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asterisms; which of them are more mingled with other stars and which more solitary; which are higher, and which lower; which of the fixed stars are within the path of the sun and planets (that is within the zodiac), and which without; which of the planets is swifter, which slower; which of them move in the ecliptic, and which deviate to right or left of it; which of them may be retrograde, and which cannot; which of them may be at any distance from the sun, and which of them are confined to a certain limit; which of them move swifter in perigee, which in apogee; finally the anomalies of Mars, the wandering of Venus, the labours and wonderful passions which have been detected more than once both in the Sun and Venus; and any other things of the like nature. Lastly let there be received also the particular natures and inclinations of the planets, and likewise of the fixed stars, as handed down by tradition; which as they are transmitted with very general consent, ought not (except when they are plainly at variance with physical reasons) to be lightly rejected. From such observations is Sane Astrology constructed, and by them alone should schemes of the heavens be formed and interpreted.

Sane Astrology is applied more confidently to predictions, but more cautiously to elections ; in both cases however within due limits. Predictions may be made of comets to come, which (I am inclined to think) may be foretold; of all kinds of meteors, of floods, droughts, heats, frosts, earthquakes, irruptions of water, eruptions of fire, great winds and rains, the various seasons of the year, plagues, epidemic diseases, plenty and dearth of grain, wars, seditions, schisms, transmigrations of peoples, and in short of all commotions or greater revolutions of things, natural as well as civil. But these predictions may also be made (though not so certainly) with reference to events more special and perhaps singular, if after the general inclinations of such times and seasons have been ascertained, they be applied with a clear judgment, either physical or political, to those species or individuals which are most liable to accidents of this nature; as for instance, if any one from a foreknowledge of the seasons of the year shall pronounce them more favourable or injurious to olives than to vines, to pulmonary than to liver complaints, to the inhabitants of hills than to those of valleys, to monks than to courtiers (by reason of their different manner of living); or if any one from knowledge of the influence



which celestial bodies have upon human minds should discover it to be more favourable or more adverse to peoples than to kings, to learned and inquisitive men than to bold and warlike, to men of pleasure than to men of business or politicians. There are innumerable things of this kind; but they require (as I said before) not only that general knowledge derived from the stars (which are actives), but also a particular knowledge of the subjects (which are passives). Nor are elections to be altogether rejected; but less confidence is to be placed in them than in predictions. For we see that in planting and sowing and grafting, observation of the age of the moon is a thing not altogether frivolous. And there are many instances of the kind. But these elections also, even more than predictions, must be guided by our rules. And it must always be observed, that elections hold good in those cases only where both the virtue of the heavenly bodies is such as does not quickly pass, and the action of the inferior bodies is such as is not suddenly accomplished; which is the case in those examples cited above; for neither the changes of the moon nor the growth of plants are effected in an instant. As for those which depend upon exactness to a moment, they are to be rejected altogether. But many such cases are to be found likewise (though a man would not think it) in elections concerning civil matters. And if any one complains that while I have given some indication of the materials from which this improved astrology may be extracted, and likewise of the purposes for which it may be advantageously used, I have said nothing about the manner of extracting it, he does not deal fairly with me; for he requires of me the art itself, for which I am not accountable. Upon the question which he asks however I will say thus much. There are four ways only by which this science can be approached. First by future experiments; secondly by past experiments; thirdly by traditions; and lastly by physical reasons. With regard to future experiments, what need is there of saying anything? seeing it requires many ages to collect a sufficient number of them; so that it is useless to speculate about them. For past experiments, they are no doubt within man's reach ; though to collect them is a work of great labour, and one requiring much leisure. For astrologers (if they would do themselves justice) may faithfully extract from history all the greater disasters (as inundations, plagues, battles, seditions, deaths of kings, and the like), and may



examine (not according to the subtleties of horoscopes, but by those rules of revolutions which I have shadowed out) what the position of the heavenly bodies was at the times; so that where there is found a manifest agreement and coincidence of events, there a probable rule of prediction may be established. As to traditions, they must be carefully sifted, that what is plainly repugnant to physical reasons may be rejected, and what is in conformity with them may stand upon its own authority. Lastly of physical reasons, those are most adapted to this investigation which make inquiry into the universal appetites and passions of matter, and the simple and genuine motions of bodies. For upon these wings we ascend most safely to these celestial material substances. And so much for Sane Astrology.

Of astrological insanity (besides those fictions which I remarked above) there is another portion, which must not be omitted ; though it ought properly to be excluded from astrology, and removed to what is called celestial magic. It rests upon a wonderful figment of the human mind, -namely, that any favourable position of the stars may be received on seals or signets (say of some metal or gem qualified for the purpose), by which the felicity of the hour, which would otherwise pass, may be arrested and as it were fixed as it flies. So the poet complains. heavily that so noble an ancient art should have been lost.

