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LIVES OF THE APOSTLES.

INTRODUCTION.

of a general relation to the whole: wherein we

shall especially take notice of the importance of 1. JESUS CHRIST, the great apostle and high- the word, the nature of the employment, the fitpriest of our profession, being appointed by God ness and qualification of the persons, and the du. to be the supreme ruler and governor of his ration and continuance of the office. church, was, like Moses, faithful in all his house ; 2. The word aroorodos, or sent, is among ancient but with this honorable advantage, that Moses writers applied either to things, actions, or perwas faithful as a servant, Christ as a son over his sons. To things : thus, those dimissory letters own house, which he erected, established, and that were granted to such who appealed from an governed with all possible care and diligence inferior to a superior judicature; were in the lanNor could he give a greater instance either of guage of the Roman laws usually called apostoli : his fidelity towards God or his love and kindness Thus, a packet-boat was styled aroorodov trdotov, beto the souls of men, than that after he had pur. cause sent up and down for advice and despatch chased a family to himself

, and could now no of business. Thus, though in somewhat a diflonger upon earth manage its interests in his own ferent sense, the lesson taken out of the epistles person, he would not return back to heaven till he is in the ancient Greek liturgies, called a toorodos; had constituted several orders and officers in his because usually taken out of the apostles' wrichurch, who might superintend and conduct its tings. Sometimes it is applied to actions, and so affairs, and according to the various circumstances imports no more than mission, or the very act of of its state, administer to the needs and exigen- sending. Thus the setting out a fleet or a naval cies of his family. Accordingly therefore," he expedition, was wont to be called aroorodos; 80 gave some apostles, and some prophets, and some Suidas tells us, that as the persons designed for the evangelists, and some pastors and teachers, for care and management of the fleet were called the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the apostolus, so the very sending forth of the ships ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ; themselves, αι των νεων εκπομπαι, were styled αποστολοι. till we all come into the unity of the faith, and of Lastly; what principally falls under our present the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect consideration, it is applied to persons ; and so imman, unto the measure of the stature of the ful- ports no more than a messenger, a person sent ness of Christ."'* The first and prime class of upon some special errand, for the discharge of officers is that of apostles: God had set some in some peculiar affair in his name that sent him. the church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, Thus Epaphroditus is called the apostle or mes&c. First apostles, as far in office as honor be- senger of the Philippians,* when sent by them to fore the rest, their election more immediate, their St. Paul at Rome. Thus Titus and his comcommission more large and comprehensive, the panions are styled arosodai " the messengers of the powers and privileges wherewith they were fur. churches." So our Lord; “He that is sent,” nished greater and more - honorable. Prophecy, atosodos, an apostle or messenger “is not greater the gift of miracles and expelling dæmons, the or than he that sent him.” This, then, being the der of pastors and teachers, were all spiritual common notion of the word, our Lord fixes it to a powers, and ensigns of great authority, dala TOUTWv particular use, applying it to those select persons Swartwv peccw ésiv dpxn ñ árosodian, says Chrysos- whom he had made choice of to act by that pecutom; “but the apostolic eminency is far greater liar authority and commission which he had dethan all these;" which therefore he calls a spirit- rived upon them. Twelve, whom he also named ual consulship: an apostle having as great pre- apostles ; that is, commissioners, those who were eminence above all other officers in the church, as to be ambassadors for Christ, to be sent up and the consul had above all other magistrates in down the world in his name, to plant the faith, to Rome. These apostles were a few select per- govern and superintend the church at present. sons whom our Lord chose out of the rest, to de- and, by their wise and prudent settlement of volve part of the government upon their shoulders, affairs, to provide for the future exigencies of the and to depute for the first planting and settling church. Christianity in the world : "he chose twelve, 3. The next thing then to be considered is the whom he named apostles ;"'+ of whose lives and nature of their office; and under this inquiry we acts being to give an historical account in the fol- shall make these following remarks. First, it is lowing work, it may not, possibly, be unuseful to not to be doubted but that our Lord in founding premise some general remarks concerning them, this office had some respect to the state of things not respecting this or that particular person, but in the Jewish church; I mean not only in general,

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• Phil. ii. 25; 2 Cor. viii. 23; John xiii. 16.

that there should be superior and subordinate of being sent out to water and refresh the dry, ficers, as there were superior and inferior orders thirsty world with the knowledge of the truth; by under the Mosaic dispensation; but that herein the twelve precious stones in Aaron's breast-plate, he had an eye to some usage and custom common to illuminate the church, the garment which among them.

