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by bad companions, making himself captain to a who held that the holy Jesus was a mere and a company of highwaymen, the most loose, cruel, mean man, begotten by Joseph of Mary his wise, and profligate wretches of the country. St. John, and that the observance of the Mosaic rites and at his return, understanding this, and sharply re- laws was necessary to salvation : and because proving the negligence and unfaithfulness of his they saw St. Paul stand so full in their way, they tutor, resolved to find him out ; and without any reproached him as an apostate from his religioni, consideration of what danger he entered upon, in and rejected his epistles, owning, none but St. venturing himself upon persons of desperate for- Matthew's gospel in Hebrew, having little or no tunes and forfeited consciences, he went to the value for the rest ; the sabbath and Jewish rites mountains where their usual haunt was; and they observed with the Jews; and on the Lord's being here taken by the sentinel, he desired to be day celebrated the memory of our Lord's resurrecbrought before their commander, who no sooner tion, according to the custom and practice of the espied him coming towards him but he immediately Christians. fled. The aged apostle followed after, but not 13. Besides these, there was another sort of able to overtake him, passionately entreated him heretics that infested the church in St. John's to stay, promising him to undertake with God for time, the Nicolaitans, mentioned by him in his his peace and pardon. He did so, and both melted Revelation, and “whose doctrine" our Lord is into tears; and the apostle having prayed with with a particular emphasis there said “to hate;"* and for him, returned him, a true penitent and indeed a most wretched and brutish sect, geneconvert, to the church. This story we have else- rally supposed to derive their original from Nicowhere related more at large out of Eusebius, as las, one of the seven deacons whom we read of in he does from Clemens Alexandrinus, since which the Acts, whereof Clemens of Alexandria gives that tract itself of Clemens is made public to the this probable account. This Nicolas having a world.
beautiful wife, and being reproved by the apostles 12. Nor was it the least instance of his care of for being jealous of her, to show how far he was the church, and charity to the souls of men, that from it, brought her forth, and gave any that would, he was so infinitely vigilant against heretics and leave to marry her, affirming this to be suitable seducers, countermining their artifices, antidoting to that saying, ott napaxonobar in capki del, “ that we against the poison of their errors, and shunning all ought to abuse the flesh.” This speech, he tells communion and conversation with their persons. us, was ascribed to St. Matthias, who taught, Going along with some of his friends at Ephesus that we must fight with the flesh and abuse it,' to the (whither he used frequently to resort, and not allowing it any ing for pleasure, increase and the ruins whereof, of porphyry, not far from the soul by faith and knowledge. These words the place where stood the famous temple of Diana, and actions of his, his disciples and followers mis. as a late eye-witness informs us, are still showed understanding, and perverting things to the worst at this day,) he inquired of the servant that waited sense imaginable, began to let loose the reins, and there, who was within ; the servant told him, henceforward to give themselves over to the greatCerinthus ; (Epiphanius says it was Ebion, and it est filthiness, the most shameless and impudent is not improbable that they might be both there ;) uncleanness, throwing down all enclosures, makwhich the apostle no sooner understood, but in ing the most promiscuous mixtures lawful, and great abhorrency he turned back : " Let us be pleasure the ultimate end and happiness of man. gone, my brethren, (said he,) and make haste Such were their principles, such their practices ; from this place; lest the bath wherein there is whereas Nicolas, their pretended patron and foundsuch a heretic as Cerinthus, the great enemy ofer
, was, says Clemens, a sober and a temperate the truth, fall upon our heads." This account man, never making use of any but his own wife, Irenæus delivers from Polycarp, St. John's own by whom he had one son, and several daughters, scholar and disciple. This Cerinthus was a man who all lived in perpetual virginity. of loose and pernicious principles, endeavoring to 14. The last instance that we shall remark of corrupt Christianity with many damnable errors. our apostle's care for the good of the church, is the To make himself more considerable, he struck in writings which he left to posterity ; whereof the with the Jewish converts, and made a bustle in first in time, though placed last, is his Apocalypse, that great controversy at Jerusalem about circum- or book of Revelations, written while confined in cision and the observation of the law of Moses.- Patmos. It was of old not only rejected by hereBut his usual haunt was Asia ; where, amongst tics, but controverted by many of the fathers themother things, he openly denied Christ's resurrec- selves. Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, has a
on, affirmed the world to have been made by very large discouse, concerning it; he tells us, angels, broaching unheard of dogmata, and pre- that many plainly disowned this book, not only for tending them to have been communicated to him the matter, but the author of it, as being neither by angels; venting revelations composed by him- apostle, no nor any holy or ecclesiastical person ; self, as a great apostle, affirming that after the that Cerinthus prefixed St. John's name to it, to resurrection the reign of Christ would commence give the more plausible title to his dream of Christ's here upon earth, and that men, living again at reign upon earth, and that sensual and carnal state Jerusalem, should, for the space of a thousand that should attend it; that for his part he durst years, enjoy all manner of sensual pleasures and not reject it, looking upon it as containing wise delights : hoping by this fools' paradise that he and admirable mysteries, though he could not fashould tempt men of loose and brutish minds over thom and comprehend them; that he did not to his party. Much of the same stamp was Ebion, measure them by his own line, nor condemn, but (though in some principles differing from him, as error agrees with itself as little as with truth,)
* Rev. ii. 15.
