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table was hospitable; and he appropriated one day FAMILIAR ILLUSTRATIONS OF EXPERI. in the week to persons distinguished by their learning,

MENTAL SCIENCE. and particularly those of the Royal Society. He was No. II. INDESTRUCTIBILITY OF MATTER. extremely temperate both in eating and drinking. A COMMON tallow-candle supplies an instructive His custom was, to rise very early in the morning ; illustration of some of the changes incident to matand, from his first getting up, he was constantly fit to have gone abroad, though for some of his last years of its combustion, which will come under our notice

ter. Without going particularly into the phenomena he stirred not out of his own house.

The study of nature, and the improvement of in a future paper, we may observe, that the tallow, knowledge, were the employment and pleasure of being liquefied by heat, rises between the filaments of his life, and to the exercise of his high intellectual the wick, until, coming near to the flame, it is vapoqualities, are we indebted for the first establishment into that of gas, which gas yields a continuous flame

rised. From a state of vapour, it very rapidly passes of the British Museum. Having with great labour

and a brilliant light. We will suppose, that the and expense, during the course of his long life, collected a rich cabinet of medals, objects of natural candle is a short six mould, that it is well made, the

tallow of good quality, and that it be kept conhistory, productions of art, antiquities, and an extensive library of manuscripts and printed books, stantly snuffed. During its combustion, if the he bequeathed the whole to the public, on condition dom from a current of air be observed, no smoke

conditions of constant snusling, and freethat twenty thousand pounds should be paid to his executors.

will arise from it. This we may prove by bolding Included in this collection were gold and silver coins, which, considered only as bullion, Aame, a piece of white card-board, or of polished

over the candle, a little above the extremity of the were worth upwards of seven thousand pounds.

tin. When the process of combustion is at an end, The gems and precious stones of every kind, both in their natural state, and as the jeweller has manu

we say, in common language, “the candle is burnt factured them ; the numerous vessels of jasper, agate, few fragments of charred wick, which have been

out,” and all that remains, visible to our senses, is a onyx, cornelian, sardonyx, &c. ; the curious cameos,

collected in the snuffers. the vast stores of the various productions of nature;

A mould candle of six to the pound, weighs and the completest library extant of physic and natural history, consisting of 50,000 volumes, of which rather, more than two ounces and a half. Under

careful management, the whole of the tallow may be 347 are drawings, or books illuminated, 3516 manuscripts ; in whole, so industriously collected, and of an ounce of the wick. But what has become of

consumed, leaving in the snuffers about one fourth intended for the glory of God, and the good of man,

the tallow? It has disappeared, but not a particle he declares solemnly in his will, he believes to be worth more than four times what he expected to be of it has been wasted or destroyed. Those portions

of the tallow and of the cotton, which now elude paid to his family for them. Government fulfilled the terms of the legacy, and

our observation, have been added to the surrounding in 1753 an Act of Parliament was passed for the all united under the precise forms of animal fat, and

atmosphere, and, although they may never again be purchase of Sir Hans Sloane's Museum, together the seed-pod of the cotton-tree, yet are they perwith the Harleian collection of manuscripts, and for procuring one general repository, for the better forming, in the economy of nature, offices equally reception and more convenient use of the collections, important and equally useful

. What has been said and of the Cottonian library, and additions thereto: respecting a tallow-candle, may be viewed as appliThe museum of Sir Hans Sloane was accordingly cable, with but slight alterations, to an oil-lamp, and

a wood, or coal fire. In the two latter, we commonly removed from Chelsea to Bloomsbury, and thus commenced the formation of the British Museum, and hence we have less difficulty in accounting for

observe the liberation of great quantities of smoke, to which national collection the most valuable additions have, from time to time up to the present cases, a portion only of the combustible materials

thc dissipation of the particles of fuel. But in these period, constantly been making.

pass off in a visible form. A fire, whether it be for The following is an enumeration of the contents of Sir Hans Sloane's Collection, at the time of its domestic, or manufacturing purposes, always implies transfer to the public.

the union of some portions of the inflammable

materials, with certain portions of the surrounding Library of printed books and manuscripts, including books of prints and drawings

Vols. 50,000

atmosphere, constituting entirely new compounds, Coins and medals

23,000 which compounds may, by a process we shall hereAntique idols, utensils, &c.


after describe, be collected separately and examined. Cameos, intaglios, seals, &c.

