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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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THE CATHEDRAL OF ORLEANS. ture, a perfect unity of style, and a freedom from Orleans is a large town, of great antiquity, in the those vicious innovations which had been introduced central part of France, situated on the right bank of in their own times, is deserving of much commendathe river Loire. It is the capital of the department tion. The great western, or principal front, was begun of the Loiret, and consequently the seat of a prefect, in 1723, and is surmounted by two towers, which and of the departimental offices; it is also the seat of form its principal ornaments, and which consist of a bishopric. It stands at the foot of a small hill, three beautiful pieces of Architecture, rising succesand its appearance from a distance is beautiful; the sively one above the other, and each smaller than the country around is undulating and diversified in its base on which it rests. The northern and southern character, being covered with luxuriant vegetation, sides of the building are nearly similar in their apand presenting the appearance of pleasure-grounds, | pearance ; the latter is represented in our engraving, agreeably intermixed with vineyards and fruit-trees. and derives much beauty from the rose window and The town itself is built with tolerable regularity; the the flying buttresses which ornament the extremity streets are in general straight, though narrow and of the transept in this direction. inconvenient, and the architecture of the houses is The interior of the Cathedral of Orleans is spacious, chiefly of an antiquated style. Its principal attraction and has much of that character of vastness and granis the Cathedral, which is esteemed one of the finest deur which distinguish buildings of its kind, but Gothic buildings in France.

there is nothing particularly remarkable, either in its It is comparatively a modern work, having been architectural arrangements, or in the ornaments which commenced in the year 1601, and it owes its origin decorate it. It would indeed be singular, if, while to the great king Henry the Fourth. That monarch after the lapse of more than two centuries, and the was excommunicated by the pope as a heretic in pro- expenditure of immense sums of money, the building fessing the Protestant religion ; but was afterwards itself remains still unfinished, its embellishment should absolved, when, in order to secure possession of his have reached any degree of perfection. Before the throne, he embraced the Catholic faith. One con- Revolution it did possess some ornaments of value ; dition of the absolution was, that the king should but almost all of them disappeared at that period. establish certain religious houses in France ; but Henry was allowed to exchange this obligation, for Good works may exist without saving principles, ana that of restoring the Cathedral of Orleans, which, therefore cannot contain in themselves the principles of since the year 1567, had remained in a very salvation; but saving principles never did, never can exist dilapidated state. In order to procure the funds without good works. Men often talk against faith, and necessary for the accomplishment of this object, a

make strange monsters in their imagination of those who solemn jubilee was proclaimed, to take place in the profess, to abide by the words of the apostle interpreted

literally, and yet in their ordinary feelings, they themselves city, and recourse was had to one of those artifices by judge and act by a similar principle. For what is love which the church of Rome, practising on the super- without kind offices whenever they are possible ? (and they stitious ignorance and credulity of the age, had so are always possible, if not by actions, commonly so called, frequently succeeded in replenishing an exhausted yet by kind words, by kind looks, and where these are out treasury. The scandalous sale of indulgences--those of our power, by kind thoughts and fervent prayers !) yet " wicked contrivances of Romish flatterers" as Luther what noble mind would not be offended, if he were sup

posed to value the serviceable offices equally with the love called them,--which had for their object “to rob men

that produced them; or if he were thought to value the of their money, and to pervert the faith of the Gospel," | love for the sake of the services, and not the services for -was openly exercised; and that the powerful influ- the sake of the love?---COLERIDGE. ence of example might not be wanting, the festival was publicly attended by the king and queen.

Amonast great numbers of men accounted rich, but few The scheme was, as it had been on former occa

really are so. I take him to be the only rich man, that sions, successful; and the people focked in numbers For there is no determinate sum of money, nor quantity

lives upon what he has, owes nothing, and is contented. to Orleans, eager to purchase an imaginary pardon of estate, that can denote a man 'rich; since 'no man is for their sins, upon the easy terms on which it was truly rich that has not so much as perfectly satiates his offered, --for ordinarily it was necessary to make a desire of having more. For the desire of more 'is want, journey to Rome, to obtain an indulgence. So great and want is poverty. ---Howe. indeed was the concourse of persons assembled, that the preachers were compelled to deliver their dis- tion was given of the Papyrus Plant, (Cyperus Papyrus)