Now, among the Jews, as all mes-Christ our great high-priest has put on; by the sengers were called apostles; so were they wont twelve stones which Joshua chose out of Jordan, to despatch some with peculiar letters of authority to lay up within the ark of the testament, respectand commission, whereby they acted as proxies and ing the firmness and solidity of the apostles' faith, deputies of those that sent them : thence their pro- their being chosen by the true Jesus or Joshua at verb " Every man's apostle is as himself;" that is, their baptism in Jordan, and their being admitted whatever he does is looked upon to be as firm and into the inner sanctuary of his covenant. By valid as if the person himself had done it. Thus, others we are told, that it was shadowed out by when Saul was sent by the Sanhedrim to Damas- the twelve spies taken out of every tribe, and cus to apprehend the Jewish converts, he was fur- sent to discover the land of promise ; or by the nished with letters from the high-priest, enabling twelve gates of the city in Ezekial's vision: or him to act as his commissary in that matter. In- by the twelve bells appendent to Aaron's gardeed Epiphanius tells us of a sort of persons called ment, "their sound going out into all the world, apostles, who were assessors and counsellors to and their words unto the ends of the earth.” the Jewish patriarch; constantly attending upon But it were endless, and to very

little

purpose, to him, to advise him in matters pertaining to the reckon up all the conjectures of this nature, there law; and sent by him (as he intimates) some-being scarce any one number of twelve mentiontimes to inspect and reform the manners of the ed in the Scripture, which is not by some of the priests and Jewish clergy, and the irregularities ancients adapted and applied to this of the twelve of country synagogues, with commission to gather apostles, wherein an ordinary fancy might easily the tenths and first-fruits due in all the provinces enough pick out a mystery. That which seems under his jurisdiction. Such apostles we find to put in the most rational plea is, that our Lord, mentioned both by Julian the emperor,* in an being now about to form a new spiritual commonepistle to the Jews, and in a law of the emperor wealth, a kind of mystical Israel, pitched upon this Honorious, employed by the patriarch to gather number in conformity either to the twelve patrionce a year the aurum coronarium, or crown archs, as founders of the twelve tribes of Israel, gold, a tribute annually paid by them to the Ro- or to the twelve qulapxai, or chief heads, as standman emperors. But these apostles could not, ing rulers of those tribes among the Jews; as we under that notion, be extant in our Saviour's time; shall afterwards possibly more particularly rethough sure we are there was then something mark.* Thirdly, these apostles were immediately like it. Philo the Jew, more than once mention-called and sent by Christ himself, elected out of ing the ιεροπομποι καθ' εκαςον ενιαυτον χρυσον κι αργυρον | the body of his disciples and followers, and reπλειςον κομιζοντες ιες το ιερον, τον αθροισθεντα εκ των | ceived their commission from his own mouth. απαρχων, “The sacred messengers annually sent to Indeed, Matthias was not one of the first election, collect the holy treasure paid by way of first-fruits, being taken in upon Judas's apostacy, after our and to carry it to the temple at Jerusalem." Lord's ascension into heaven. But besides that However, our Lord in conformity to the general he had been one of the seventy disciples, called custom of those times, of appointing apostles or and sent out by our Saviour, that extraordinary messengers, as their proxies and deputies to act declaration of the divine will and pleasure that in their names, called and denominated those appeared in determining his election, was in a apostles, whom he peculiarly chose to represent manner equivalent to the first election. As for his person, to communicate his mind and will to St. Paul, he was not one of the twelve, taken in the world, and to act as ambassadors or commis- as a supernumerary apostle ; but yet an apostle as sioners in his room and stead.

