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sary to put an end to his life. The length of this
GRECIAN ARCHITECTURE. animal, from the nose to the root of the tail, was ARCHITECTURE has been divided into Civil, Military, five feet four inches, and from the bottom of the and Naval. Civil architecture, of which we are foot to the top of the shoulder, thirty-one inches. about to speak, refers to the building of churches, Its head was round, and much like that of a cat, palaces, private houses, &c., and the different varieties the upper lip being entire, and supplied with whiskers; of style may be said to be four, namely, Egyptian, the nose flat, the eyes large, of a brownish hue, but Chinese, Grecian, and Gothic. On referring to the very much suffused with blood; the ears short and
more permanent buildings in these different styles, pointed. It had no mane. The neck, back, and we shall find the peculiarities of each can be easily sides were of a dusky ash colour, with some yellow- traced to the more ordinary dwellings of the original ish spots; the belly of a dirty white; the hair on inhabitants of the countries to which they respectively his buttocks long and shaggy. Each jaw was armed belong. with four cutting, four canine, and sixteen grinding The Egyptian style is massive, and the buildings teeth; each of its fore-paws and hind-feet with five are frequently excavated from the solid rock, thus toes, and very strong talons.
following the practice of the people who dwelt in Four lassos, attached to the girths of the saddles caverns cut out of the sides of rocks and hills, beof two horses, were fastened to the lion, which was fore the art of building habitations was practised. thus dragged to the village, where we arrived about The Chinese formed their lighter dwellings after the nine o'clock, and were received by the whole of the fashion of the original Tartar tent, with awnings and inhabitants with shouting and rejoicing. The re- verandahs. The Grecian orders of architecture are mainder of the night was spent in dancing and referrible to buildings of wood, and the Gothic to carousing.
bowers formed by the bending over and entwining The people informed me that the favourite food of together of the upper branches of trees. the lion is horse-flesh; that watching a good oppor- In the present paper we shall confine ourselves to tunity it jumps upon the back of its prey, which it the Grecian style, which was also adopted by the worries, tearing the flesh with one paw, whilst it Romans. secures its hold with the other; after sucking the The buildings of these ancient nations are distinblood it drags the carcase to some hiding-place, guished by five varieties of columns, and as many covers it with leaves, and returns when hungry to different modes of arranging the mouldings, and devour it. If it enter a place where horned cattle other ornaments with which they are decorated. are kept, the bulls and cows immediately form a These various methods of decoration have acquired circle, and place the calves and young cattle in the the name of the Five Orders of Architecture, and, in centre; they then face their enemy boldly, and not well-designed buildings, the ornaments and mouldunfrequently oblige him to retreat, on which the bulls ings belonging to one order are never found confollow him and often gore him to death. It would founded with the columns of another. therefore appear to be more from fear than choice The Greeks seem to have derived their ideas of that he is attached to the flesh of horses. The architecture from the Egyptians, and some of their animal was never known to attack a man; so timid earlier buildings partook of much of the Egyptian is he of the human race, that he runs away at the character ; but as the climate of Greece was subject to apearance of a child, which may, perhaps, be ac- frequent rains, it was found necessary to raise the whole counted for from the abundance of cattle supplying structure on an artificial platform, and to cover it him so easily with food, that he is seldom in want of with an inclined roof, with projecting eaves. The flesh.
different materials, also, of which the buildings were (STEVENSON's Residence in South America.]
constructed, as we have already noticed, produced a great difference in the relative proportions of the
various parts. The edifices of the Egyptians being The cheerfulness of heart which springs up in us, from chiefly formed of immense blocks of granite, the the survey of Nature's works, is an admirable preparation heaviest kind of stone; the supports of the superfor gratitude. The mind has gone a great way towards structure were necessarily massive in proportion : the praise and thanksgiving, that is filled with such secret gladness. A grateful reflection on the supreme Cause, mysterious character, also, of their idolatry, was who produces it, sanctifies it in the soul, and gives it its assisted by the dismal grandeur of their stupendous proper value. Such an habitual disposition of mind, temples. The stone, of which the Grecian temples consecrates every field and wood, turns an ordinary walk are constructed, is of a much lighter description, into a morning or evening sacrifice, and will improve those and many parts of their buildings show, that before transient gleams of joy which naturally brighten up and they had learnt the method of working in marble, refresh the soul on such occasions, into an inviolable and
the material usually employed was wood; so that, perpetual state of bliss and happiness.-Addison.
