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Οία μάλιστα πόκοισιν έoικότα ινδάλλονται:
interdum semperque leves, sed in (Propert. Eleg. III. v. 32.] densiorem nubemi et denuo in nin- Seneca in Edipo, bum imbres effundentem coituræ. “ Imbrifera qualis implicat varios sibi
208. Vel duplex iris cælum cir- Iris colores, parte quæ magna poli cumnectit.- Ipse Irida imbrium co- Curvata picto nunciat nimbos sinu.”. mitem malueriin quam prognosticum (Senec. (Edip. v. 317.] vocare; quoniam numquam videri '. Quum Iris in adveniente simbo potest, nisi cadente pluvia. Neque visa est, certe aquam præmonet, si duplex arcus magis tempestuosa quam contra in recedente pluviam, finitam. simplex est. Sed prognosticum hoc Plautus in Curculione observat, ex "Theophrasto haustum video: “Ecce autem bibit arcus; pluet “Οταν τρις γίνεται, (ύδωρ) επισημαίνει: εάν Credo hercle hodie." τε πολλαι ίριδες γένωνται, σημαίνει ύδωρ επί (Plautus Curcul. I. ii. 42.] Folú. [Theoph. Sign. Pluv.] Geopon. Plinius ex veterum auctoritate scriex Arato habét;"Ipus dè ditaî paveioa, bit, “ Arquus cum sunt duplices pluõußpov önkoi. [Geop. ex Arat.] vias nueciant et pluviis serenitalem Virgilius notat :-ante pluviam, non perinde certam." (Plin. Hist.
-et bibit ingens Nat. xviii. 35.] A pluviis serenitatem Arcus."
Jac de causa, quod arcus minime in (Virg. Geor. i. 381.] late circumfusa nube apparere possit; Statius in Thebaid, scribit,
ergo quum apparet, nimbum claro “ At pater arcano residens Ismenos aëre circumsessum denonstrat, qui in antro
sæpe post pluviam longam cælum Unde auræ nubesque bibunt, atque serenat; non tamen certam serenitaimbrifer arcus
tem nunciat, quia plurimi nimbi voPascitur, et Trios melior venit annus lantes consequenter cælum transcurin agros.”
runt, et eorum duratio incerta est. (Stat. Thebaid. ix. 405.) Ex Iride pluviam finiendam nunciante
Scriptum est in libro Geneseos, το τόξον Queque cadit liquidas Junonia vir- μου τίθημι εν τη νεφέλη, και έσται εις σημείο go per auras,
ον διαθήκης ανά μέσσον εμού και της γης. Et picturato pluvium ligat aëra gyro.” [Gen. ix. 13. secund. Sept.] [Stat. Sylv. V. i. 103.]
Proverbium nostrum, e mane surTibullus scribit,
gente ninibo, memorat: " Quamvis prætexens picea serrugine A Rainbow in the morning cælum
Is the Shepherd's warning." Venturam admittat imbrifer arcus Sed post pluviosam diem, aquam.”
“ A Rainbow at night [Tibul. Eleg. I. iv. 44.] Is the Shepherd's delight." Propertius se discere velle fatetur, [Prov. citat. Pointer on Weather, “Qua venit exoriens, qua deficit, unde
p. 62.) coaclis
208. Doóun, duplex arcus frequens Cornibus,in plenum menstrua Luna est, triplex quam rarissime videtur ; redit;
conferendus est Aristoteles, Alta de Unde salo superant venti, quid fami- και άμαυροτέρα τους χρώμασιν και περιne captet
έχουσα και τη θέσει τας χρόας εξ αναντίας Eurius ; et in nubes unde perennis έχει μειμένας δια την αυτήν αιτίαν. Paullo * aqua;
infra, Τρείς δε ουκέτι γίνονται ουδέ πλείους Sit ventura dies nundi que subruat ίριδες, διά το και την δευτέραν γίγνεσθαι arces;
άμαυροτέραν, ώστε και την τρίτην ανάκλασιν Purpureus pluvias cur bibit arcus
πάμπαν ασθενή γίγνεσθαι και αδυνατεί aquas."
Et in Sylv.
"Η και που τις άλωα μελαινομένην έχει αστήρ.
