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Hyde Parker, to the North Seas; and on the 30th (KILLED OFF CAPE TRAFALGAR, OCTOBER 21, 1805.)

of March, 1801, effected without loss the passage


the Sound. Well prepared as the Danes were for HORATio, son of Edmund and Catherine Nelson, defence, the battle of Copenhagen occasioned a was born, September 29th, 1758, at Burnham Thorpe similar display of courage, ability, and judgment, as in Norfolk, of which parish his father was rector. the battle of the Nile; it was the most terrible of all

At an early age he was placed at the high school engagements, and as complete as any victory on of Norwich; and in his twelfth year, Captain Suckling, record. Its immediate effect was a treaty which his maternal uncle, having obtained a ship, young ended the war, by annihilating the northern conNelson was, at his especial request, entered as a federacy. midshipman on board the Raisonnable of 64 guns. Raised to the rank of Viscount, in the full enjoyOn his return he was sent to the West Indies, and ment of the rewards and honours he had so emiwas subsequently received by his uncle, on board nently deserved, Viscount Nelson obtained a short the Triumph, till the expedition, under Captain repose at his estate at Merton, in Surry; but the Phipps, afterwards Lord Mulgrave, to the North Pole, peace being dissolved, the country, as it were, by one which he accompanied in the humble capacity of feeling, destined hi to the command of the naval cockswain. In 1777 he passed the usual examina- force then fitting out to engage the combined French tion, and received his commission as second lieutenant and Spanish squadrons. On the 21st of October, of the Lowestoffe; and in 1778, being appointed to 1805, he intercepted them off Cape TRAFALGAR, about the Bristol, rose by seniority to be first lieutenant. sixty miles east of Cadiz, and the last memorable signal Having sailed in this vessel to the West Indies, he that he gave, was received with an enthusiastic shout was intrusted with the command of the batteries of of applause by the whole flect,-“ ENGLAND EXPort Royal, then threatened by D'Estaing, and after PECTS EVERY MAN TO DO HIS Duty." He himself a series of the most gallant enterprises, took the fort led the way by attacking in the Victory the SantisSan Juan, in the Gulf of Mexico, in which service sima Trinidada, of 136 guns; and setting the exne was so exhausted by fatigue, and the sufferings of ample he had recommended, that humanity after a dysentery, as to be compelled to return to England victory should distinguish the British fleet, he gave in the Lion, commanded by Admiral Cornwallis. orders to cease firing on the Redoubtable, supposing

In 1781, Captain Nelson sailed in the Albemarle, she had struck. From this ship, which he had thus to the North; and it was in October, 1782, that twice saved, he received his death-wound. Wearing, he was first introduced to his present Majesty, against the advice of his officers, the stars of the then serving as a midshipman on board the Barfleur. different orders he had won, he became a mark for the In 1787 he married Mrs. Nisbet, of Nevis, and riflemen, who lined the tops of their different vessels, remained in England till 1793, when he was ap- thence taking their deadly aim. About a quarter after pointed to the Agamemnon, under Lord Hood, and one, in the heat of the action, he was observed to fall on eminently distinguished himself at Toulon, Bastia, the deck, and, turning round to Captain Hardy, faintly and Calvi,-services, “which," said Lord Hood, “ I exclaimed, “ They have done for me at last, Hardy, cannot sufficiently applaud.” At the siege of Calvi, my back-bone is shot through !" But even now, in he lost an eye; but his name was unnoticed in the pain and in the agonies of death, his presence of Gazette, of which he justly complained, adding, with mind was still signally evinced; he issued his coma feeling of confidence fully justified by subsequent mands with the same calm judgment, and animated events, One day or other, I will have a long gazette his men with the same courage he had so often disto myself. In 1796, he was raised to the rank of played. He prayed for his country; and the last Commodore, and sailed to Porto Ferrajo; and in sounds which, at the close of his glorious carcer, 1797, was engaged under Sir John Jervis, in the elevated his spirit, sinking beneath the grasp of death, victory off Cape St. Vincent, for his distinguished were the cheers of his men for victory-a victory, bravery in which action, he was raised to the rank of great, even by comparison with any of his own. rear-admiral, made a Knight of the Bath, and received His death was a calamity no advantages could the freedom of the city of London. On May 28th, soothe ; he was stricken down when equally the 1797, Sir Horatio Nelson shifted his flag to the object of our affection and admiration ; men grieved Theseus, and in the gallant attack on the town not only for his loss as their greatest naval hero, but of Santa Cruz, received a shot in his right elbow, for their inability now to repay those services by which rendered amputation requisite. Being forced which fame, wealth, and national safety were secured. to return home, by illness consequent on this, he Posthumous honours were, indeed, all they could received a pension for his services.