partly following the design of their original wooden
buildings, and partly importing the style of the In the wildest anarchy of man's insurgent appetites and sins, Egyptians, a structure, partaking of the character of there is still a reclaiming voice; a voice which, even when in practice disregarded, it is impossible not to own; and to
the architecture of both nations, was the consequence. which, at the very moment that we refuse our obedience,
In noticing the progress of the art, we find the we find that we cannot refuse the homage of what our plain and sturdy Doric column succeeded by the selves do feel and acknowledge to be the best, the highest more graceful and ornamented Ionic, and that, principles of our nature. -CHALMERS.
again, by the richly decorated Corinthian and the
Composite order of the Romans. ONE reason why God hath scattered up and down several
The principal feature in an order of architecture degrees of pleasure and pain, in all the things that environ is the perpendicular support, or column. The bottom and affect us, and blended them together, in almost all that of this column rests upon a square plinth, sometimes our thoughts and senses have to do with, is, that we, find-ornamented with mouldings; this is called the base ; ing imperfection, dissatisfaction, and want of complete hap- the top of the column is also covered in the same piness in all the enjoyments which the creatures can
the afford us, might be led to seek it in the enjoyment of Him
manner, and this ornament is the capital ; with whom “ there is fulness of joy, and at whose right body of the column is named the shaft. That part hand are pleasures for evermore." -LOCKE.
of the building which rests on the column is the
The Cima Recta.
The Cima Reversa
entablature, and is divided into three parts, the placed, shot up its leaves and covered its outer
angles of the capital. The mouldings with which a buiding is orna- This appearance, it mented have obtained various names, according to is said, was noticed their forms: we subjoin a few, to illustrate the by a sculptor of the subject.
name of Callimachus, who, struck with the beauty
The TUSCAN column was
invented by the Romans, The Torus, or Bead.
and was formed upon the
model of the ancient Doric,
The chief of these consisted
in the alteration of the pro-
in proportion of any of the other orders, its height being about six times the diameter of the base.
The IONIC order is much more graceful than the last, and the ornament of the capital more elaborate. It has been fancifully said, that the intention of the archi. tect, in the proportion of these two orders, was to give an idea of the male and female form, the sturdy unornamented Doric having a masculine character, and the more slender Ionic a feminine, and the volutos, the
THE COMPOSITZ. spiral ornaments of the capital, were said to have been suggested by the appearance of the curls on each side of a lady's head. The warmth and protection which birds receive from their The CORINTHIAN column is still slenderer and by a superintending Providence, to those who apply to him
parent, is beautifully illustrative of the security afforded more decorated than either for help: “He shall cover thee with his feathers, and of the former, and the under his wings shalt thou trust.” To my feelings there beautiful capital with which it is not in the whole Bible a more elegant or delightful is decorated, adds materially metaphor than this, or one which the human mind, espe
to its elegant appearance. cially when in a state of affliction and distress, may dwell VOS The origin of the Corinthian upon with greater comfort and satisfaction. When I have
seen a bird of prey hovering over some newly-hatched capital has been attributed chickens, and perceived them run for shelter under the to accident. A basket, it is wings of their parent, I am forcibly reminded that in the said, was placed on the hour of danger and temptation I may fly, by prayer, to my ground covered with a tile, heavenly Father for refuge and protection. Those who to protect its contents from have made the works of creation their study, will have had insects, and being, from some
many opportunities of appreciating the truth of the remarks
I have ventured from time to time to make, respecting the cause or other, forgotten, a
lessons of instruction which may be derived from the plant of the Acanthus kind, delightful contemplation of the various objects with which CORINTHIAN
on which it had been we are perpetually surrounded.—Jesse's Gleanings.
