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Novum Organum.



THE author purposely left many parts of his new engine untouched, to go in quest of proper materials whereon to employ it; and, being prevented by death, did not return from prosecuting the latter design, to finish the former. Whence though the parts that are treated, appear perfect, as parts; yet the whole of this grand engine wants much of being compleated.

The contrivance itself has, by the greatest masters in science, been thought the best adapted, and most serviceable, of all those at any time proposed, for the advancement of philosophy and art; so that to perfect and fit it for general use, may deserve more than ordinary care and concern.

And though to bring it so forward as we find it, was the labour of a master-builder; though the work, in its own nature, is difficult, and, to vulgar philosophers, somewhat paradoxical; yet, perhaps, the author has left such instructions concerning it, as may enable workmen of a lower class to finish it, and render the method

of using it generally intelligible: which seems rather to require sedulous application, than any extraordinary learning, or uncommon abilities.

In order, therefore, to promote the finishing thereof, it may be proper to indicate the more considerable attempts that have hitherto been made, with a view to something of the kind; and shew what farther remains to be done, with regard to the perfecting of this noble invention, and bringing it into familiar use.

Aristotle has left us four books of analytics: the two first whereof, shew how to construct the forms of reasoning; and the two latter, deliver the art of discovering and judging of things.

These books of analytics appear to have been little understood, till they were illustrated and explained by Gunther; with the addition of what is found to the same purpose in Plato * and Galent. Gunther has two treatises upon the subject: from whence many latter writers upon

methods, seem to have drawn their doctrine; only illustrating it with examples derived from mathematics, algebra, and physics ‡.

See Plato, in Phædr.

See Galen, de optim. Docend. gen.

See Owenus Guntherus Methodorum Tractatus duo, continentes totius artis Logicæ medullam, facultatem omnium Scientiarum ac Demonstrationum Principia inveniendi, dijudicandique rationem. Helmstad. 1586.

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