bestow, but his memory has been cherished with A spirit such as Nelson's could not long remain a spirit and a feeling, before scarcely known, inactive, particularly when the country required his and it yet lives among us, the pride and glory of aid. In 1798 he sailed with a small squadron, to watch Britons. the Toulon fleet, and after a long and active pursuit, He combined the qualities which chiefly raise baffled in his exertions by frequent storms, and and distinguish men ; quick in perception, resolute uncertain intelligence of the enemy's course, at last in decision, executing his projects with the coolest engaged them in the Bay of Aboukir, and gained valour; amid the ardour of victory, he remembered the splendid victory of the Nile, uniting, as it was mercy, and seemed as much to enjoy conquest as the said in the House of Commons, all those qualities means to save, as for the purpose of securing any by which other victories had been most distinguished. other benefits it could bestow. He had one great For this he was created Baron Nelson, of the Nile, object,—his country's good; one worthy ambition,and of Burnham Thorpe, and for his subsequent her rewards ; this was his theme, his motive, his services in Sicily, the king of Sicily conferred upon pursuit: who has more contributed to secure the him the title of Duke of Bronté, with an estate of former ?—who more merited the latter? He has £3000 per annum.

left an example, the standard of all future excellence After the appointment of Lord Keith to the com- in his profession, and the guide and inducement to mand of the Mediterranean fleet, Lord Nelson laborious and honourable exertion. returned home, from whence he sailed, under Sir

S. H.

SUGAR, AS FOOD FOR ANIMALS. the Negroes and their children, whose teeth are daily Not only do the inhabitants of every part of the employed in the mastication of sugar, and they will globe delight in sugar, when obtainable, but all ani- be convinced of the absurdity of the statement. I mated beings; the beasts of the field—the fowls of might add many other facts relative to this delightful the air, insects, reptiles, and even fish, have an exqui- that I have tamed the most savage and vicious horses

I conclude, however, with observing, site enjoyment in the consumption of sweets, and a

with sugar, and have seen the most ferocious animals distaste to the contrary; in fact, sugar is the alimen

domesticated by means of feeding them with an tary ingredient of every vegetable substance encumbered with a greater or less proportion of bulky innu- article which our fiscal restrictions and commercial tritious matter. A small quantity of sugar will policy has checked the use of in England.

[MARTIN on the British Colonies.] sustain life, and enable the animal frame to undergo corporeal (from personal experience, I may add HAPPINESS, like liberty, is often overlooked in the search mental) fatigue better than any other substance; after it. Young people, through inexperience, and someoften have I travelled with the Arab over the burning times those who are older, from sanguineness of temperadesert, or with the wild Afric through his romantic ment, expect more from life than it has to bestow. They

consider happiness as a precious jewel never hitherto country, and when wearied with fatigue and a noon possessed, yet certainly to be found, though in what shape, tide sun, we have sat ourselves beneath an umbra- place, or circumstances, it never occurs to them to define; it geous canopy, and I have shared with my companion is with them a sort of vague ideal charm, always to be his travelling provender, a few small balls of sugar pursued, and as constantly eluding the grasp. Liberty, in mixed with spices, and hardened into a paste with like manner, with the same description of persons, does flour. Invariably have I found two or three of these joyment of property, or preservation of rights. It is a

not consist in the absence of restraint, in the rational enballs, and a draught of water, the best possible resto-loose ungqvernable spirit of infringement on the privileges rative, and even a stimulus to renewed exertion.

of others. The mere security derived under a just and During crop-time in the West Indies, the Negroes, equal administration of the laws, is no better than bondage although then hard worked, become fat, healthy, and in the eyes of what are technically known by the name of cheerful, and the horses, mules, cattle, &c., on the