FAMILIAR ILLUSTRATIONS OF NATURAL thermometer is suspended above the surface of freezPHENOMENA.
ing water, it is found to indicate a current of air, No. XIII. WATER IN ITS SOLID STATE.
rising from the water, of a higher temperature than
that of the rest of the air. It is proved, by other A WINTER, in the northern parts of Europe, offers means, that a pound of water, at the temperature of natural scenes of great interest and beauty. The 32°, or at the freezing-point, gives out 140° of heat sky is pure and clear: a bright sun lights up the in being converted into ice. This effect is often made prospect : the earth is covered with snow of dazzling very sensible, by a rise of the temperature, when a whiteness : and the rivers and lakes are hidden be- sudden fall of snow comes on, in a hard frost. The neath a barrier of solid ice. The whole face of the snow is commonly said to bring down the cold. The country presents a surface, over which the traveller real cause is the heat given out by the vapour of water may glide with rapidity, ease, and security, defended suddenly frozen. from the cold, and seated in a commodious sledge : Now consider what effects follow from this fact in so that winter, instead of being there a period of the great laboratory of nature. Bodies already solid, “home-born happiness," is selected, by the natives when exposed to cold, grow continually colder and of Russia and Siberia, as the time to undertake colder, parting with their heat at different rates, acjourneys on tracts which are nearly impassable in the cording to their powers of conducting or radiating summer-months. If the traveller passes through a heat. But when, as in the case of water, a change forest, he perceives every bough and sprig to be of form from fluid to solid takes place, there is a sudwrapped in a glassy case, caused by the congelation den interruption in this uniformity of sensible cooling. of the vapour in the atmosphere. A thousand vivid | After the surface of water is cooled down to the colours are reflected from every twig; and, if a breeze freezing-point, giving out its heat all the time as it springs up, the icy crystals are detached, and fall with grows colder, it continues to give out heat during the a tinkling sound upon the solid surface of the harden- time of freezing without growing sensibly colder in the ed snow. In the cities, rich equipages glide along least, and thereby retards the influence of the cold without noise. The horses are decorated with plumes upon surrounding objects. Thus the freezing of vast of feathers; and ladies, wrapped in furs, and attended lakes in North America, and of the Polar seas, is an by a numerous escort, are swept rapidly along, in operation which, to a certain, and probably to a concars made in imitation of swans, or in other fanciful siderable extent, diminishes the intensity of cold shapes. Artificial hills are formed of ice, down which which would otherwise be felt. those who are sufficiently adventurous are hurried It is true, that, when a thaw takes place, the
operawith a force which carries them up an opposite ascent tion is reversed, and the heat necessary to liquefy the of the same kind. And, it is said, that even a palace ice is taken from surrounding objects, occasioning has been constructed, sufficiently large to contain them to be cooled. Every one knows the uncommany hundred persons, of no other materials than fortable sensations of a cold thaw, which really arise ice and snow.
from part of the heat of our own bodies being taken All these remarkable phenomena are caused by a away to turn ice into water. But, in the parts of difference of a few degrees in the temperature of the the earth where this change takes place on an imair. If that temperature continues for a considerable mense scale, the check thus given to a sudden rise time below the freezing point, all the water which is of temperature does not seem to be more than is exposed to the action of the air becomes solid, and necessary to prevent injurious consequences. The takes some of the different forms of which it is sus. climate still undergoes a very speedy change, passing ceptible, as ice, snow, hail, hoar-frost, or congealed from the depth of winter to an intensely hot summer vapour. This scene, however, is as fugitive, as it is in a few days; and vegetation springs forth with a remarkable and beautiful. As soon as a thaw sets rapidity unexampled in any other parts of the world. in, a very few hours are sufficient to break the charm, The good effects of ice, in its various forms, to to destroy all this variety, and to reduce the water to prevent the too-rapid communication of cold, do not its more usual form.