well as they, and that “not of men, neither by 4. Secondly, we observe that the persons thus man, but by Jesus Christ ;"+ as he pleads his own deputed by our Saviour were not left uncertain, cause against the insinuations of those impostors but reduced to a fixed definite number, confined who traduced him as an apostle only at the second to the just number of twelve; "he ordained hand; whereas he was immediately called by twelve that they should be with him.”+ A num- Christ as well as they, and in a more extraordiber that seems to carry something of mystery nary manner; they were called by him while he and peculiar design in it, as appears in that the was yet in his state of meanness and humiliation ; apostles were so careful upon the fall of Judas im- he, when Christ was now advanced upon the mediately to supply it. The fathers are very wide throne, and appeared to him encircled with those and different in their conjectures about the reason glorious emanations of brightness and majesty of it. St. Augustinef thinks our Lord herein had which he was not able to endure. I observe no respect to the four quarters of the world, which more concerning this, than that an immediate call were to be called by the preaching of the gospel, has ever been accounted so necessary to give which being multiplied by three (to denote the credit and reputation to their doctrine, that the Trinity, in whose name they were to be called) most notorious impostors have pretended to it. make twelve. Tertullian will have them typified Thus Manes the founder of the Manichæan sect, by the twelve fountains in Elim; the apostles was wont in his epistles to style himself the

apostle of Jesus Christ, as pretending himself to Epist. 25, p. 153. + Mark, iii. 15. be the person whom our Lo had promised to # Serm. ii. in Psalm 103, Col. 1192, tom. viii. vid. in Psalm 59 Col, 603.

* See St. Peter's Life, sec. 3, num. 2. Gal. i. l.

*

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send into the world, and that accordingly the all quarters of the world ; “their sound going out Holy Ghost was actually sent in him; and there- into all the earth, and their words unto the ends of fore he constituted twelve disciples always to at- the world.” It is true, for the more prudent and tend his person, in imitation of the number of the orderly management of things, they are generally apostolic college. And how often the Turkish said by the ancients to have divided the world into impostor does upon this account call himself the so many quarters and portions, to which they were apostle of God, every one that has but once seen severally to betake themselves ; Peter to Pontus, the Alcoran is able to tell.

Galatia, Cappadocia, &c.; St. John to Asia ; St. 5. Fourthly, the main work and employment of Andrew to Scythia, &c. But they did not strictly these apostles was to preach the gospel, to estab- tie themselves to those particular provinces that lish Christianity, and to govern the church that were assigned them, but, as occasion was, made was to be founded, as Christ's immediate deputies excursione into other parts; though for the main and vicegerents: they were to instruct men in the they had a more peculiar inspection over those doctrines of the gospel, to disciple the world, and parts that were allotted to them, usually residing to baptize and initiate men into the faith of Christ; at some principal city of the province; as St. John and to constitute and ordain guides and ministers at Ephesus, St. Philip at Hierapolis, &c.; whence of religion, persons peculiarly set apart for holy they might have a more convenient prospect of ministrations, to censure and punish obstinate and affairs round about them; and hence it was that contumacious offenders, to compose and overrule these places more peculiarly got the title of aposdisorders and divisions, to command or counter-tolical churches, because first planted, or eminently mand as occasion was, being vested with an ex- watered and cultivated by some apostles, matrices traordinary authority and power of disposing things et originales. fidei, as Tertullian calls them; “mofor the edification of the church. This office the ther churches and the originals of the faith;” beapostles never exercised in its full extent and lati- cause here the Christian doctrine was first sown, tude during Christ's residence upon earth; for and hence planted and propagated to the countries though upon their election he sent them forth to round about; “ Ecclesias apud unamquamque cipreach and to baptize, yet this was only a narrow vitatem condiderunt, à quibus traducem fidei et seand temporary employment, and they quickly re- mina doctrinæ, cateræ exinde ecclesiæ mutuata turned to their private stations ; the main power sunt,” as his own words are. being still executed and administered by Christ 6. In pursuance of this general commission, we himself, the complete exercise whereof was not ac- find the apostles, not long after our Lord's ascen. tually devolved upon them till he was ready to sion, traversing almost all parts of the then known leave the world : for then it was that he told them, world : St. Andrew in Scythia, and those northern “ As my Father hath sent me, even so send I you; countries ; St. Thomas and Bartholomew in Inreceive ye the Holy Ghost; whose soever sins ye dia ; St. Simon and St. Mark in Africa, Egypt, remit, they are remitted ; and whose soever sins ye and the parts of Libya and Mauritania ; St. Paul, retain, they are retained."* Whereby he conferred and probably Peter, and some others, in the farin some proportion the same authority upon them thest regions of the west; and all this done in the which he himself had derived from his Father. space of less than forty years; viz., before the deFifthly, this commission given to the apostles was struction of the Jewish state, by Titus and the unlimited and universal, not only in respect of Roman army. For so our Lord had expressly power, as enabling them to discharge all acts of foretold, that “the gospel of the kingdom 'should religion, relating either to ministry or government; be preached in all the world, for a witness unto but in respect of place, not confining them to this all nations, before the end came ;'** that is, the end or that particular province, but leaving them the of the Jewish state, which the apostles, a little bewhole world as their diocess to preach in, they before, had called “ the end of the world,” I curreleta ing destinati nationibus magistri, in Tertullian's rou alwvos, the shutting up or consummation of the phrase, designed to be the masters and instructors age, the putting a final period to that present of all nations : so runs their commission, “ Go ye state and dispensation that the Jews were under. into all the world, and preach the gospel to every And indeed strange it is to consider, that in so few creature ;”+ that is, to all men, the Taoa kilois of the years these evangelical messengers should overEvangelist answering to the X720 727 run all countries: with what an incredible swiftamongst the Jews, “ to all creatures ;" whereby ness did the Christian faith, like lightning, pierce they used to denote all men in general, but espe- from east to west, and diffuse itself over all quar. cially the Gentiles in opposition to the Jews. In- ters of the world, and that not only unassisted by deed, while our Saviour lived, the apostolical mi- any secular advantages, but in defiance the nistry extended no farther than Judea ; but he be- most fierce and potent opposition, which cvery ing gone to heaven, the partition wall was broken where set itself against it! It is true, the im-, down, and their way was open into all places and postors of Mahomet in a very little time gained a countries. And herein how admirably did the great part of the East; but besides that this was Christian economy transcend the Jewish dispensa- not comparable to the universal spreading of tion! The preaching of the prophets, like the Christianity, his doctrine was calculated on purlight that comes in at the window, was confined pose to gratify men's lusts, and especially to comonly to the house of Israel; while the doctrine of ply with the loose and wanton manners of the East; the gospel preached by the apostles, was like the and, which is above all, had the sword to hew out light of the sun in the firmament, that diffused its its way before it; and we know how ready, even beams and propagated its heat and influence into without force, in all changes and revolutions of the