“ radical reformers." All this is flat and tame; they must estate, partaking of the refuse of the sugar-house, kick and fling to be assured that they are not confined; renew their plumpness and strength. In Cochin) they must be permitted to do that which has neither refe

rence to pleasure nor utility, merely to exercise the power China, not only are the horses, buffaloes, elephants, which absolute freedom bestows, just as a child in a garden &c., all fattened with sugar, but the body-guard of lays about him, and batters down the flowers on each side the king are allowed a sum of money daily, with with the stick in his hand, without any need of, or desire which they must buy sugar-canes, and eat a certain for the things thus destroyed. We deceive ourselves much, quantity thereof, in order to preserve their good in supposing that happiness of mind, any more than health of looks and plump condition. There are about five body, depends upon place. Change of scene is often both hundred of these household troops, and their hand- there be “ a thorn in the flesh," the Mordecai travels with

agreeable and convenient; but if the heart be oppressed, or some appearance does honour to their food and to

us. We cannot run away from ourselves. To be happy in their royal master. Indeed, in Cochin-China, rice the limited sense which Providence permits, let us make and sugar is the ordinary breakfast of people of all home the centre of our enjoyments. The fulfilment of ages and stations; and the people not only preserve those little duties which are at every moment presenting all their fruits in sugar, but even the greater part of their claims, may be thought, by many, a strange receipt

for contentment; yet it is a very sure one, and if there ever their leguminous vegetables, gourds, cucumbers,

was an axiom on the truth of which we may rely, it is, that dishes, artichokes, the grain of the lotus, and the “the mind is its own place." Instead of looking to new thick fleshy leaves of the aloes. I have eaten in India, faces, and seeking in new situations for that undiscovered after a six months' voyage, mutton killed in Leaden- something, we know not what, which, upon approaching, hall-market, preserved in a cask of sugar, and as

will, like the sailors' “ Cape Fly.away,” always vanish, or fresh as the day it was placed on the shambles. The recede, from our view; let us be assured, that in every Kandyans of Ceylon preserve their venison in earthen done with the materials that lie immediately around us ;

condition of life, and in every spot of earth, much may be pots of honey, and after being thus kept two or three and if we evince no skill in the manufacture of these, we years, its flavour would delight Epicurus himself. should not turn a wider range to profit.—Mrs. BRUCE.

In tropical climes, the fresh juice of the cane is the most efficient remedy for various diseases, while its The captain of one of Commodore Johnson's Dutch healing virtues are felt when applied to ulcers and day he went out of his own ship, to dine on board another;

prizes, was used to relate the following anecdote :-One sores. Sir John Pringle says, the plague was never while he was there, a storm arose, which, in a short time, known to visit any country where sugar composes a made an entire wreck of his own ship, to which it was material part of the diet of the inhabitants. Drs. impossible for him to return. He had left on board two Rush, Cullen, and other eminent physicians, are of little boys, one four, the other five years old, under the care opinion that the frequency of malignant fevers of all

of a poor black servant; the ople struggled to get out of kinds is lessened by the use of sugar; in disorders

the sinking ship into a large boat, and the poor black

took his two children, tied them into a bag, and put in a of the breast it forms an excellent demulcent, as

little pot of sweetmeats for them, slung them across his also in weaknesses and acrid defluxions in other parts shoulder, and put them into the boat. The boat hy this of the body. The celebrated Dr. Franklin found time was quite full, and when the black was stepping into great relief from the sickening pain of the stone, by it himself, he was told by the master, there was no room drinking half-a-pint of syrup of coarse brown

for him, that either be or the children must perish, for the

sugar before bed-time, which he declared gave as much, if weight of both would sink the boat. The exalted heroic

*Very well," said he. not more relief, than a dose of opium. That dreadful Negro did not hesitate a moment. malady, once so prevalent on shipboard, scurvy, has all my faults"-and then, guess the rest; he plunged to

*give my duty to my master, and tell him I beg pardon for been completely and instantaneously stopped, by the bottom, never to rise again, till the sea shall give up ita putting the afflicted on a sugar diet. The diseases dead. -Memoirs of Hannah MORE. 0. N. arising from worms, to which children are subject, are prevented by the use of sugar, the love of which In any adversity that happens to us in the world, we ought seems implanted by nature in them. As to the un- than snow and hail, storm and tempest: and that it were

to consider that misery and affliction are not less natural founded assertion of its injuring the teeth, let those

as reasonable to hope for a year without winter, as for a who make it visit the sugar-plantations, and look at life without trouble. Howe.