cease after the change from the fluid to the solid Facts of this nature, which, however well known, state is completed. Ice is a very imperfect conductor are often overlooked, show us, practically, with how of heat, and, since it floats upon water, it prevents great accuracy the Providence of God has arranged the water beneath it from being cooled. When frozen all the parts of the natural world. It is of vital im- water is in the form of snow, its good effects are still portance to all the processes of vegetation and of more evident Farmers well know what protection animal life, that water should usually be found in a to their plants is afforded by a coating of spow. fluid state ; yet the mean temperature of the earth, Nothing is more common than to see, during a hard in order that this may be the case, must have been frost, great injury done to the wheat or turnips in fixed within certain limits, which are very narrow, exposed places from which the snow has drifted away, compared even with the heat or cold with which we while those parts which are well covered by it, are are acquainted. And yet, in those parts of the world perfectly unhurt. And the reason is plain :-the where the water is sometimes frozen for many weeks parts below the snow will usually be subject to a or months together, the temporary change is often a degree of cold which is very little, if at all, below convenience. The surface of the snow forms a natural 32°, the freezing point. This is a temperature which rail-road for the Laplander, the Russian, and the Cana- plants, in general, can endure without injury, and dian: the Esquimaux, during his long winter, forms some can continue to carry on the process of vegehis hut of snow, and glazes the window of it with ice. tation, and even of flowering, as we often see snow
We have already noticed, that heat and ice together drops in blossom beneath the snow. Those parts of may be said to form water, and hence we might ex- a field, on the contrary, which are exposed, become pect that—however contrary to our prejudices—the intensely cold, not only by parting with their heat to freezing of water should produce an increase of sen- the cold air with which they are in contact, but by sible heat, in the bodies near that which is so frozen, the radiation of heat into the cold regions of the since the act of freezing separates the heat which was upper atmosphere, as we have seen in the case of the unobserved, or latent, in the water. Experiment formation of dew*. shows that this is actually the case : if a very delicate
* See Saturday Maganine, Vol. IV. p. 117.
When water freezes, it crystallizes; that is, its
POWER OF HABIT. particles arrange themselves in such an order as to That balancing moment, at which pleasure would produce certain regular forms. The small needle- allure, and conscience is urging us to refrain, may be like spikes of which it is composed, are found to regarded as the point of departure, or divergency, cross each other at angles of sixty degrees, or at the whence one or other of the two processes (towards same inclination as that of two sides of a triangle, evil, or towards good,) take their commencement.
which has its three sides equal to one Each of them consists in a particular succession of another. By the combination of a ideas, with their attendant feelings; and whichever number of these, the beautiful feathery of them may happen to be described once, has, by forms are composed, which may be the law of suggestion, the greater chance, in the seen upon a window, on a frosty morn
same circumstances, of being described over again, ing These form objects of great should the mind dwell on an object of allurement, beauty, when viewed through a microscope, even of and the considerationg of principle not be entersmall magnifying power. And if the particles be tained, it will pass onward from the first incitement melted, by gently breathing upon the glass, and to the final and guilty indulgence, by a series of then be suffered to freeze, the spiculæ of ice will be stepping-stones, each of which will present itself observed darting fortb with immense rapidity. The
more readily in future, and with less chance of arrest effect may be seen very well, even with the naked eye.
or interruption by the suggestions of conscience than Another beautiful form of frozen water is snow. before. If a large flake be observed just as it falls, it will be But should these suggestions be admitted, and, found to consist of a great number of minute spikes, far more, should they prevail, then, on the prinloosely adhering together. A flake of snow occupies ciple of association, will they be all the more apt to about nine times as much space as the water of which intervene, on the repetition of the same circumstances, it is composed. These spikes are probably formed and again break that line of continuity, which, but by the freezing of vapour in the upper parts of the for this intervention, would have led, from a temptaatmosphere, and collect into masses as they descend. tion, to a turpitude or a crime. If, on the occurrence
In very clear and calm weather, it is of a temptation, formerly conscience did interpose, not uncommon to have pieces of ice fall, and represent the evil of a compliance, and so imcrystallized in the form of stars, and in press the man with a sense of obligation, as led him other shapes arising from the combi
to dismiss the fascinating object from the presence nation of particles arranged according of his mind, or to hurry away from it; the liketo the laws of crystallization.
lihood is, that the recurrence of a similar temptation Hail appears to be formed by the freezing of drops will suggest the same train of thoughts and feelings, of rain, in their descent. The formation of hail is and lead to the same beneficial result; and this is a closely connected with electricity. In a thunder- likelihood ever increasing with every repetition of the storm hail frequently falls. An attempt was made process. The train which would have terminated in in France, some years ago, to defend tracts of country
a vicious indulgence, is dispossessed by the train from the ill-effects of hail-storms, which are very which conducts to a resolution and an act of virtuous injurious to the vines. It was supposed, that by self-denial. erecting numerous conductors to draw off the electric The thoughts which tend to awaken emotions fluid, it would be prevented from accumulating to and purposes on the side of duty, find readier such a degree as to form hail. Conductors for this entrance into the mind; and the thoughts which purpose were called Para-gréles, or Hail-defenders ; awaken and urge forward the desire of what is evil, but they do not appear to have answered the expec- more readily give way. The positive force on the tations of their inventors.