In a late number of the Saturday Magazine, a descripcourses in the open air, in the space of three months, It is probable that Bishop Jeremy Taylor drew his illustration the communion was administered to 500,000 indi- from this plant in the following very remarkable passage. viduals, and no less than 10,000 masses were celebra- " The canes of Egypt, when they newly arise from their ted in the same period. The fruits of this imposture bed of mud and sliine of Nilus, start up into an equal and were so considerable, that on the 18th of April, 1901, continued length, and are interrupted but with few knots, the first stone of the new cathedral was laid,—the intervals; but when they are grown to their full length,

and are strong and beauteous, with great distances and ceremony being performed by the king, in person, they lessen into the point of a pyramid, and multiply their with great pomp. The monarch was extremely zea- knots and joints, interrupting the fineness and smoothness lous on the occasion, and expressed, strongly, his of its body; so are the steps and declensions of him that determination to complete the work which his hands does not grow in grace. At first, when he springs up from had thus begun; nevertheless its progress was slow, his impurity by the waters of baptism and repentance, be being impeded by various unforeseen obstacles. Even grows straight and strong, and suffers but few interruptions

of piety; and his constant courses of religion are but rarely at this day the Cathedral is not entirely finished.

intermitted, till they ascend up to a full age, or towards The inhabitants of Orleans, and the historians of the ends of their life; then they are weak, and their the town, speak of their Cathedral as the most mag-devotions often intermitted, and they seek excuses, and nificent in France ;-it certainly possesses very con

love God and religion less and less; till their old age, siderable attractions. Although built chiefly in the instead of a crown of their virtue and perseverance, ends seventeenth century, the character of its architecture

in levity and unprofitable courses; light and useless as is, with some exceptions, that of the thirteenth and it and abuse it, but no man can make it useful."

the tufted feathers upon the cane, every wind can play with

Sermon fourteenth ; and the manner in which the architects | xiv. 5 3.

D. I. E. have preserved, throughout almost the whole struc

* See the Saturday Magazine, Vol. IV., p. 208.

GREAT NUMBERS.

fore, 8 furlongs, or 1760 (one thousand seven No. I. NUMBERS DESCRIPTIVE OF MAGNITUDE. hundred and sixty) yards, or 5280 (five thousand In mental operations, few things are more difficult, two hundred and eighty) feet, or 63,360 (sixty-three In mental operations, few things are more difficult, thousand three hundred and sixty) inches. or more imperfectly performed, than that of esti

The real diameter of the earth approximates so mating great numbers. We are accustomed to speak and to read of thousands and millions of miles, of nearly to 8000 (eight thousand) miles

, that it is years, of inhabitants, and of pounds sterling, without generally so described for the sake of round numbers.

As our object is not so much to convey accurate possessing any definite idea of the relative degrees of vastness which these numbers are intended to pre

information on subjects connected with astronomy, figure, as respects extension, duration, population, or

on the present occasion, as it is to give a general idea value.

of the dimensions of the earth, and of the bodies To assist our conceptions as to the magnitude of System, we shall adopt the popular mode of compu

that are known to us as its companions in the Solar the earth; of its attendant, the moon ; of the sun; and of the planets, which, like ourselves, revolve tation; assume the diameter of the earth as equal to round the sun ; to enable us to form some notion of 8000 miles, and employ that diameter as a standard the distance the moon is from the earth; that of the

measure in comparing the earth with other worlds. respective planets from the earth and the sùn; and of hours per day, but resting on the Sabbath-day, he

If a man were to walk 4 miles per hour, and 12 the sun from the nearest star; it seems desirable that would be six lunar months (28 days each), 3 weeks, we employ some simple and familiar mode of computation, in addition to that of abstract quantities; coach, travelling at an average rate of 10 miles per

and nearly 5 days, walking 8000 miles. A stageand that the process we select, should impressively hour, both day and night, and, as is too commonly convey to the mind an accurate perception of great the practice, Sundays and other days alike, would ness, without fatiguing and bewildering it by frequent accomplish that distance in 1 month 5 days and 8 repetition. In surveying the world on which we dwell, we are, those employed between Liverpool and Manchester,

hours. A steam-carriage on a rail-way, similar to very properly, affected by its extent and its grandeur. It is, when viewed in relation to the beings who moving at an average rate of 25 miles per hour, day inhabit it, extensive, as respects its dimensions, and and night, Sundays and other days, would perform magnificent, as respects its structure.