rather admire what he could not understand ; that ambassadors from several churches; in order he owned the author to have been a holy and di- whereunto he first caused them to proclaim a gevinely inspired person, but could not believe it to neral fast, to seek the blessing of heaven on so be St. John the apostle and evangelist, neither great and solemn an undertaking, which being style, matter, nor method agreeing with his other done, he set about it. And if we may believe the writings; that in this he frequently names him- report of Gregory, bishop of Tours, he tells us, self, which he never does in any other ; that there that upon a hill, near Ephesus, there was a prowere several Johns at that time, and two buried seucha, or uncovered oratory, whither our apostle at Ephesus, the apostle, and another, one of the used often to retire for prayer and contemplation, disciples that dwelt in Asia, but which was the and where he obtained of God, that it might not author of this book, he leaves uncertain. But rain in that place till he had finished his gospel. though doubted of by some, it was entertained by Nay, he adds, that even in his time, no shower or the far greater part of the ancients as the genuine storm ever came upon it. Two causes especially work of our St. John. Nor could the setting down contributed to the writing of it; the one, that he his name be any reasonable exception ; for what might obviate the early heresies of those times, ever he might do in his other writings, especially especially of Ebion, Cerinthus, and the rest of that his gospel, where it was less necessary, historical crew, who began openly to deny Christ's divinity, matters depending not so much upon his authority, and that he had any existence before his incarnayet it was otherwise in prophetic revelations, tion; the reason why our evangelist is so express where the person of the revealer adds great weight and copious in that subject. The other was, that and moment ; the reason why some of the pro- he might supply those passages of the evangelical phets under the Old Testament did so frequently history which the rest of the sacred writers had
set down their own names. The diversity of the omitted. Collecting, therefore, the other three el style is of no considerable value in this case, it evangelists, he first set to his seal, ratifying the
being no wonder, if in arguments so vastly differ- truth of them with his approbation and consent : ent, the same person did not always observe the and then added his own gospel to the rest, prinsame tenor and way of writing ; whereof there cipally insisting upon the acts of Christ from the want not instances in some others of the apostolic first commencing of his ministry to the death of order. The truth is, all circumstances concur to John the Baptist, wherein the others are most deentitle our apostle to be the author of it, his name fective, giving scarce any account of the first year frequently expressed, its being written in the island of our Saviour's ministry, which therefore he made of Patmos, (a circumstance not pertaining to any up in very large and particular narrations. He but St. John,) his styling himself “ their brother largely records (as Nazianzen observes) our Saand companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom viour's discourses : but takes little notice of his and patience of Jesus Christ,” his writing parti- miracles, probably because so fully and particularly cular epistles to the “ seven churches of Asia,” related by the rest. The subject of his writing is all planted or at least cultivated by him; the doc- very sublime and mysterious, mainly designing trine in it suitable to the apostolic spirit and tem- to prove Christ's divinity, eternal pre-existence, per, evidently bearing witness in this case. That creating of the world, &c. Upon which account which seems to have given ground to doubt con- Theodoret styles his gospel Scodoylux abarov av Iowa
cerning both its author and authority, was its be- TONS Kal avv nepBarov, a theology which human undersi ing a long time before it was universally joined standings can never fully penetrate and find out.