side of virtue is augmented, by every repetition of
the train which leads to a virtuous determination. NATURE never deceives us ; the rocks, the mountains, the The resistance to this force, on the side of vice, is streams, always speak the same language; a shower of weakened in proportion to the frequency wherewith snow may hide the verdant woods in spring, a thunder- that train of suggestions, which would have led to a storm may render the blue limpid streams foul and turbu- vicious indulgence, is broken and discomfited. It is lent; but these effects are rare and transient: in a few thus that, when one is successfully resolute in his hours, or at most in a few days, all the sources of beauty opposition to evil, the power of making the achieveare renovated. And nature affords no continued trains of misfortunes and miseries, such as depend upon the consti- ment, and the facility of the achievement itself, are tution of humanity; no hopes for ever blighted in the bud, both upon the increase, and Virtue makes double no beings, full of life, beauty, and promise, taken from us gain to herself by every separate conquest which she in the prime of youth. Her fruits are all balmy and may have won. The humbler attainments of moral sweet: she affords none of those blighted ones, so common worth are first mastered and secured, and the aspiring in the life of man, and so like the fabled apples of the disciple may pass onward, in a career that is quite Dead Sea, fresh and beautiful to the sight, but when indefinite, to nobler deeds and nobler sacrifices. tasted, full of bitterness and ashes.SIR HUMPHRY Davy.
NEAR our encampment, in the beautiful wood of Free- | What action was ever so good, or so completely done, as mantle, was a tree of singular, though not very ornamental, to be well taken of all hands. It concerns every wise form; it was called “grass-tree,” from its grassy head, and Christian to settle his heart in a resolved confidence of his " black-boy,” from the dark colour of its stem. The man- own holy and just grounds, and then to go on in a constant ner of its growth is peculiar, showing itself above the course of his well-warranted judgment and practice, with surface of the sand in bunches of grass, which are gra- a careless disregard of those fools-bolts which will be sure dually thrust up by the stem, and form the head. After a
to be shot at him, which way soever he goes.---BISHOP time, a long black stick rises from the centre of the grassy HALL. head, and contains the seed. I was told that the stem was formed of layers, something like Indian corn, and was Misery is caused for the most part, not by a heavy crush filled with a resinous substance. This accounts for its
of disaster, but by the corrosion of less visible evils, which being such excellent fire-wood, emitting an exceedingly canker enjoyment, and undermine security. The visit of bright light when burned. Its usual height was about
an invader is necessarily rare, but domestic animosities twelve feet.-Two Years at Sea.
allow no cessation.--DR. JOHNSON
NEW CHAPEL AND BUKIAL-GROUND chants, whose dust was to mingle within them, had OF THE BRITISH PROTESTANT RESIDENTS AT CARACCAS, subscribed. THE CAPITAL OF VENEZUELA, IN SOUTH AMERICA. Sir Robert Ker Porter obtained the land in the
summer of 1832. It was a beautiful green expanse, " Right dear in the sight of the Lord, is the death of his saints:" and " He shall gather them out of all lands, from the east and from the west, from the on a gentle slope in the valley of the mountain ; & north and from the south."-Psalms cxvi, and cvii.
sequestered spot, promising the sanctity and the rest It is not much more than fifteen years, since we to be sought there. He made no delay in drawing first had any established residents in Venezuela. the plan, and laying the foundations for the walls and From the period of the Spaniards becoming mas- gates, and he planted young trees, of the Cypress. ters of that portion of the New World, its shores poplar order, to afford shadowy avenues from the gates were closed to the rest of Europe, particularly to to the little building, erected for the performance of Protestant England; and the mutual rivalries, and the funeral service, in a climate in which the bared religious prejudices, between our mariner-adventurers heads of the mourners and their functionary were on the Atlantic Ocean and those of its Spanish Ca- exposed to a vertical sun at one season, or a plunging tholic terra-firma, continued for many generations to rain at another. augment into actual antipathy, until time, and almost Our sketch represents the little building, or an entire absence from any relative communication, chapel, just mentioned, in the form of a colonnaded sunk both parties into a reciprocal oblivion of each portico, with the symbol of the Holy Trinity cut other.