ápixvelobal Fpds Tòv Halov. [Aristot. xviii. 35.] Alio loco scribit,“ Existunt Meteor. iji. 5.)
eædem coronæ circa Lunam et circa Caussam Iridis reddit Lucretius, nobiliora astra cælo quoque inhæren“ Hinc ubi Sul radiis tempestatem tia.” [Plin. Hist. Nat. ii. 29.] De
halonibus satis supra. Theophrastus Adversa fulsit nimborum adspergine in Sign. Pluv. Kal &dws meraîvai uda
τικών και μάλλον αι δείλης. [Theoph. Tum color in nigris existit nubibus Sign. Pluv.] In quibusdam Americæ arqui."
regionibus, ut audio, frequentiores [Lucret. de Rer Nat. vi. 525.) sunt hæ coronæ halonesque quam
Multi secuti sunt; inter Epigram- nobiscum. Refer ad Excursum. mata invenimus,
210—211. Jam agit de pluviæ pro“ Cum radiis imbres et aquarum pen- gnosticis et avibus--Sape aves palusdulus humor
tres aut marinæ insaturabiliter se Tangitur, existit, quam Græcia nomi- inmergunt aquam
Geopon. ex. Arato, "Έτι δε και όρνεις και [Epigrain. Burman. edit. Anthol. Lat. Acuvalai kal ai banóttiai, émi Gdatos Ouve. Vol. ii. p. 311.]
χώς λουόμενοι, χειμώνα δηλούσιν. [GeoEtiam,
pon. i. 3. cit. Ruhle. Arat. Vol. i. p. “Clara sub ætheriis fulget Thau- 461.] Theophrastus idem scripsit, mantia proles
αίθυιαι και νήτται πτερυγίζουσαι και άγρια Nubibus, ut radiis pluvium Sol adtigit και τιθάσσαι ύδωρ μεν σημαίνουσι δυομένη. imbrem;
[Theoph. Sign. Vent.] ut supr. cit. Et picturato cælum velamine pingit.” Sed alio loco ad terrestres aves pro
Miltonus in Paradi. Amis. ex libro gnosticumtranstulit, Opolws dè mal kuriol Geneseos, de fine pluviarum, και άλεκτρύονες εάν τε επί λίμνη και θαλάττη “ Then with uplifted hands, and eyes αποπτερυγίζωνται, ως νήττα ύδωρ σημαίνει, devout,
και ερωδιός όρθριον φθεγγόμενος ύδωρ ή Grateful to heaven, over his head aveữua onualvet. [Theoph. Sign. Pluv.j heholds
Vetat” Ælianus, qui terrestres aA dewy cloud, and in the cloud a bow quam petentes serenitatis indicium Conspicuous with three listed colours accipit, Οι δε χερσαίοι σπεύδοντες ές τα gay,
νοτερα ευδίας άγγελοι είσι εάν μέντοι σίω. . Betokening peace from God, and
[Ælian. Hist. Anim. vii. 7.] Cum
vero lavatione delectantur, procellas, venant new."
'Απειλούσι δε και πνεύμα, λουόμεναι τε (Milton Parad. Lost, xi. 367.] Sed plura de Iride cf. in Excurs. de όρνιθες και ανέμων τινάς άμβολάς υποφαίlucis refractione.
vovou. [Ibid.] 209. Iterum pluviarum indicium
Virgilius ex Arato de signis pluviæ
venturæ scribit: ex halone sumii, de quo plurima supra-Vel etiamnum stella aliqua
“ Jam varias pelagi volucres et quæ halonein nigricantem habet.—'AOTP
Asia circum non solum stella, proprie sic dicta, Dulcibus in stagnis rimantur prata
Caystri verum quodvis corpus cæleste intelligenda est. Sol, Luna, nobilioresque Certatim largos humeris infundere stellæ aliquando circa se lucidum rores, orbem habent. Sed numquam vidi Nunc caput objectare fretis, nunc curhalonem verum seu annulum circa rere in undas stellas. Plinius eadem cum incau- Et studio incassum videas gestire
lavandi." tione scribit, "Circuli novi circa sidera aliqua pluviam.” (Plin. Hist. Nat. [Virg. Geor, i. 387.]
The subjects of Biography considered. 1. The lives of eminent public men. This department of Biography is closely connected with Historybut superior to it in moral usefulness. 2. Lives of men distinguished in Literature, art, and science—why peculiarly interesting. 3. Miscellaneous lives.
The manner of treating biographical subjects-must depend on various circumstances-as, distance of time.-Conteniporary memoirs contrasted with learned compilations on ancient lives. The most essential qualities of Biography, Copiousness and Impartiality.--Difficulty of avoiding either unnecessary minuteness or insipid generality.—Correspondence of friends considered as an illustration of character.-Impartiality not to be expected from writers of their own lives.-Biographical works consisting of mere panegyric.—Lives written by friends of persons deceased. --Conclusion.