John xx. 21. 22. 23.

Mark Kvi. 15.

* Matt. xxiv. 14.

# Ibid. ver. 3.

world, the conquered have been to follow the reli- dirt and dung ; and instead hereof to set up Chrisgion of the conquerors. Whereas the apostles had tian altars in all places, among the Romans, Perno visible advantages, nay, had all the enraged sians, Scythians, Moors, and Indians : and not powers of the world to contend against them. And there only, but in the countries beyond this world yet, in despite of all, went on in triumph, and of ours. For even the British islands that lie bequickly made their way into those places where yond the ocean, and those that are in it, have felt for so many ages no other conquest ever came : the power of the Christian faith; churches and " Those parts of Britain," as Tertullian observes, altars being erected there to the service of Christ. “ which were unconquerable and unapproachable A matter truly great and admirable, and which by the power of the Roman armies, submitting would clearly have demonstrated a divine and sutheir necks to the yoke of Christ.”. A mighty evi- pereminent power, although there had been no dence (as he there argues) of Christ's divinity, and opposition in the case, but that all things had run that he was the true Messiah. And, indeed, no on calmly and smoothly; to think that in so few reasonable account can be given of the strange and years the Christian faith should be able to reclaim successful progress of the Christian religion in the whole world from its vicious customs, and to those first ages of it, but that it was the birth of win them over to other manners, more laborious heaven, and had a divine and invisible power go- and difficult, repugnant both to their native incliing along with it to succeed and prosper it. St. nations and to the laws and principles of their eduChrysostom discourses this argument at large, cation, and such as obliged them to a more strict some of whose elegant reasonings I shall here and accurate course of life ; and these persons transcribe. He tells the Gentile (with whom he not one or two, not twenty or an hundred, but in was disputing) that he would not prove Christ's a manner all mankind; and this brought about by Deity by a demonstration from heaven, by his no other instruments than a few rude and uncreation of the world, his great and stupendous learned, private and unknown tradesmen, who miracles, his raising the dead, curing the blind, had neither estate nor reputation, learning nor eloexpelling devils, nor from the mighty promises of quence, kindred nor country, to recommend them a future state, and the resurrection of the dead, to the world; a few fishermen and tent-makers, (which an infidel might easily not only question and whom, distinguished by their language, as but deny,) but from what was sufficiently evident well as their religion, the rest of the world scorned and obvious to the meanest idiot,--his planting as barbarous. And yet these were the men by and propagating Christianity in the wor.d. For whom our Lord built up his church, and extended it is not, says he, in the power of a mere man, in it from one end of the world unto the other. so short a time to encircle the world, to compass Other considerations there are, with which the sea and land, and in matters of so great import- father does urge and illustrate this argument, ance, to rescue mankind from the slavery of ab- which