1,500 Vessels and utensils of agate, jasper, &c.


The changes, thus briefly hinted at, are only a Anatomical preparations of human bodies, parts of

very small part of what are constantly going on mummies, calculi, &c. Quadrupeds and their parts


around us. In the vegetable world, these changes, Birds and their parts, eggs, &c.

1,172 by their rapid succession, are strikingly apparent. Fishes and their parts


A few simple elements, blended in different proporAmphibia Crustacea..


tions, make up the vast variety of herbs and flowers, Shells, echipi entrochi

5,845 of fruits and trees, that adorn the surface of the 5,439

earth. Whilst some tender plant springs up in the Corals, sponges, zoophytes..

1,421 Volumes of dried plants

morning, and withers before night, the oak of the Mathematical instruments

forest resists the blasts of a hundred winters. Yet Miscellaneous artificial curiosities.

2,098 J. T.

the sturdy oak, in all its grandeur, is not exempt [Purtly Abridged from FAULINER's History of Chelsea.]

from changes, nor could it exist without them. Its

leaves periodically fall off, and, as we are accustomed What we hope ever to do with ease, we must learn first to to say, rot; but this rottenness is necessary for the do with diligence.—DR. JOHNSON.

complete separation of the elements of which those PEOPLB who are a.ways innocently cheerful and good

leaves are composed, previous to their reappearance, humoured, are very useful in the world; they maintain under some new form, in connexion with the mineral, peace and happiness, and spread a thankful temper vegetable, or animal creation. amongst all who live around them.-Miss Talbot.

The seed cast into the earth dies, but during the





334 55

progress of its decay, it protects, nourishes, and THE FIRST STEAM-BOAT IN THE WEST INDIES. invigorates, the germ of a new plant, that springs Sir Ralph WOODFORD told us, that when this steamer forth from its ruins. In these, and the greater pro

was first started, he and a large party, as a mode of portion of the changes with which we are familiar,

patronizing the undertaking, took a trip of pleasure in her air and water co-operate. The elements of which

through some of the Bocas into the main ocean. Almost

every one got sick outside, and, as they returned through vegetables and animals are composed, belong, for the

the Boca Grande, there was no one on deck but the man most part, to that class of matter denominated at the helm and himself. When they were in the middle aëriform, or in chemical language gaseous. Air and of the passage, a small privateer, such as commonly infested water hold a distinguished place among these the gulf during the first troubles in Columbia, was seen elements, and, by a wise arrangement of Providence, making all sail for the shore of Trinidad. Her course are rendered alike subservient to vitality and to

seemed unaccountable; but what was their surprise, when

they observed that on nearing the coast, the privateer nerer decomposition.

tacked, and finally, that she ran herself directly on shore, The odour exhaled from putrescent animal matter, her crew, at the same time, leaping over the bows and sides is peculiarly offensive and distressing to mankind, of the vessel, and scampering off as if they were mad, some and to some of the inferior animals. Hence, the up the mountains, and others into the thickets. This was propriety of burying the dead in the earth, where

so strange a sight, that Sir R. W. ordered the helmsman decomposition proceeds less rapidly, and without

to steer for the privateer, that he might discover the cause

of it. When they came close, the vessel appeared deserted; endangering the existence of animated beings.

Sir Ralph went on board of her, and, after searching We shall conclude this paper by an extract from various parts without finding any one, he at length opened the Journal of a Naturalist.

a little side-cabin, and saw a man lying on a mat, evidently “ Surrounded as we are by wonders of every kind, with some broken limb. The man made an effort to put and existing only by a miraculous concurrence of himself in a posture of supplication; he was pale as ashes, events, admiration seems the natural avocation of his teeth chattered, and his hair stood on end.