But when we

the distance in 13 days and 6 hours. contrast it with other worlds, some of which may be

The diameter of the earth is only one of its di

mensions. considered our near neighbours, our own beautiful

The extent of its exterior surface, is globe sinks into comparative insignificance; and

what chiefly concerns its inhabitants, since it is there though we know it is not the least, we have abundant that they carry on the greatest number of their

The circumference t of the earth attestations that it is very far removed from the

daily avocations.

at the equator, is estimated at 24,899 (twenty-four greatest, of the Creator's works.

The only means we possess, for ascertaining the thousand eight hundred and ninety-nine) or, in round dimensions of the earth, is by measuring off, in numbers, 25,000 (twenty-five thousand) miles. To succession, certain distinct portions of its surface, the rate already mentioned, 20 months, 2 weeks, and

travel this distance would occupy a man, walking at and then computing the extent of the whole by a comparison of these separate parts. This has been 5 days. A ship, supposing she could take a direct done with such astonishing accuracy that Sir J. W. course, and average 8 miles per hour, would accomHerschel assures us, he considers it extremely plish the distance in 4 months, 2 weeks, 4 days, and improbable that, in the estimated diameter * of the days, and 4 hours; and a steam-carriage in 1 month,

5 hours; a stage-coach in 3 months, 2 weeks, 6 earth, an error exists to the extent of five miles. The figure of the earth is spherical. It is not a

1 week, 6 days, and 16 hours. true sphere, inasmuch that its equatorial diameter is

The moon, being our nearest neighbour and con: somewhat greater than its polar. The difference,

stant companion in the regions of space, next claims

our attention. The moon is very inferior in size to however, is so trifling, that in a model made to

the earth. Its diameter is rather more than one represent the earth in its just fourth that of the earth ; namely, 2160 (two thou proportions, supposing it to be sixteen inches in diameter, earth to be a solid sphere, (and there is every reason

sand one hundred and sixty) miles. Supposing the in the direction denoted in the annexed figure from A

to conclude that it is,) if the materials of which it is to B; the diameter in the composed were separated into 49 equal parts, each other direction, from C to D, walk 2160 miles, would occupy a man 1 month, 3

part would be equal to the bulk of the moon. To would require to be only goth (one twentieth) of an inch weeks, and 3 days. The circumference of a circle is

rather more than 3 times its diameter 1. The cirless; a variation from a true

cumference of the moon is about 6785 (six thousand sphere, that neither the hand

seven hundred and eighty-five) miles, a distance that nor the eye could detect. The greatest diameter of the earth is estimated as

would be run by a steam-carriage in 11 days and 7}

hours. equal to 7925 (seven thousand nine hundred and

Next in order among the superior planets, as twenty-five), and its least, to 7899 (seven thousand eight hundred and ninety-nine) English miles, the respects dimensions, is Mercury, whose diameter is difference being 26 miles. A mile is equal to 8 estimated at 3140 (three thousand one hundred and furlongs, each furlong being equal to 220 yards, forty) miles. Mercury is larger than the moon, but each yard equal to 3 feet

, and each foot equal to 12 considerably less than the earth. Venus is nearer inches. An English statute mile comprises, there

the size of the earth than either of the other planets,

с

А

D

its diameter being about 7800 (seven thousand eight From two Greek words, dia, through, and metron, a measure hundred) miles. Mars has a diameter rather more It implies a right line; that is, a straight line passing through the centre of a circle or other curved figure, dividing it into two equal + From two Latin words, circum, round, and foro, to carry. It sige parts. As applied to a solid, it denotes the distance from the exterior nifies the exterior line that bounds a circular body. surface on one side, to the exterior surface on the other side, by a # As 1 is to 3.1416, so is the diameter of a circle to its circumnstraight line passing through the centre.

ference.

was

than half that of the earth ; namely, 4100 (four THE NATURALIST'S AUTUMNAL WALK. thousand one hundred) miles.