I forbear to insist on in this place. surd and unreasonable customs, and the powerful 7. Sixthly; the power and authority conveyed tyranny of evil habits; and these not Romans by this commission to the apostles was equally cononly, but Persians, and the most barbarous nations ferred upon all of them. They were all chosen at of the world. A reformation which he wrought, the same time, all equally empowered to preach not by force and the power of the sword, nor by and baptize, all equally intrusted with the power pouring into the world numerous legions and ar- of binding and loosing, all invested with the same mies; but by a few inconsiderable men, (no more mission, and equally furnished with the same gifts at first than eleven,) a company of obscure and and powers of the Holy Ghost. Indeed the advomean, simple and illiterate, poor and helpless, nak-cates of the church of Rome do, with a mighty ed and unarmed persons, who had scarce a shoe to zeal and fierceness, contend for St. Peter's being tread on, or a coat to cover them. And yet by head and prince of the apostles, advanced by Christ these he persuaded so great a part of mankind to to a supremacy and prerogative not only above, but be able freely to reason, not only of things of the over the rest of the apostles ; and not without present, but of a future state; to renounce the reason, the fortunes of that church being concerned jaws of their country, and throw off those ancient in the supremacy of St. Peter. No wonder, and inveterate customs which had taken root for therefore, they ransack all corners, press and force 80 many ages, and planted others in their room; in whatever may but seem to give countenance to and reduced men from those easy ways, whereinto it. Witness those thin and miserable shifts, which they were hurried, into the more rugged and diffi- Bellarmine calls arguments, to prove and make it cult paths of virtue. All which he did while he good : so utterly devoid of all rational conviction, had to contend with opposite powers, and when he so unable to justify themselves to sober and consi. himself had undergone the most ignominious dering men, that a man would think they had been death, even the death of the cross. Afterwards contrived for no other purpose than to cheat fools, he addresses himself to the Jew, and discourses and make wise men laugh. And the truth is, with him much after the same rate. Consider, nothing with me more shakes the reputation of says he, and bethink thyself

, what it is in so short the wisdom of that learned man, than his making a time to fill the whole world with so many famous use of such weak and trifling arguments in so imchurches, to convert so many nations to the faith, portant, and concerning an article, so vital and esto prevail with men to forsake the religion of their sential to the constitution of that church. As country, to root up their rites and customs, to when he argues Peter's superiority from the mere shake off the empire of lust and pleasure, and the changing of his name, (for what is this to suprelaws of vice, like dust ; to abolish and abominate macy? besides that it was not done to him alone, their temples and their altars, their idols and their the same being done to James and John,) from his sacrifices, their profane and impious festivals, as being first reckoned up in the catalogue of apostles,

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his walking with Christ upon the water, his paying | Peter often named first among the apostles ?tribute for his master and himself, his being com- elsewhere others; sometimes James, somemanded to let down the net, and Christ's teaching times Paul and Apollos are placed before him. in Peter's ship, (and this ship must denote the Did Christ honor him with some singular comchurch, and Peter's being owner of it, entitle him mendations ? An honorable eulogium conveys no to be supreme ruler and governor of the church; supereminent power and sovereignty. Was he so Bellarmine, in terms as plain as he could well dear to Christ ? We know another that was the express it,) from Christ's first washing Peter's feet,“ beloved disciple." So little warrant is there to (though the story recorded by the evangelist says exalt one above the rest, where Christ made all no such thing,) and his foretelling only his death : alike. If from Scripture we descend to the anall which, and many more prerogatives of St. Peter, cient writers of the church, we shall find that to the number of no less than twenty-eight, are though the fathers bestow very great and honorasummoned in to give evidence in this cause; and ble titles upon Peter, yet they give the same, or many of these too drawn out of apocryphal and what are equivalent, to others of the apostles. supposititious authors, and not only uncertain, but Hesychius styles St. James the great; “the brother absurd and fabulous; and yet upon such argu- of our Lord, the commander of the new Jerusalem, ments as these do they found his paramount au- the prince of priests, the exarch (or chief) of the thority. A plain evidence of a desperate and sink- apostles, tv nepadars kopupnu, the top (or crown) ing cause, when such twigs must be laid hold on amongst the heads, the great light amongst thé to support and keep it above water. Had they lamps, the most illustrious and resplendent amongst suffered Peter to be content with a primacy of the stars : it was Peter that preached, but it was order, (which his age and gravity seemed to chal- James that made the determination," &c. Of St. lenge for him,) no wise and peaceable man would Andrew he gives this encomium; that he was the have denied it, as being a thing ordinarily prac- sacerdotal trumpet, the first-born the apostolical tised armong equals, and necessary to the well | choir, πρωτοπαγης της εκκλησιας ευλος, the prime and governing of a society: but when nothing but a firm pillar of the church, Peter before Peter, the primacy of power will serve the turn, as if the rest foundation of the foundation, the first fruits of the of the apostles had been inferior to him, this may beginning." Peter and John are said to be cootepo by no means be granted, as being expressly cori- adindous, “ equally honorable." by St. Cyril, with trary to the positive determination of our Saviour, his whole synod of Alexandria.