"Misericordia! misericordia! Ave Maria,” faltered forth our being; nor is it easy to pronounce, amidst such

the Colombian. a creation, what is most wonderful. But few things Sir Ralph asked the man in Spanish, what was the cause appear more incomprehensible, than the constant of the strange conduct of the crew :-“ Misericordia !" was production and re-absorption of matter. An animal the only reply. falls to the ground and dies; myriads of creatures

“ Do you know who I am?' said the governor. are now summoned by a call, by an impulse of which

“ The-the-O Señor! Misericordia! Ave Maria ! we have no perception, to remove it, and prepare it

answered the smuggler.

It was a considerable time before the fellow could be for a new combination. Chemical agencies, fermen- brought back to his senses, when he gave this account of tation, and solution, immediately commence their the matter;—that they saw a vessel apparently following actions to separate the parts, and in a short time, them, with only two persons on board, and steering, without of all this great body, nothing remains but the frame- a single sail, directly in the teeth of the wind, current, work or bones, perhaps a little hair, or some wool,

(which runs like a river through the Bocas,) and tide; and all the rest is departed we know not whither!

Against the breeze, against the tide, Worms and insects have done their parts; the earth

She steadied with upright keel: has received a portion, and the rest, converted into

that they knew no ship could move in such a course by gases, and exhalable matters, has dispersed all over

human means; that they heard a deep roaring noise, and

saw an unusual agitation of the water, which their fears the region, which, received into vegetable circulation, magnified; finally, that they concluded it to be a superis again separated and changed, becomes modified

natural appearance, accordingly drove their own vessel anew, and nourishes that which is to continue the ashore, in an agony of terror, and escaped as they could ; future generations of life. The petal of the rose;

that he himself was unable to move, and that, when he the pulp of the peach; the azure and gold on the

heard Sir Ralph's footsteps, he verily, and indeed believed, wing of the insect; all the various productions of that he was fallen into the hands of the evil spirit.—Six

. the animal and vegetable world ; the very salts and compounds of the soil, are but the changes some I WITNESSED a peculiar trait of the customs of the Himaother matters have undergone, which have circulated layan peasants, the putting an infant to sleep by the through innumerable channels since the first pro- action of water. The successful issue of the experiment I duction of all things, and no particle (has) been

had quietly made up my mind not to believe in, until lost. Bearing in mind this assured truth, that all

convinced by ocular proof. The method was as follows. these combinations have not been effected by chance,

The child, whose age might be a year or two, was laid by

its mother, who was employed in bruising grain, on a or peculiarity of circumstances, but by the predeter

charpoy, (low bed or stretcher,) placed on a sloping green mination of an Almighty intelligence, who sees the bank, along the top of which ran a small stream. A piece station, progress, and final destination of an atom, of bark introduced through the embankment, conducted a what an infinity of power and intellective spirit does slender spout of water, which fell, at the height of about this point out! An Omnipotence which the bodied

half a foot, on the crown of the infant's head. It was fast minds of us poor creatures cannot conceive. Truly

asleep when I witnessed this process.-MUNDY's Sketches

of India. may we say, 'who can find out the Almighty to perfection?""*

R. R.

The celebrated Admiral Lord Collingwood, remarks in a

letter dated the Dreadnought, off Ushant, 1805. “ If the Man is a thinking being, whether he will or no; all he country gentlemen do not make it a point to plant oaks can do, is, to turn his thoughts the best way.—Sir W. wherever they will grow, the time will not be very distant, TEMPLE.

when, to keep our navy, we must depend entirely on cap

tures from the enemy. You will be surprised to hear that Books are not absolutely dead things, but doe contain a most of the knees which were used in the Hibernia, were potencie of life in them, to be as active as that soul was taken from the Spanish ships captured on the 14th of whose progeny they are; nay, they do preserve as in a February; and what they could not furnish was supplied violl the purest efficacie and extraction of that living by iron. I wish every body thought on this subject as I intellect that bred them. I know they are as lively and as do; they would not walk through their farms without a vigorously productive as those fabulous dragon's teeth, and pocket-ful of acorns to drop in the hedge-sides, and then let being sown up and down, may chance to spring up armed them take their chance."