These awful indications of changes in the atmoAs fast as this coach goes, I sit in it so much at ease, sphere, are rarely met with in the temperate regions that whilst its rapid motion makes others suspect of the globe; but between the tropics they are of very that I am running for a wager, this lazy posture, and common occurrence, and assume a variety of forms, this soft seat, do almost as invite me to rest, not unfrequently spreading devastation over extensive as if I were a-bed.

tracts of country, destroying the produce of the earth, The hasty wheels strike fire out of the flints they and scattering or sinking the proudest naval armahappen to run over, and yet this self-same swiftness of ments. The tornado, the whirlwind, the waterthese wheels, which, were I under them, would make spout, and the burning wind of the desert, are all them crush my bones themselves into splinters, if not known to us by the descriptions of travellers, but into a jelly, now I am seated above their reach, serves happily few of their disastrous effects come within but to carry me the faster towards my journey's end. our own experience.

Just so it is with outward accidents and conditions, These phenomena have been attributed by various whose restless vicissitudes do but too justly, and too authors to many different causes; some have fitly, resemble them to wheels: when they meet with supposed the whole of the effects to be caused by a spirit that lies prostrate on the ground, and falls electricity; others have rejected this agent entirely, groveling beneath them, they disorder and oppress and considered the rarefied state of the air by the it. But he, whose high reason and exalted piety heat of the sun, to be the cause of the greatest has, by a noble and steady contempt of them, placed portion of these convulsions of the atmosphere; but him above them, may enjoy a happy and settled probably, in most cases, both causes are combined. quiet, in spite of all these busy agitations, and be so In a work recently published by Mr. Howison of far from resenting any prejudicial discomposure from the East India Company's service, we find the followthese inferior revolutions, that all those changes that ing description of these phenomena.

“ The waterare taken for the giddy turn of Fortune's wheel, spout may be considered the most appalling pheshall serve to approach him the faster to the blest nomenon that appears in the equatorial seas, and is mansion he would arrive at.-BOYLE.

of more frequent occurrence, and attains greater

magnitude on the west coast of Africa, than in any I INVARIABLY experience a variety of sensations when I other part of the ocean. It does not always show “survey the heavens" on a calm clear night, about the end itself under the same form, and on some occasions of the month of May. I can then inhale the sweets of it is stationary, while on others it moves forward the woodbine and other flowers, whose fragrance is drawn

with varying rapidity. When a water-spout is about out by the gentle dews of evening. The nightingale breaks the silence by his sweet and varied notes; and the full

to be produced, the sea, however smooth it may moon" walking in brightness," and rendered still more previously have been, acquires a violent degree of beautiful by the lustre of so many shining stars, which agitation at a particular spot, and soon begins to appear in the wide extended firmament, completes the love- foam and boil up with a whirling and dashing noise. liness of this nocturnal scene. Then I begin to reflect Presently a funnel-shaped tube is observed to descend upon my own insignificance, and to ask myself what I am,

from the clouds, which always hang very low at such that the great Author of the universe should be mindful

a time, and to direct itself towards the turbulent of me.

His mercy, however, then presents itself to me, as well as his Majesty, and the former affects me more

waters, as if to form a junction with them. This it than the latter. I listen to the bird which appears to be

sometimes does, or rather appears to do, instantanepouring forth its little tribute of gratitude and praise, and ously, but more commonly not. Meanwhile, the agitamy heart prompts me to do the same. The very perfume tion of the sea increases, the tube grows larger, and the of the flowers seems to be an incense ascending up to

superincumbent cloud descends to a lower level, and heaven; and with these feelings I am able to enjoy the calm tranquillity of the evening. JESSE.

at length, all these parts unite, and form a pillar of

water, fifty or sixty feet high, the base of which rests In gazıng at monuments of antiquity, one of the most upon the sea, while its top penetrates the overhanging natural pleasures which the mind enjoys, is being by them clouds, and is totally concealed by them. This fancifully transported to the scenes which they so clearly pillar, perhaps, continues stationary for a few mocommemorate. The Roman amphitheatre becomes filled ments, and then disappears; but in other instances, it with gladiators and spectators; the streets of Pompeii are

advances steadily in one direction, and threatens seen again thronged with people; the Grecian temple, is ornamented with the votive offerings of heroes and of destruction to any ship that may lie in its course.” senators; even the putrid marsh of Marathon, teems with

It has always been noticed, that these appearances noble recollections: while at home, on the battlements of are attended by baffling and variable winds, and our old English castles, we easily figure to ourselves sudden calms, and generally by some demonstration barons proud of their deeds, and vassals in armour, of the presence of electricity. faithfully devoted to their service: in short, while beholding

To explain the phenomena of the water-spout, let such scenes, the heart glows, until, by its feverish heat, feelings are produced, to which no one can be completely heat of the sun, the air over some particular spot in

us suppose that, from some cause or other, say the insensible: however, when we awaken from this delightful dream, it is difficult, and, indeed, impossible, to drive away the ocean has become so rarefied as to produce a the painful moral, which, sooner or later in the day, proves kind of partial vacuum; the consequence of this will

much too clearly, that these ruins have outlived, and, be, that all the denser parts of the atmosphere which in fact, commemorate, the errors, the passions, and the

immediately surround this spot, will have a tendency prejudices, which caused them to be built.