Annulus infuso non vivit mirus Olympo,
Non magis ingentes humili sub lumine Phæbos

Fert gemma, aut celso divulsas cardine Lunas.' It is true that the relics of saints and their virtues have been allowed by the Church of Rome (for in divine and immateriate things lapse of time does not matter); but to treasure up the relics of heaven, whereby the hour which is already past and as it were dead should revive and be continued, is mere superstition. Let these fancies then be dismissed, if the Muses be not turned to old women.

Abstract Physics may most rightly be divided into two parts - the doctrine concerning the Configurations of Matter, and the doctrine concerning Appetites and Motions. Both of these I will cursorily enumerate, and thence may be derived some

| Not now the ring can in its circlet store

Heaven's living influence : the gem no more
Beneath its modest lustre bears the might
Of the great orbs that govern day and night.

I do not go.

shadow of the true Physic of Abstracts. The Configurations of Matter are, Dense, Rare; Heavy, Light; Hot, Cold; Tangible, Pneumatic; Volatile, Fixed; Determinate, Fluid; Moist, Dry; Fat, Crude; Hard, Soft; Fragile, Tensile ; Porous, Close; Spirituous, Jejune; Simple, Compound; Absolute, Imperfectly Mixed; Fibrous and Venous, Simple of Structure, or Equal; Similar, Dissimilar; Specific, NonSpecific; Organic, Inorganic; Animate, Inanimate. Further

For Sensible and Insensible, Rational and Irrational, I refer to the doctrine concerning Man. Of Appetites and Motions there are two kinds. There are simple motions, in which lies the root of all natural actions, subject to the conditions of the configurations of matter. And there are Compound or Produced Motions; with which last the received philosophy (which takes but slight hold of the body of nature) commences. But compound motions of this kind (such as Generation, Corruption, and the rest) ought to be accounted as the sums or products of simple motions, rather than as primitive motions. The simple motions are, motion of Resistance-commonly called motion to prevent penetration of dimensions ; motion of Connexion--which they call motion of abhorrence of a vacuum; motion of Liberty, to prevent preternatural compression or extension; motion into a New Sphere, or for the purpose of rarefaction or condensation; motion of the Second Connexion, or to prevent solution of continuity; motion of the Greater Congregation, or towards masses of connatural bodies, commonly called natural motion; motion of Lesser Congregation, commonly called motion of sympathy and antipathy; motion of Disposition, or for the ordering of the parts with reference to the whole ; motion of Assimilation, or multiplication of its own nature upon another body; motion of Excitation, where the nobler agent excites a motion dormant and latent in another; motion of Signature or Impression; that is, operation without communication of substance; motion of Royalty, or restraint of other motions by the motion predominant; motion without limit, or spontaneous rotation; motion of Trepidation, or Systole and Diastole, in bodies (that is) placed between things attractive and repugnant; lastly, motion of Repose, or abhorrence of motion, which is also causative of very many things. Such are Simple Motions; which truly proceed from the inward recesses of nature, and which by complication, continuation, alternation, restraint, repetition, and various modes of combination, form those compound motions or sums of motions which are generally received, or others like them. The sums of motion are those motions so much talked of, -generation, corruption; augmentation, diminution; alteration, and local motion; likewise mixture, separation; conversion. There remain as Appendices of Physic, the measurements of motions ; namely, what is the effect of the how much or dose in nature; what of distance, which is not unfitly called the orb of virtue or activity; what of rapidity or slowness; what of short or long delay; what of the force or dulness of the thing; what of the stimulus of surrounding things. And these are genuine parts of the true Physic of Abstracts; for in the configurations of matter, in simple motions, in the sums or aggregates of motions, and in the measures of motions, the Physic of Abstracts is perfected. For voluntary motion in animals; the motion which takes place in the actions of the senses ; motion of imagination, appetite, and will; motion of the mind, determination, and intellectual faculties; these I refer to their own proper doctrines. I repeat however that all these above mentioned are to be no further handled in Physic than the inquiry of their Material and Efficient causes ; for as to their Formal and Final causes they are rehandled in Metaphysic.

I will subjoin two notable appendices of Physic, which regard not so much the matter as the manner of inquiry ; namely Problems of Nature and Dogmas of Ancient Philosophers. The first is an appendix to nature manifold or scattered; the other, to nature united or summary. Both relate to the skilful proposing of Doubts; which is no despicable part of science. Problems deal with particular doubts; Dogmas with general ones, concerning first principles and the fabric of the universe. Of Problems there is a noble example in the books of Aristotle; a kind of work which certainly deserved not only to be honoured with the praises of posterity but to be continued by their labours ; seeing that new doubts are daily arising. In this however there is a caution to be applied, which is of great importance. The registering and proposing of doubts has a double use : first it guards philosophy against errors, when upon a point not clearly proved no decision or assertion is made (for so error might beget error), but judgment is suspended and not made positive; secondly, doubts once registered are so

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