A good book is the precious life-blood of a master spirit, embalmed and treasured up on purpose to a He that eyes a Providence shall always have a Providence life beyond life.-Milton.

to eye.-Hall.



was compelled to burn the greater part of his shipsi, to In a preceding number*, we had occasion slightly to allude prevent their falling into the hands of the English. to the maritime celebrity of the Cinque Ports, and the im- The Cinque Ports rendered very eminent services at portant position which they hold in our olden history. the period of the threatened invasion of the Spanish Some particulars respecting them, therefore, may not be Armada, on which occasion they fitted six new ships of unacceptable, especially as they will appropriately lead to large size, at a cost of 43,0001. the subject of our illustration.

In conformity with the example set ly the Romans, the During the period of Roman dominion in Britain, it was government and direction of these ports was intrusted to found necessary, in consequence of the incursions of the an individual of rank and consequence, who assumed the pirates then infesting the northern seas, to unite a certain style and title of “Lord Warden, Chancellor, and Admiral number (nine,) of the ports, under the governance of an of the Cinque Ports;" an office which has frequently been officer, for the better defence of the coast. This system held by heirs apparent to the throne. Amongst the perwas continued by the Saxons, who, however, only incorpo- sonages of the Blood Royal, on whom the mantle of the rated five ports for this object; though, as there is no Lord Warden has fallen, we may mention Harold the charter in existence prior to the reign of Edward the Second, before his accession to the crown: Odo, Bishop of First, some writers have assumed that they did not exist as Bayeux, half-brother to William the Conqueror ; Edward a corporation until then. From the mention of Dover, the First, when Prince of Wales; Henry the Fifth, when Sandwich, and Romney in the Domesday Book, as privi- Prince of Wales; Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, the leged ports, and from various concurring circumstances, youngest son of Henry the Fourth; Richard the Third, the date of their original incorporation may be assigned when Duke of Gloucester; Henry the Eighth, before his to the early period we have alluded to.

accession to the crown; James the Second, when Duke of Our early history affords abundant evidence of the emi- | York; and Prince George of Denmark. The oflice has nent services and high importance of the Cinque Ports, also been held by many individuals of high eminence, both in times of war and of peace. During the former, including several of the most distinguished families. they were for many centuries the chief arm of our naval After the death of Lord North, the office was conferred power, whilst they greatly promoted the defence of the upon William Pitt, whose strict regard to the promodistricts adjoining the coast during the latter. The ardu- tion of the prosperity of the Ports, called forth a uni. ous, and almost incessant, duties which they were bound versal feeling of respect amongst their inhabitants. This by cbarter to perform, tended, in no inconsiderable degree, great statesman, on the year succeeding his appointment to foster the growth of hardy and experienced seamen; (1793), when war broke out with the French Repuband their history, consequently, abounds with splendid licans, organized several companies of horse and foot, instances of naval gallantry.

under the designation of the Cinque Ports Fencibles, of In return for these services various privileges and immu- which he assumed the command. The late Earl of Livernities were granted them from time to time; and it has pool subsequently held the office, which was afterwards been well observed, that, “ in almost every reign, the appropriately bestowed on his Grace the Duke of Welling. pages of history show with how great honour and reputa- ton, (who is also Governor and Constable of Dover Castle, tion the Ports discharged the sacred trust reposed in their on the surpassing eminence of whose name, it is, indeed, valour, skill, and bravery, by their confiding country.” unnecessary to comment. We cannot, however, resist