with other books of the holy canon ; for contain. Thence, generally by the ancients, he is reseming in it some passages directly levelled at Rome, bled to an eagle, soaring aloft within the clouds, the seat of the Roman empire, and others which whither the weak eye of man was unable to follow might be thought to symbolize with some Jewish him; hence, peculiarly honored with the title of dreams and figments, it might possibly seem fit to the Divine, as if due to none but him, at least to the prudence of those times for a while to suppress him in a more eminent and extraordinary manner. it. Nor is the conjecture of a learned man to be Nay, the very Gentile philosophers themselves despised, who thinks that it might be intrusted in could not but admire his writings : witness Amethe keeping of John the presbyter, scholar to our lius, the famous Platonist and regent of Porphyry's apostle ; whence probably the report might arise, school at Alexandria ; who, quoting a passage that he, who was only the keeper, was the author out of the beginning of St. John's gospel, swore of it. I add no more, than that upon the account by Jupiter, that this barbarian (so the proud of this Apocalypse, containing a prophetic scheme Greeks counted and called all that differed from of the future state of the Christian church, he is them,) “had hit upon the right notion, when he in a strict sense a prophet, and has thereby one affirmed, that the Word that made all things was considerable addition to his titles, being not only in the beginning, and in place of prime dignity an apostle and evangelist, but a prophet, an honor and authority with God; and was that God that peculiar to himself. Peter was an apostle, but created all things, in whom every thing that was properly no evangelist : Mark an evangelist, but made had, according to its nature, its life and no apostle : St. Matthew an apostle and evange- being; that he was incarnate, and clothed with a list, but no prophet: but St. John was both an body wherein he manifested the glory and magniapostle, an evangelist, and a prophet.
ficence of his nature ; that after his death he re15. His gospel succeeds, written (says some) turned to the repossession of divinity, and became in Patmos, and published at Ephesus ; but as Ire- the same God which he was before his assuming næus and others more truly, written by him after a body, and taking the human nature and flesh bis return to Ephesus; composed at the earnest upon him.” I have no more to observe, but that entreaty and solicitation of the Asian bishops and his gospel was afterwards translated into Hebrew,
and kept by the Jews ev afrokpupois, among their for being an Hebrew of the Hebrews, admirably secret archives and records in their treasury at skilled in the language of his country, it probably Tiberias; where a copy of it was found by one made him less exact in his Greek composures, Joseph a Jew, afterwards converted, and whom wherein he had very little advantage, besides Constantine the Great advanced to the honor of a what was immediately communicated from above. count of the empire, who breaking open the trea- But whatever was wanting in the politeness of sury, though he missed of money, found books his style, was abundantly made up in the zeal of beyond all treasure, St. Matthew and St. John's his temper, and the excellency and sublimity of gospels and the Acts of the Apostles in Hebrew; his matter; he truly answered his name, Boathe reading whereof greatly contributed towards nerges, for he spake and wrote like a “son of his conversion.
thunder.” Whence it is that his writings, but 16. Besides these, our apostle wrote three especially his gospel, have such great and honorepistles: the first whereof is catholic, calculated able things spoken of them by the ancients. “The for all times and places, containing most excellent evangelical writings” (says St. Basil) “ transcend rules for the conduct of the Christian life, press the other parts of the holy volumes; in other parts ing to holines and purity of manners, and not to God speaks to us by servants, the prophets; but rest in a naked and empty profession of religion; in the gospels our Lord himself speaks to us, not to be led away with the crafty insinuations of but among all the evangelical preachers, pone seducers; antidoting men against the poison of like St. John, the son of thunder, for the sublimethe Gnostic principles and practices, to whom it ness of his speech and the height of his discourses, is not to be doubted but that the apostle had a beyond any man's capacity duly to reach and commore particular respect in this epistle. Accord-prehend.” “St. John, as a true son of thunder," ing to his wonted modesty he conceals his name, (says Epiphanius,) " by a certain greatness of it being of more concernment with wise men, speech peculiar to himself
, does, as it were, out what it is that is said, than who it is that says it. of the clouds and the dark recesses of wisdom And this epistle Eusebius tells us was univer- acquaint us with divine doctrines concerning the sally received, and never questioned by any; an- Son of God.” To which let me add what St. ciently, as appears by St. Augustine, inscribed to Cyril of Alexandria, among other things, says the Parthians, though for what reason I am to learn, concerning him, “that whoever looks to the suunless (as we hinted before) it was, because he blimity of his incomprehensible notions, the acumen himself had heretofore preached in those parts of and sharpness of his reason, and the quick inferthe world. The other two epistles are but short, ences of his discourses constantly succeeding and and directed to particular persons; the one a lady following upon one another, must needs confess of honorable quality, the other the charitable and that his gospel perfectly exceeds all admiration." hospitable Gaius, so kind a friend, so courteous an entertainer of all indigent Christians. These epistles, indeed, were not of old admitted into the canon, nor are owned by the church in Syria at
