveness of the population at that period. But brought face to face, the thing stolen produced to the manufacturing system was then in its infancy in view, and the prisoner acquitted or condemned that neighbourhood, and required strict protection, according to evidence. If the party accused was It may be, perhaps, a question not unworthy the acquitted, he was directly set at liberty on paying consideration of the casuist, how far the wild and the fees; if condemned, he was either immediately mountainous district of Halifax may be indebted for executed, if it was the principal market-day, or kept its present wealth and consequence to the severity of till then, in order to strike the greater terror into the its Gibbet Law.

H. neighbourhood. After every execution, the coroners of the county, or some of them, were obliged to

LONDON: repair to the town of Halifax, and there summon a JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. jury of twelve men before them, (and sometimes the PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE L'ENNY, AND IN MONTALY PARTH same persons who condemned the felon,) and admi.

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