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should be used in this collection, to things which are only judged masterpieces and secrets in any art, so as to raise the admiration: for admiration is the child of unfrequency; as whatever happens seldom, though in its kind but vulgar, yet produces wonder.

On the contrary, those things which ought to be admired, by reason of the differences of their species, compared with other species, are slightly passed over, if they are familiar and obvious: whereas the singularities of art are not less to be observed than the singularities of nature, mentioned above:* and as among the singularities of nature, we have placed the sun, and moon, the loadstone, &c. which, though very common things, are almost singular in their natures; the same is to be done in the singularities of art.

For example, paper, though a very common thing, is a singular instance of art. For if well observed, artificial matters are either merely wove with direct and transverse threads, as silk, cloth, linen, &c. or made of concreted juices, as brick, clay, glass, enamel, porcelane, and the like, which if well united shine, but if less united, prove hard, but bear no polish. And all these latter substances, made of concreted juices, are brittle, and do not hold tenaciously together.

* Aph. 28.

On the contrary, paper is a tenacious substance, that may be cut, or torn; so that it resembles, and in a manner rivals the skin, or membrane of some animal; the leaves of some plant; or the like production of nature; for 'tis neither brittle, as glass; nor thready, as cloth; for though it has its fibres, yet it has no distinct threads; but exactly resembles the texture of natural matters: insomuch that the like can hardly be found again among artificial things; but it remains perfectly singular. And in artificial things, those, doubtless, are to be preferred which imitate and resemble nature the nearest ; or which, on the other hand, powerfully govern, invert, or change her.*

Again; among instances of power, or the inventions and manual works of men, matters of dexterity, delusion, and diversion, are not to be rejected wholly for some of these, though of small use, and only ludicrous, may yet be rich in information.

Lastly; neither are superstitious, and those commonly called magical matters, to be quite excluded; for although things of this kind lie strangely buried, and deep involved in falshood and fable; yet some regard should be had to discover whether no natural operation is concealed

*See the Sylva Sylvarum, passim.

in the heap: for example, in fascination; the power of imagination; the sympathy or consent of things at a distance; the communication of impressions, from spirit to spirit, as well as from body to body; and the like.*

32. It appears from what is above delivered, that five of the instances already mentioned; viz. (1.) the conformable; (2.) the singular; (3.) the deviating; (4.) the frontier instances; and, (5.) the instances of power, ought to be reserved, as the rest before explained, and many of the following ought to be, till any particular nature is enquired into ; but a collection of them is immediately to be made from the beginning; as a certain particular history; in order to the digesting of the things which enter the understanding, and correct the bad habit of the mind itself; for the mind must needs be tinged, infected, and at length perverted and distorted, by the daily and accustomed inroads and incursions made upon it. †

*See the Articles Imagination, and Sympathy, in the Sylva Sylvarum.

The meaning is, that by constantly conversing with such things only as are common, familiar, and obvious, the mind acquires a strong bent, or habit; whereby it judges that all things are conformable to these: and hence we frequently impose gross sophistry upon ourselves for truth; and argue, and act, in a strangely perverse and ignorant manner: whereas, before we can reason, judge, or philosophize truly,

These instances, therefore, are to be employed as a certain preparative, to rectify and cleanse the understanding: * for whatever draws the understanding from the things whereto it is accustomed, at the same time lays it smooth and even, for receiving the dry and pure light of just ideas and notions. These instances also prepare and open the way to practice; as we shall shew hereafter. +

33. In the eleventh place come friendly, or accompanying and hostile instances, which we call instances of fixed propositions. These are such instances as exhibit a body, or concrete, wherein the nature enquired after constantly attends, as an inseparable companion; or, on the contrary, wherein the nature sought perpetually absents and disappears, as a foe or enemy. And of this kind of instances, fixed, determinate and general propositions are formed, either negative or affirmative; wherein the subject will be a certain body in the concrete, and the predicate, will be the nature sought. But particular proposi

the mind must be acquainted and familiarized with things of agreeing, disagreeing, participating, singular, and extraordinary natures; as well as with those of the common, the obvious, and ordinary kind. See the Doctrine of Idols, Part I. Aph. 38-61. *Viz. From its idols.

† See below, Aph. 50, of the present section.

So, in the enquiry of heat, flame is the subject, in the

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concrete; and heat the predicate, or nature sought.

tions are by no means fixed, where the nature sought is fluctuating and moveable in any concrete; whether it be coming on, or acquired; or again, going off or deposited: therefore particu-" lar propositions have no great prerogative; excepting only in the case of transmigration, of which we spoke above. Yet even these particular propositions are of great use, when confronted, and compared with those that are universal; as we shall shew in its proper place. + But we do not require, even in these universal propositions, a rigorous or absolute affirmation or negation; they being sufficient for the purpose, though there should be some singular or rare exception to them.

The use of accompanying, or friendly instances, is to bring the affirmation of the form to a narrow compass; for, as in the travelling instances, the affirmative of the form is contracted, so that the form of the thing must be found to be somewhat introduced, or destroyed, by the act of transmigration; after the same manner, in accompanying instances, the affirmative of the form is so pent up or confined, that it must necessarily be somewhat that may attend

* See above, Aph. 23.

+ Which seems to be in the ascending and descending scale of axioms, which is wanting. See above, Aph. 21. See above, Aph. 23.

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