In conformity with their general name, there are five recording one circumstance, for every thing which relates head, or incorporated Ports,– Hastings, Sandwich, Dover, to so great a man is matter of national interest: since his Hythe, and Romney; but no less than thirty other plac appointment, his Grace has paid into the Treasury, for the are severally united with, and participate in their privileges, public service, the whole amount of the proceeds of bis as members of the original incorporation, and amongst office, as Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. which we may mention Margate, Ramsgate, Rye, Win- The last charter for their government, was granted by chelsea, Folkestone, Faversham, Deal, and Walmer. Charles the Second, in the twentieth year of his reign,

In order that they might efficiently maintain the free which not only confirmed all preceding charters, but connavigation of the Channel, and protect the coast from ferred additional privileges upon the freemen. This foreign enemies and pirates, they were compelled con- charter was subsequently confirmed by James the Second. stantly to keep up a considerable naval force, being But the glory of the Cinque Ports has long been of the obliged to furnish, when called upon by the crown, 57 | past. Sandwich, once one of the most extensive and ships, manned by 1197 men and 57 boys, at their own opulent ports in Britain, is now, partly from the ruin of its charge, for 15 days at one time, after which it was in the harbour, a small and insignificant borough; Winchelsea, power of the sovereign to keep them in commission for which, in the time of Queen Elizabeth, was styled by that an unlimited period, at a stipulated rate of pay, which, Princess, a "Little London," has experienced a similar however, was very insufficient to defray the heavy expen- reverse; Hythe was once so extensive and populous, as to diture necessarily incurred. Notwithstanding this, there contain seven parish churches ; Rye and Romney are have been various instances where they contributed more nearly desolate; and of all the Cinque Ports and their than double the number of vessels required by their charter, dependencies, most of which were signally safe and extenthus incurring a heavy lossi.

sive havens, only Dover, Hastings, Margate, and RamsIn consideration of these services, however, the Cinque gate, are now in a flourishing condition, nor does their Ports had many honours and privileges of great import- prosperity result from any circumstance connected with ance. They were," we are told, “ entitled to send two their original privileges. The “decline and fall” of the Barons to represent them in Parliament; they were, by Cinque Ports from their ancient eminence, may be their deputies, to bear the canopy over the king's head at attributed to the ruin or injury of their harbours, by the his coronation, and to dine at the uppermost table, on his long-continued recession or destructive effects of the sea; right hand, in the great hall; they were exempted from the abolition of their exclusive commercial privileges; and subsidies and other aids; their heirs were free from personal the alteration which has been made in the system of wardship notwithstanding any tenure; they were to be raising a maritime force. Their decay consequent on impleaded in their own towns, and no where else; they these changes, was progressive, though its results were not were to hold pleas and actions, real and personal; to have the less certain. conveyance of fines, and the power of enfranchising The Court of the Cinque Ports, for holding pleas, as villains; they were exempt from tolls, and had free liberty well as the grand assembly of the same, was originally held of buying and selling," with many other privileges.

at the Shepway-cross, near Limne, where the oath was adAt the period of the Norman Conquest of England, the ministered to the Lord Warden on his induction into office. Cinque Ports Fleet was so formidable, that it was only in This high functionary is now generally sworn in at Bredenconsequence of its absence on the northern coast of Eng- stone Hill, to the south-west of Dover, opposite the castle, land, in pursuit of a Norwegian fleet, which it completely where the ancient court of Shepway was held, and most of destroyed, that William was enabled to effect a landing on the business relating to the Cinque Ports transacted. the British shores. Having learned that the Ports Fleet In addition to the above, the Lord Warden also holds a was making all sail from the north, the Norman Sovereign Court of Equity, as chancellor, and a Court of Admiralty

as admiral of the ports, which is generally kept in the See Saturday Magacine, Vol. IV., p. 74.

church of St. James at Dover. + Of the number of ships which the Ports were obliged to furnish, Hasungs and Dover each contributed twenty-one, and Sandwich,

WALMER Castle, the subject of our engraving, is New Romney, and Hythe, each five

See Saturday Magazine, Vol. IV., p. 73.