ST. PHILIP. this day ; ascribed by many to the younger John, disciple to our apostle. But there is no just cause Of all parts of Palestine, Galilee seems to have to question who was their father, seeing both the passed under the greatest character of ignominy doctrine, phrase, and design of them do sufficiently and reproach. The country itself, because borchallenge our apostle for their author. These dering upon the idolatrous uncircumcised nations, are all the books wherein it pleased the Holy called Galilee of the Gentiles, the people geneSpirit to make use of St. John for its penman and rally beheld as more rude and boisterous, more secretary; in the composure whereof
, though his unpolished and barbarous than the rest, not restyle and character be not florid and elegant, yet markable either for civility or religion. “ The is it grave and simple, short and perspicuous. Galileans received him, having seen all the things Dionysius of Alexandria tells us, that in his gospel and first epistle his phrase is more neat and * The life and character of St. John can never elegant, there being an accuracy in the con- be contemplated without deep interest by the texture both of words and matter, that runs thoughtful, meditative Christian. No result of through all the reasonings of his discourses ; but historical inquiry can be more valuable than the that in the Apocalypse, the style is nothing so development and representation of such a character pure and clear, being frequently mixed with more
to the spiritual understanding. Placed, in common barbarous and improper phrases. Indeed his Greek with his associates, under circumstances the most
remarkable, tried like them by temptations and sufgenerally abounds with Syriasms; his discourses ferings the most affecting, he bore like them in many times abrupt, set off with frequent anti-meekness and patience the yoke and the burden theses, connected with copulatives, passages often which his Divine Master had allotted for his porrepeated, things at first more obscurely propound- tion. But he is distinguished from among the rest ed, and which he is forced to enlighten with sub- by the sublime demonstrations of spiritual power sequent explications, words peculiar to himself, acting on the mind. It was to him the Lord' comand phrases used in an uncommon sense.
Ali mitted the charge of revealing the mysteries of the which concur to render his way of writing less kingdom of heaven, where it stretches out and grateful, possibly, to the masters of eloquence, nothing can be more calculated to delight the mind
reaches unto the throne of the Father: and surely and an elaborate curiosity. St. Jerome observes, of a thinking man, than the examination of the cirthat in citing places out of the Old Testament, cumstances under which one so highly favored, and he more immediately translates from the Hebrew so wonderfully acted upon and occupied, passed original, studying to render things word for word:I through the world.-Ed.
that he did at Jerusalem at the feast, for they also, he frequently read over Moses's books, and conwent up unto the feast;' as if it had been a sidered the prophecies that related to our Saviour ; wonder and a matter of very strange remark, to and was, no question, awakened with the general see so much devotion in them, as to attend the expectations that were then on foot among the solemnity of the passover. Indeed both Jew Jews, (the date of the prophetic Scriptures conand Gentile conspired in this, that they thought cerning the time of Christ's coming being now they could not fix a greater title of reproach upon rum out,) that the Messiah would immediately apour Saviour and his followers, than that of Gali- pear. Add to this, that the divine grace did more lean. “Can any good thing come out of Naza- immediately accompany the command of Christ, reth ?"| a city in this province, said Nathanael, to incline and dispose him to believe that this perconcerning Christ. “ Search and look, (say the son was that very Messiah that was to come. Pharisees,) for out of Galilee ariseth no prophet;"I 3. No sooner had religion taken possession of as if nothing but briars and thorns could grow in his mind, but like an active principle it began to that soil. But there needs no more to confute ferment and diffuse itself. Away he goes, and this ill-natured opinion, than that our Lord not finds Nathanael, a person of note and eminency, only made choice of it as the seat of his ordinary acquaints him with the tidings of the new-found residence and retreat, but that hence he chose Messiah, and conducts him to him. So forward those excellent persons, whom he made his apos- is a good man to draw and direct others in the tles, the great instruments to convert the world. same way to happiness with himself. After his Some of these we have already given an account call to the apostleship much is not recorded of of, and more are yet behind.