The acts and characters of men whose virtues or talents, misfortunes or successes, have influenced the course of public events, will naturally supply the earliest subjects of biographical narration. Illustrious names and extraordinary achievements engage the atten tion and awaken the zeal of writers in every age, and the desire of tracing an eminent man through a series of great actions is heightened in most instances by national or local partiality. And as an acquaintance with general history becomes more widely diffused, men seek with increasing eagerness a minuter and more familiar knowledge of persons, who have distinguished themselves in that diversified scene ; they turn from the widerand more comprehensive survey of events with awakened but unsatisfied curiosity; like the inexperienced beholder of a vast and crowded picture, who instinctively draws nearer to the canvas, but discovers, as he advances, that the colors have not grown brighter, nor the figures more defined.
non immergunt pro bono signo navi“Tum liceat pelagi volucres tardæque gantibus antiquis acceptæ sunt;
citat Niphus, ex Æmiliano: Cernere inexpleto studio certare la- “ Cycnus in auspiciis semper lætisvandi.”
simus ales; [Varro. Fray. in Catalect. Vet. Pvët. Hunc optant nautæ quia non se merObservavi certissimum pluviæ signum git in undis." esse cygnos contra veoti cursum vo- Niphus (ex Æmil.) Augur. lib. i. lantes.]
c. 10.] A certo hor, tempestatis ex avium Ex eadem re pro fasto omine sulavatione prognostico, aves quæ se muntur cycni a Virgilio.
As literature and science begin to assuine their just preeminence among human pursuits, the province of Biography is rapidly extended ; and men who have had no share in the public transactions of their age, but have adorned it by their genius or their labors, are allowed to divide our attention with princes, warriors, and politicians. If mankind still delight in those scenes of ambitious life, which abound in great and surprising occurrences, they begin also to value the more refined satisfaction of observing the growth and habits of superior mind; what assistance it has borrowed, or what impediments encountered, from external events; what studies have matured the scholar, what incident has aroused the poet, or what lessons have fornied the philosopher.
But in later times, when the more general cultivation of literature encourages an unbounded increase of writings on every subject, Biography takes a far wider range, and a place is found for individuals of humbler merit and less extended celebrity. In a free and prosperous country more particularly, where society has formed itself into many great and distinct branches, and innumerable avenues lie
open to renown, it is esteemed no useless or unworthy office of the Biographer, to record those instances of superior virtue or talents, which, without commanding the attention of mankind in general, have illuminated and embellished their own peculiar sphere of active or studious life.
That species of Biography which commemorates persons distinguished in public affairs, is diguified and recommended by its association with History; an alliance so intimate, that each occasionally deviates into the style and method of the other; the history of a nation becomes subordinate to that of an individual, and the narrative of a life expands into the chronicle of a state. the Biographier expatiate in disquisitions on politics and manners, and the Historian lay open the human mind with its secret passions and infirmities. Thus the profound and elegant Roman annalist has traced a portrait of Tiberius, more espressive and more truly biographical, than is presented in the deliberate exposition of his character by the minuter hand of Suetonius.
A simple detail of campaigns and embassies, of martial exploits and political intrigues, comprised in the life of a warrior or states
man, may be valuable for its information, and still more for that lucid
arrangement which reduces many facts to a connected series, and by combining, makes them illustrate and explain each other. Still, however, the Biographer should aim at higher excellences. He may indeed relate with fidelity the acts and speeches of a great man, may insist with energy on his wise counsels, or his virtuous example; but it is only when the manners, the familiar habits, the daily conversation, the very look and gesture, are revived, and rendered present to our imagination, that we owu the force and impressive truth of the finished picture.' It is thus that Biography enlightens and animates the materials of History, and brings down the greatness of political events to a natural association with the ordinary occurrences of life. By this peculiar charm the spirited narratives of Plutarch continue, at the present day, to captivate even those who are as far removed by their course of life as by lapse of time from the scenes described : and thus have the most extravagant and romantic adventures of modern times been not only rendered credible to posterity, but invested with unquestionable signs of nature and reality by the Biographer of Charles the Twelfih.
But whatever praise may belong to this species of writing as a graceful appendage and supplement to History, it surpasses History itself in moral instruction. A short comparison will sufficiently point out the causes of a superiority which might indeed be claimed on similar grounds for Biography in general, but belongs more plainly and indisputably to that particular department which is strictly historical.
The lessons of the Biographer apply themselves immediately to the feelings and interests of every individual. It is the business of History to separate and distinguish men from the mass of society, and exhibit them in those situations to which the generality of mankind are persuaded they will never be summoned. Biography, on the other hand, reminds us at every page how much we have in common with those whom fortune appears to have placed farthest from it dwells
those incidents in which all lives must to a certain degree resemble each other; it draws our attention from events to persons, from external and accidental circumstances to the ivtrinsic and permavent qualities of mind; it accustoms us to consider accurately the relation which men's public actions bear to their characters, education, and peculiar habits; and thus teaches
'Ούτε γάρ ιστορίας γράφομεν, αλλά βίους ούτε ταϊς επιφανεστάταις πράξεσι πάντως ένεστι δήλωσις αρετής ή κακίας, αλλά πράγμα βραχύ πολλάκις, και δήμα, και παιδία τις, έμφασιν ήθους εποίησεν μάλλον, η μάχαι μυριόνεκροι, και παρατάξεις αι μεγίσται, και wodtopkla tónewv, Plutarch. in Alexand.