« St. John," says when the apostles were contending about this very Chrysostom, "was Christ's beloved, the pillar of thing, “ Which of them should be accounted the all the churches in the world, who had the keys greatest ;*'* he thus quickly decides the case : of heaven; drank of the Lord's cup, was washed « The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over with his baptism, and with confidence lay in his them, and they that are great, exercise authority bosom." And of St. Paul he tells us, that “he upon them. But ye shall not be so: but whosoever was the most excellent of all men, the teacher of will be great among you, let him be your minister; the world, the bridegroom of Christ, the planter of and whosoever will be chief among you, let him be the church, the wise master-builder, greater than your servant.”+ Than which nothing could have the apostles ;” and much more to the same purbeen more peremptorily spoken, to rebuke this pose.' Elsewhere he says; that the care of the naughty spirit of pre-eminence. Nor do we ever whole world was conmitted to him; that nothing find St. Peter himself laying claim to any such pow- could be more noble or illustrious : yea, that (his er, or the apostles giving him the least shadow of miracles considered) he was more excellent than it. In the whole course of his affairs there are no kings themselves.” And a little after he calls him intimations of this matter : in his epistle he styles " the tongue of the earth, the light of the churches, himself but their fellow presbyter;" and express- Tov Senchcov TNS TLOTEWS, Tov sudov ki sdpalwua Tnor almosias. ly forbids the governors of the church to "Jord it the foundation of the faith, the pillar and ground over God's heritage.” When despatched by the of truth.” And in a discourse on purpose, wherein rest of the apostles upon a message to Samaria, he compares Peter and Paul together, he makes he never disputes their authority to do it: when them of equal esteem and virtue; τι Πετρου μειζον; ; accused by them for going in unto the Gentiles, te de llavlos 'coon; What greater than Peter? What does he stand upon his prerogative ? no, but sub- equal to Paul? a blessed pair ! Flotevoeloa odov rov missively apologizes for himself: nay, when smart- Koomov tas toxas, who had the souls of the whole ly reproved by St. Paul at Antioch, (when, if ever, world committed to their charge.”. But instances his credit lay at stake,) do we find him excepting of this nature were endless and infinite. If the against it as an affront to his supremacy, and a fathers at any time style Peter prince of the apossaucy controling his superior ? Surely quite the tles, they mean no more by it than the best and contrary : he quietly submitted to the reproof, as purest Latin writers mean by princeps; the first one that was sensible how justly he had deserved or chief person of the number, more considerable it. Nor can it be supposed but that St. Paul would than the rest, either for his age or zeal. Thus have carried it towards him with a greater reve. Eusebius tells us, “Peter was twv doc www arautuv rence, had any such peculiar sovereignty been ponyopos, the prolocutor of all the rest, aperns sveka then known to the world. How confidently does for the greatness and generosity of his mind :" St. Paul assert himself to be no whit “inferior to that is, in Chrysostom's language, he was the the chiefest apostles,” not to Peter himself ? "the mouth and chief of the apostles, o pavraxou Jeppos, gospel of the uncircumcision being committed to because eager and forward at every turn, and ready him, as that of the circumcision was to Peter.” Is to answer those questions which were put to

others.” In short, as he had no prerogative above Luke xxii. 24, 25, 26. + Matt. xx. 25, 26, 27. the rest, besides his being the chairman and pre

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