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situated on the coast, about a mile to the north of Deal, at king's books, but is of the certified value of £32. This the commencement of the lofty ground which extends from church has recently received an addition of 380 sittings, thence to Dover. This castle was erected about the same of which 280 are free; part of the expense incurred in period with those of Sandown and Deal, for the defence making which was defrayed by the Society for Promoting of the coast. The manor of Walmer was anciently held by the Enlargement of Churches and Chapels,—a society the De Aubervilles, of Hamo de Cresequer, by knights which has greater claims upon our support than almost service. It afterwards came by, marriage to the De Criol any other existing in this country. family, the last of whom, Sir Nicholas de Criol, was killed The land in this district is extremely fertile; the hill at the battle of St. Alban's. The ruins of the manor- side toward the south is covered with extensive unenclosed house of the De Criols, still remain in the vicinity of the corn-fields; the scene is, however, deficient in that imchurch-yard, in which several stone coffins were dug up portant constituent in natural beauty, wood. In the about thirty years since, belonging to this family.

neighbouring parish of Ripple, is a very curious oblong This castle has long been appropriated as the residence intrenchment, called the Dane-pits, comprising about half of the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. When Mr. an acre of ground, on which are various small hillocks and Pitt held that office, he frequently resided here during the eminences. At a small distance to the north of Ripple summer months. In time of war, two of his majesty's Church, is another ancient camp of high interest to the vessels constantly lie off in the roads, when the Lord antiquary, as it is supposed that it was thrown up by Cæsar Warden is resident. The mode of fortification adopted in in his route towards Barham Downs. this structure in common with most of the Cinque Ports Castles, is somewhat peculiar: as all the works are circular, carried up by arches of masonry from the foot of the moat.

MEAL-HOURS. Level with that are close quarters, surrounding the whole, Our hours of meals are wonderfully changed in little more called the rounds, to the number of 52, each having a

than two centuries. In the reign of Francis the First small casemate for scouring the ditch, secured by a mas- (about 1515,) they used still to say, sive bar of iron, and (until alterations were made in the

To rise at five, and dine at nine, reign of George the First,) a funnel, extending to the

To sup at five, and bed at nine, parapet of the upper works, for the purpose of carrying off

Will make a man live to ninety-nine. the smoke which might rise in defending them, by throw- The custom of dining at nine in the morning soon ing down hand-grenades from above in case of the entrance relaxed. Still persons of quality long after dined at the of an enemy. All these, however, amongst many other latest at ten: and supper was at five or six in the evening. alterations, have been stopped up, with one exception; the Charles the Fifth used to dine at ten, sup at seven; and fosse has also been appropriated to the peaceful purposes all the court were in bed by nine. They sounded the of a garden.

curfew, which warned them to put out their fires at six in The view from Walmer Castle, from its position near the winter, and between eight and nine in the summer. the sea-shore, is extensive and magnificent, commanding In England a similar change took place. But in some an ever-varying view of the vast tleets passing to or from degree it is a change rather of name, than of the meals the greatest port in the world.

themselves. Our ancestors would have called our luncheon The village of Walmer Street, which is pleasantly dinner, and our dinner they would have called supper. It situated on the road to Dover, at some distance from the is a curious fact, that in some of the colleges in Oxford, Castle, is much resorted to during the season by strangers. where allowances are made by the founders for the meals Many elegant houses have been erected at this picturesque of their scholars, a much more liberal sum is given for spot, which from the salubrity of its site, and the advan- their supper, than for their dinner, implying that the supper tages it offers for sea-bathing, seems likely to increase. was the more substantial meal. The ancient church, dedicated to St. Mary, displays some curious examples of Roman architecture, particularly on

LONDON: its doorways, and on the face of the arch which separates ProLiBID IX WIRELT NOMRERS, PRICE ONI PENNY, AND IN MONTALY PARTA

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. the nave and chancel.

The living is a Perpetual Curacy; it is not valued in the Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kjugrlom.


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