on its stone pediment. It stands at the hither This was the state of things until the heroic fidelity end of the ground, whence the sepulchral field of the South American Spaniards to their ancient slopes gently down in the shape of a parallelogram. dynasty of kings, when called upon to acknowledge The whole is surrounded by a handsome wall, of a a brother of the emperor of the French for their secure height and thickness; and the gates by which sovereign, aroused the recollection of Englishmen, it is entered are of the Grecian porch architecand filled them with respect for the conduct of men ture, like the chapel, only without columns. The whose existence they had nearly forgotten.
principal gate at the lower extremity of the ground, Many brave Britons had gone out, and proffered immediately facing the chapel, is surmounted by their aid in the war of liberation; and when that was
The second gate opens on
one side of crowned with an apparently assured independence of the parallelogram, and is partly shown in the the country, then the British merchant, and industri- sketch by one of its pillars, buttressed by a noble ous artisan, followed the British military volunteer old tree of the country. A few grave-stones, in to the land of commercial promise. They were re- neatly arranged lines, are also seen, their compartceived with welcome, but, until within these last two ments being divided by chain-railings; for Sir Robert years, the old wall of partition between Catholic and had several of his countrymen to commit to this Protestant continued to be so determinately retained, safer sepulchre, before it became, like our English that the Protestant settlers had neither a place for churchyards, “consecrated ground." Christian worship, according to the forms of their That it might be so hallowed, was the wish, but own church, nor a spot of ground wherein to bury hardly the expectation, of many a pious individual, their dead.
who, in that stranger land, remembered the dear The English consul, Sir Robert Ker Porter, though familiar homes of their childhood, the parish-bell a civil officer, was the only representative to the gladsomely summoning them to the Sabbath-duties British residents there, of their own church, as well of morning and evening prayers, or solemnly tolling as of their state. He baptized their children, per the passing knell of the decent funeral, moving with formed their marriage ceremony, and buried those reverent pace to the consecrated spot of the body's who died amongst them. The first two duties might rest! To have such a sanctuary, even under seclusion be respectably solemnized in the hall of the consu- in the land of their distant sojourn, every heart late; but the last was overwhelmed with a double yearned ; and their indefatigable consul and friend weight of affliction to the mourning survivors; the completed the work by, in due time, obtaining this land which had received the living Protestant with sacred object also, from the Venezuelan government. hospitality, seemed to deny his dead body the com- Dr. W. H. Coleridge, our Protestant Bishop of Barba. mon right of human nature,-a decent grave. A does, was invited from that island to perform the rite. cellar floor, the pavement of the stable-yard, or at As soon as his duties in his own wide diocese, the best, the garden's most hidden nook, were the only Leeward Islands, would permit his absence, he emplaces which might afford a last bed for the remains barked in H.M.S. Forte, Commodore Pell, on the 27th of a friend or relative. Alas! perhaps not the last of January in this year, and arrived at La Guayra, the receptacle for such sacred relics ! for they must be port of Caraccas, on the 22nd of February. On the left there at the caprice of any future tenant of the evening of his reaching La Guayra, he proceeded across premises, to dig up, and cast they knew not where. the mountains (a journey of twenty miles,) to the city
To remedy this distressing state of things, the of Caraccas, and became the immediate guest, with his British Consul directed his serious attention; and official attendants, of the Consul. On the 24th, his when the ameliorating character of the Venezuelan lordship received the respect of an especial audience government warranted the attempt, and he had ob- by General Paez, the President of the Republic of tained the sanction of his own government, he lost Venezuela. Similar reverence, by visits, &c. was no time in proposing his wishes. The result was, paid to him by the other chief authorities ; and on that he succeeded in purchasing a plot of ground, the 26th of the month, in the presence of his Excelconveniently situated near the city of Caraccas, with lency the President, and the Ministers of the Rean express guarantee from the President and Senate public, with other great officers, civil and military, and of the Republic, that it should hereafter remain in- of Sir Robert Ker Porter, his Majesty's Consul, with violably the possession of the British Protestant resi- Colonel Stopford, and the Commodore and officers of dents at Caraccas, for a cemetery, or burial-place for H.M.S. Forte, and of the British residents, male and their dead. A sum of money was advanced by our female, young and old, and a large mixed concourse Government, towards the security of the spot, with of the inhabitants of the city, the Bishop of Barbawalls, &c., in aid of the means which the English mer- does, (the first bishop our church ever sent to that