The little excursions of the naturalist, from habit Revolving between Mars and Jupiter are four and from acquirement, become a scene of constant celestial bodies, commonly called planets; but which observation and remark. The insect that crawls, are supposed to be the separated fragments of what the note of the bird, the plant that flowers, or the

once a larger planet. The names of these vernal green leaf that peeps out, engages his attenbodies, which have all been discovered since the tion, is recognised as an intimate, or noted from commencement of the present century, are Ceres, some novelty that it presents in sound or aspect. Pallas, Juno, and Vesta. They are so extremely Every season has its peculiar product, and is pleasdiminutive, when compared with the other planetary ing or admirable, from causes that variously affect bodies, that they seem only as specks in the creation ; our different temperaments or dispositions; but there the largest being 160 and the smallest about 80 miles

are accompaniments in an autumnal morning's in diameter. They are not visible to the unassisted woodland walk, that call for all our notice and adeye.

miration : the peculiar feeling of the air, and the The largest planet in our system, is Jupiter. The solemn grandeur of the scene around us, dispose diameter of this magnificent body is nearly 11 times the mind to contemplation and remark; there is a that of the earth. It is estimated at 87,000 (eighty- silence in which we hear every thing, a beauty that seven thousand) miles. For a man to walk that will be observed. The stump of an old oak is a distance, would occupy very nearly 7 years ; a steam- very landscape, with rugged alpine steeps bursting carriage would accomplish it in 5 months and 5 days. through forests of verdant mosses, with some pale, Saturn has a diameter equal to 10 times that of the denuded, branchless lichen, like a scathed oak, earth, or about 80,000 (eighty thousand miles.) creeping up the sides, or crowning the summit

. Next beyond Saturn, is Uranus, the most remote of Rambling with unfettered grace, the tendrils of the the planets known to the inhabitants of our world. briony (tamus communis) festoon with its brilliant Its diameter is about 35,000 (thirty-five thousand) berries, green, yellow, red, the slender sprigs of the miles, rather more than 4 times that of the earth. hazel, or the thorn ; it ornaments their plainness, The bulk of Uranus is equal to 80 such bodies as and receives a support its own feebleness denies. the earth.

The agaric, with all its hues, its shades, its eleThe most transcendently beautiful of all the mighty gant variety of forms, expands its cone sprinkled orbs with which we are associated, is the Sun, the with the freshness of the morning; a transient fair, centre of motion, and the source of light, to the

a child of decay, that “ sprang up in a night, and whole planetary system. In contemplating an object will perish in a night.” The squirrel, agile with in its dimensions so stupendous, in its aspect so life and timidity, gamboling round the root of an splendid, the mind is lost in wonder. The real ancient beech, its base overgrown with the dewberry diameter of the sun is estimated at 882,000 (eight (rubus cæsius), blue with unsullied fruit, impeded hundred and eighty-two thousand) miles, exceeding, in his frolic sports, half angry, darts up the silvery in this respect, the earth, in the proportion of 1115 bole again, to peep and wonder at the strange into 1. In bulk, the sun is equal to 1,384,472 (one truder on his haunts. The jay springs up, and million, three hundred and eighty-four thousand, four screaming, tells of danger to her brood, the noisy hundred and seventy-two) such bodies as the earth. tribe repeat the call, are hushed, and leave us ; the

To travel a distance equal to the diameter of the loud laugh of the woodpecker, joyous and vacant ; sun, would occupy a man, supposing him to proceed the hammering of the nuthatch (sitta europan), at the rate we have before mentioned, 58 years, 11 cleaving its prize in the chink of some dry bough; months, 2 weeks, and 3 days. A steam-carriage the humble-bee, torpid on the disc of the purple would be 4 years and 2 weeks performing the same thistle, just lifts a limb to pray forbearance of injury, distance. Proceeding uninterruptedly at the same to ask for peace, and bid us rate, namely, 25 miles per hour, it would occupy 12

Leave him, leave him to repose. years, 8 months, 3 weeks, 5 days, and 2 hours, for a The cinquefoil, or the vetch, with one lingering bloom steam-carriage to run a distance equal to the circum- yet appears, and we note it from its loneliness. ference of the sun, which is about 2,770,891 (two Spreading on the light foliage of the fern, dry and millions, seven hundred and seventy thousand, eight mature, the spider has fixed her toils, and motionless hundred and ninety-one) miles !