But while looking up at the plain, unassuming pulpit of to rush forward from every quarter to one common an old Lutheran church, one feels, long after one has left

centre, that is, the wind will blow from all quarters it, that all that has proceeded from its simple desk has

at once.

If we suppose the currents of air to travel been to promulgate peace, good-will, and happiness, among at the same rate as in the case of a hurricane, namely, mankind ; and though, in its old age, it be now deserted, from seventy to eighty miles an hour, we may well yet no one can deny that the sceds, which, in various conceive the immense force with which they would directions, it has scattered before the wind, are not only meet in the centre. The result of this sudden convigorously flourishing in the little valley in which it stands, but must continue, there and elowhere, to produce effects, cassion, would resemble in all points the effect of a which time itself can scarcely annihilate. — Bubbles from water-spout or whirlwind. the Brunnen of Nassau.

The lines in the diagram represent the course of

to us,



DISPERSION OF A WATER-SPOUT AT SEA. the air as it rushes from various parts to the centre c. that three of their vessels, which were out in search Having reached that spot, it is clear that further of whales, happening to be becalmed, lay in sight of progress in straight lines is at an end: either the each other, at about a league distance, if I remember opposite forces annihilate each other, and a calm is right, nearly forming a triangle; after some time, a the consequence, or the streams of air must take water-spout appeared near the middle of the triangle, another direction: some of these will, in their en. when a brisk breeze of wind sprung up, and every deavour to escape the conflict, press with consider- vessel made sail, and then it appeared to them all, by able force on the surface of the water, while others the setting of the sails, and the course each vessel will be directed upwards, and reach the higher stood, that the water-spout was to the leeward of

regions of the at- every one of them.”
mosphere. In the The water-spout is considered as materially adding to

time, the the dangers of navigation, but how much more dreadful currents that had

are the effects of a tropical hurricane. Alvarez de pressed down- Nunnez, a Spanish admiral, lost the whole of his fleet, wards, not being and great part of his crew, in one of these tempests able, from the op- off the Island of Cuba. “ Such was the force of the position of the wind, that no houses, or even churches, could oppose water, to escape in it. Nunnez's men hastened out of the town for fear that direction, are of being crushed by the fall of the buildings, and were forced to the point obliged to walk seven or eight in a cluster, grasping of least resistance, each other with all their strength, that they might that is, upwards, not be carried away by the strength of the blasts.

and a portion of When the storm was over, Nunnez returned to the the water, together with whatever may be on its harbour, but all he found of his ships was only some surface, is carried up along with them.

broken pieces of rigging ; from thence he proceeded If the currents of air were all moving with equal along the shore, in quest either of his ships or his velocity, the course of the water-spout or whirlwind seamen, but meeting with nothing this way, he would be in direct lines upwards; but, as this is not betook himself to the mountains; here, indeed, he the case, a rotatory, or whirling, motion is given to it, perceived a boat lodged upon some trees, about a and the forces of the various currents will also oblige quarter of a league from the sea, and ten leagues it to drift, as it were, on the surface of the sea. further he found two bodies of his men, and some

When met with at sea, water-spouts are considered trunk-lids scattered about; the men were too much by mariners as dangerous visitants, and, in order to disfigured by bruises to be known. No less than disperse them, large guns are fired. So great a con- sixty men and twenty horses perished by this cussion in the air is thus produced, as to alter the hurricane. The whole country had a lamentable direction of the currents, and to destroy the water- aspect; the blighted plains were covered with limbs spout.

of trees, and the naked hills were stript of their The rushing together of air has been stated as the verdure." cause of the water-spout, and this view of the subject

LONDON: is borne out by the following fact, extracted from JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WÉST STRAND. Dr. Franklin's letters.—“ An intelligent whaleman, PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IX MONTALY PARTH of Nantucket," says Dr. Franklin, “ informed me, Sold by all Booksellers and Now vondon in the Kingdosa

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