him in the holy story. It was to him that our 2. Of this nuniber was St. Philip, born at Beth- Saviour propounded the question, what they should saida, a town near the sea of Tiberias, the city do for so much bread in the wilderness as would of Andrew and Peter. Of his parents and way feed so vast a multitude ;* to which he answered, of life the history of the gospel takes no notice'; that so much was not easily to be had; not conchough probably he was a fisherman, the trade sidering, that to feed two or twenty thousand are generally of that place. He had the honor of equally easy to Almighty power, when pleased to being first called to the discipleship, which thus exert itself. It was to him that the Gentile procame to pass. Our Lord, soon after his return selytes that came up to the passover addressed from the wilderness, having met with Andrew and themselves, when desirous to see our Saviour, a his brother Peter, after some short discourse person of whom they had heard so loud a fame.t parted from them:ll and the very next day, as he It was with him that our Lord had that discourse was passing through Galilee, he found Philip, concerning himself a little before the last paschal whom he presently commanded to follow him ; the supper. The holy and compassionate Jesus had constant form which he used in making choice of been fortifying their minds with fit considerations his disciples, and those that did inseparably attend against his departure from them; had told them, upon bim. So that the prerogative of being first that he was going to prepare room for them in the called, evidently belongs to Philip, he being the mansion of the blessed ; that he himself was first-fruits of our Lord's disciples. For though the way, the truth, and the life, and that no man Andrew and Peter were the first that came to, could come to the Father but by him,"I and that and conversed with Christ, yet did they immedi- knowing him “they both knew and had seen the ately return to their trade again, and were not Father.” Philip, not duly understanding the called to the discipleship till above a whole year force of our Saviour's reasonings, begged of him after, when John was cast into prison. Clemens that he would " show them the Father, and then Alexandrinus tells us, that it was Philip, to whom this would abundantly convince and satisfy them. our Lord said, (when he would have excused him- We can hardly suppose he should have such gross self at present, that he must go bury his father,) conceptions of the deity, as to imagine the Father “ Let the dead bury their dead, but follow thou vested with a corporeal and visible nature ; but me." But besides that he gives no account Christ having told them that they had seen him, whence he derived this intelligence, it is plainly and he knowing that God of old was wont freinconsistent with the time of our apostle's cali, quently to appear in a visible shape, he only dewho was called to be a disciple a long time before sired that he would manifest himself to them by that speech and passage of our Saviour. It may some such appearance. Our Lord gently reseem justly strange that Philip should at first sight proved his ignorance, that after so long attendso readily comply with our Lord's command, and ance upon his instructions, he should not know turn himself over into his service, having not yet that he was the image of his father, the express seen any miracle that might evince his Messiah- characters of his infinite wisdom, power, and goodship, and divine commission, nor probably so much ness appearing in him; that he said and did noas heard any tidings of his appearance'; and es- thing but by his Father's appointment, which it pecially being a Galilean, and so of a more rustic they did not believe, his miracles were a sufficient and unyielding temper. But it cannot be doubted , evidence ; that therefore such demands were unbut that he was admirably versed in the writings necessary and impertinent; and that it argued of Moses and the prophets. Metaphrastes as- great weakness, after more than three years' sures us (though how he came to know it other- education under his discipline and institution, to wise than by conjecture I cannot imagine) that be so unskilful in those matters. God expects imfrom his childhood he had excellent education, that provement according to men's opportunities; to
be old and ignorant in the school of Christ, deJohn iv. 45. + John i. 46. tJohn vii. 52. John i. 44.
* John vi.5. + John xii. 22. John xiv. S.
serves both reproach and punishment; it is the under them; which, when they apprehended and character of very bad persons, that "they are bewailed as an evident act of divine vengeance ever learning, but never come to the knowledge pursuing them for their sins, it as suddenly stopped, of the truth."'*
and went no further. The apostle being dead, 4. In the distribution of the several regions of his body was taken down by St. Bartholomew, the world made by the apostles, though no mention his fellow-sufferer, though not finally executed, be made by Origen or Eusebius what part fell to and Mariamne, St. Philip's sister, who is said to our apostle, yet we are told by others, that the have been the constant companion of his travels, Upper Asia was his province, (the reason doubt. and decently buried; after which having confirmless why he is said, by many, to have preached and ed the people in the faith of Christ, they departed planted Christianity in Scythia,) where he applied from them. himself, with an indefatigable diligence and indus 6. That St. Philip was married is generally af. try, to recover men out of the snare of the devil, firmed by the ancients ; Clemens of Alexandria to the embracing and acknowledging of the reckons him one of the married apostles, and that truth. By the constancy of his preaching and he had daughters whom he disposed in marriage: the efficacy of his miracles, he gained numerous Polycrates, bishop of Ephesus, tells us, that Philip, converts, whom he baptized into the Christian one of the twelve apostles, died at Hierapolis, with faith, at once curing both souls and bodies; their two of his daughters who persevered in their virgisouls of error and idolatry, their bodies of infirmi- nity, and that he had a third which died at Epheties and distempers; healing diseases, dispossess- sus. The truth is, the not careful distinguishing ing demons, settling churches, and appointing between Philip the deacon (who lived at Cæsarea, them guides and ministers of religion.
