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particulars for this purpose are to be derived from grave, judicious, and faithful history, and just relation.

30. In the ninth place come frontier instances; which we sometimes also call participles.* These are such as exhibit those species of bodies which seem composed of two species, or to be rudiments betwixt one species and another; but these instances may be justly reckoned among the singular or hetoroclite kind, † as being rare, or extraordinary in the universe; yet for their dignity they ought to be separately placed and treated. For they excellently indicate the composition and structure of things; and suggest the causes of the number of the ordinary species in the universe; and lead the understanding from that which is, to that which may be.

Examples of these are, (1.) moss, which is something betwixt putrefaction, and a plant; (2.) certain comets, which are of a nature betwixt stars and fiery meteors; (3.) flying-fishes, which are a species betwixt birds and fish; (4.) batts, which are betwixt birds and quadrupeds; (5.) the beast so like ourselves, the ape; (6.)

* From their participation of two different natures; as a participle, in grammar, participates of a noun and a verb. † See above, Aph. 28.

Simia quam similis, turpissima bestia, nobis.

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the biformed births of animals; (7.) the mixtures of different species, &c.*


31. In the tenth place come instances of power; or, as we sometimes call them, trophies or ensigns of power, inventions, or the works of mens hands; that is, the most noble and perfect works, and as it were the masterpiece in every, art. For since the design is to bend nature to things, and bring her to serve the turn of man ;† 'tis absolutely proper that the works already in mens possession should be enumerated and set down, (as so many provinces already subdued and cultivated) especially such works as are best `understood, and brought nearest to perfection: because these afford a short and easy passage to farther discoveries. For if any one, after an attentive consideration of the works already extant in this kind, would determine to use his best and strongest endeavours, he might doubtless either carry them somewhat farther, or convert them to some other obvious purpose; or apply

* Viz. Mules, mongrels, dogs by the mixture of a dog and a fox; and the like in other beasts, birds, and fish, where the instances can be found.


t Let a clear and strong conception be had of the end in view; which is no less than to acquire such a command and mastery over nature, as that men may use her like a ready instrument, or agent, in effecting the greatest works; suçlu as lengthening life, ruling the weather, and the like; which to vulgar philosophers appear impossibilities.

and transfer them to more noble uses than were known before.*

Nor is this all; but as by extraordinary and uncommon, or miraculous works of nature, the` understanding is rouzed, excited, and elevated to the discovery of the forms capable of producing them;† so the like is done by the wonderful and extraordinary works (or miracles) of art; but in a much greater degree: because the manner of effecting, producing, and working such miracles of art, is generally plain; whereas miracles of nature are commonly more obscure and dark. But here the greatest caution is required, that such miracles of art may not depress the understanding, and fix it, as it were, to the earth.

For there is danger lest, in these works of art, which appear like so many ultimate perfections, and utmost stretches of human industry, the understanding should be captivated, chained down,

This directs us to a short and facile method of im

proving the known arts, and inventing new ones. See the section upon Learned Experience in the de Augmentis Scientiarum.

+ For every thing producible, is produced by its form. See Part II. Aph. 4. and the first section throughout. This point being absolutely fundamental, and of the very utmost importance, cannot be too often inculcated, or too well understood: for in this, all the power both of men and nature


or, as it were, enchanted with them: so as not to converse with other things; but imagine that nothing of the same kind can possibly be effected in any other way; and that no farther improvement can be made, except by operating in the same way, with greater diligence, exactness, and a better apparatus.

On the contrary, this is to be held certain, that the ways and means of effecting the things and works hitherto discovered and described, are generally scanty and defective; and that all greater power and ability depends, and is regularly deducible from the fountain of forms, not one whereof is hitherto discovered.*

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And, therefore, as we formerly observed, though a man should ever so thoroughly have studied the nature of the warlike engines, and battering rams of the ancients, or even have spent his whole life in the enquiry; yet he would never have fallen upon the invention of ordnance, and gun-powder; no more than he who should have employed his observations and thoughts upon the woollen and linen manufac

* Viz. Not according to the precise and infallible method of the author, laid down and exemplified in the first section of this second part of his Novum Organum; and farther continued and improved in the present section; which, however, leaves the business imperfect; the completion of the whole being reserved for a third part of this general work. See above, Aph. 21.

tures, would have thence discovered the manufacture of silk. *

And hence all the more noble inventions will, if duly considered, be found owing not to slender discoveries, applications, and enlargements of arts; but entirely to chance, or accident; whose slow and lingering motion, with which it creeps through ages, nothing can anticipate, prevent, or shadow out before-hand, but the discovery of forms. †

The things of this kind are so numerous, as to need no particular instances. The direct business is, to visit and thoroughly inspect all the mechanic arts, and all the liberal ones too, with regard to works; and thence to make a collection, or particular history, of the capital discoveries, masterpieces, and most perfect works in each; together with the ways of producing the effect, or the manner of every operation.‡

But we do not confine the diligence that

*See Part I. Aph. 109, 110.

+ Let sufficient attention be given to this paragraph; for much depends upon it.

This was the chief view and design of the Royal Aca demy of Sciences at Paris; viz. the describing the chief mechanical arts and trades of France, with the engines, instruments, tools, processes, and ways of working made use of by the best masters.

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