in the midst, watches her expected prey, every thread Here we lay down the pen. We have treated only and mesh beaded with dew, trembling with the of the magnitude of the bodies known to us, as zephyr's breath. Then falls the “sere and yellow composing what is termed, by its relation to the sun, leaf," parting from its spray without a breeze tinkling the Solar System. We have said nothing of the in the boughs, and rustling scarce audibly along, respective distance of the planets from the sun, from rests at our feet, and tells us that we part too. All each other, and from the earth ; nor have we given these are distinctive symbols of the season, marked any account of the velocity with which they move in the silence and sobriety of the hour; and form, in their several orbits. These subjects will engage perhaps, a deeper impression on the mind, than any our attention in a future paper. Meanwhile, we afforded by the verdant promises, the vivacities of shall do well to remember, with emotions of gratitude spring, or the gay, profuse luxuriance of summer. and humility, that the Almighty Being who has Journal of a Naturalist. created, and who governs innumerable worlds, is concerned in sustaining the brief existence of the The attentiou which a beneficent Providence has shown to insect that floats unseen by us in the sunbeam. the well-being of its creatures, is beautifully illustrated by Amidst such evidences of infinite power, and such the following fact. When a bird sits on its perch at roost, displays of unchanging beneficence, we need enter the action of doing so, from the peculiar formation of the tain no fears that we shall be overlooked or forgotten. muscles of the legs and thighs, draws the claws of the feet Let

our chief concern be, that whilst we are the together, so that they hold tightly to the perch as long as objects of the providential care of our Heavenly the comfort and security of the bird would be endangered

the bird is in a sitting posture. But for this circumstance, Father, we may show, by our faith and good works, by every gale of wind while it reposed.—Gleanings in that we are also the partakers of His special grace. Natural History.

R. R.

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No. IX. TAE BATTLES OF THE PYRENEES. of St. Sebastian's and Pamplona, which were both When the news reached England of the battle that well garrisoned; and it became necessary to make had been fought at Vittoria, and of the complete preparations for reducing these, their last, strong-holds. rout which the French had suffered on that occasion, Lord Wellington determined to besiege St. Sebastian's, it caused unbounded joy and exultation. The thanks because its proximity to the sea would allow the of both Houses of Parliament were voted to the means of attack to be more readily obtained; and it British general and his troops; and addresses of was accordingly invested by 10,000 men under Sir congratulation were poured in to the throne from Thomas Graham. Pamplona was closely blockaded various public bodies. The same feeling prevailed in by a corps of Spaniards; and intrenchments were Spain. By a decree of the cortes, the Marquess of thrown up on every side of it, to prevent the escape Wellington was created Duke of Vittoria; and a of the garrison, and to cut them off from all supplies. grant of the lordship of Sota de Romano, in the These events could not fail deeply to fix the attenkingdom of Granada, was annexed to the title.

tion of Napoleon, and severely to wound his pride. Yet this victory was not more brilliant in its He saw the object for which he had so long conachievement than it was important in its results; for tended, on the point of being wrested from his it was quickly followed by the retreat of the French grasp; and he felt that the most powerful efforts from Spain. We mentioned in our preceding paper were necessary, even to protect the " sacred terri. how precipitate was the flight of Joseph, and how tory *" itself from invasion. His measures were narrow his escape from capture; his panic-stricken taken at once, and they were regulated according to troops fled with equal rapidity, and they were pur

the

emergency. Fresh levies were directed upon the sued as hotly. They took the road leading to Pam. Pyrenees, to recruit the exhausted ranks of his plona, and on reaching that fortress, hastened to seek broken army; and that the general might be equal shelter within its walls; but they found the gates to the occasion, Marshal Soult, who had quitted closed. Nevertheless, so strong was their alarm, Spain in the spring, and followed Napoleon to Gerand such their anxiety to place themselves beyond many, was hastily sent back to the scene of operathe reach of their pursuers, that they actually en- tions, as the “ Lieutenant of the Emperor.” deavoured to force their way over the ramparts, and

This appointment restored, in a certain degree, were only induced to desist, on being opposed by a the confidence of the French army, for the reputaserious fire of cannon and musketry.

tion of Marshal Soult stood high. The marshal Their stay was, however, but short. Having joined his command on the 13th of July, and strengthened the garrison, Joseph resumed his flight; began his preparations with energy and activity. and then taking the main body of his army with The army was re-organized, its several corps were him into France, he left the remainder in the valley again provided with their necessary equipments, of El Bastan, the possession of which was desirable, and great exertions were used to increase the effiboth on account of the fertility of its soil, and the ciency of the cavalry and artillery. A proclamation strong positions which it afforded. Lord Wellington was issued, admitting the dispositions and arrangeimmediately took effective measures for dislodging ments of the British general to have been prompt, this force; the enemy were forced to abandon every skilful, and consecutive, and the valour and steadisuccessive post which they occupied, and at length to retire into France.

Buonaparte had boastingly given this name to France, implying The French still, however, retained the fortresses calamities of war.

that that country alone, in the whole continent, was free from the

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