and of whose four virgin daughters we read in the Having for many years successfully managed history of the apostles' acts) and our apostle, has his apostolical office in all those parts, he came, bred some confusion among the ancients in this in the last periods of his life, to Hierapolis in matter; nay, has made some conclude them to Phrygia, a city rich and populous, but answering have been but one and the same person. But with its name in its idolatrous devotions. Amongst the how little reason, will appear to any one that shall many vain and trifling deities to whom they paid consider, that Philip, who was chosen to be one of religious adoration, was a serpent, or dragon, (in the seven deacons, could not be one of the apos. memory no doubt of that infamous act of Jupiter, tolical college, the apostles declaring upon that ocwho in the shape of a dragon insinuated himself casion, that they had affairs of a higher nature to into the embraces of Proserpina, his own daughter, attend upon : “then the twelve called the multitude begot of Ceres, and whom these Phrygians chiefly of the disciples unto them, and said, It is not reaworshipped, as Clemens Alexandrinus tells us; so son that we should leave the word of God, and little reason had Baronius to say thai they wor- serve tables; wherefore look ye out among you shipped no such God,) of a more prodigious big- seven men of honest report, &c., and they chose ness than the rest, which they worshipped with Stephen and Philip, &c. (among you) the body of great and solemn veneration. St. Philip was the people, not from among the apostles. So when, troubled to see the people so wretchedly enslaved upon the persecution that arose upon Stephen's to error, and therefore continually solicited heaven, death, the church was dispersed, " they were all till by prayer and calling upon the name of Christ, scattered abroad throughout the regions of Judæa he had procured the death, or at least vanishing and Samaria, (and Philip, the deacon, among the of this famed and beloved serpent: which done, rest, who went down to the city of Samaria,) exhe told them how unbecoming it was to give di-cept the apostles," who tarried behind at Jerusavine honors to such odious creatures; that God lem. And when Philip had converted and bapalone was to be worshipped, as the great parent tized considerable numbers in that place, he was of the world, who had made man at first after his forced to send for two of the apostles from Jeruown glorious image; and when fallen from that salem, that so by apostolic hands they might be innocent and happy state, had sent his own Son confirmed, and might "receive the Holy Ghost.” into the world to redeem him, who died and rose Which had been wholly needless had Philip himfrom the dead, and shall come again at the last self been of the twelve apostles. But it is needday, to raise men out of their graves, and to sen- less to argue in this matter, the accounts concern. tence and reward tbem according to their works. ing them being so widely different; for as they The success was, that the people were ashamed differed in their persons and offices, the one a of their fond idolatry, and many broke loose from deacon, the other an apostle, so also in the num. their chains of darkness, and ran over to Christi- ber of their children, four daughters being ascribed anity. Whereupon the great enemy of mankind to the one, while three only are attributed to the betook himself to his old methods, cruelty and other. He was one of the apostles who left no persecution. The magistrates of the city seize sacred writings behind him; the greater part of the apostle, and having put him into prison, caused the apostles (as Eusebius observes) having little him to be severely whipped and scourged. This leisure to write books, being employed in ministries preparatory cruelty passed, he was led to execu- more immediately useful and subservient to the tion, and being bound, was hanged up by the neck happiness of mankind : though Epiphanius tells against a pillar; though others tell us that he us, that the Gnostics were wont to produce a goswas crucified. We are further told, that at his pel forged under St. Philip's name, which they execution the earth began suddenly to quake, and abused to the patronage of their horrible prin the ground whereon the people stood, to sink ciples, and inore brutish practices.*
* 2 Tim. ini. .
* This memoir of St. Philip very remarkably