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ment is a book written in a language peculiar to very much mistake, and misunderstand his meanitself.
ing, and render the sense very perplexed. To these causes of obscurity, common to St. These are intrinsic difficulties arising from the Paul with most of the other penmen of the several text itself, whereof there might be a great many books of the New Testament, we may add those other named, as the uncertainty, sometimes, who that are peculiarly his, and owing to his style and are the persons he speaks to, or the opinions or temper. "He was, as it is visible, a man of quick practices which he has in his eye; sometimes in thought and warm temper, mighty well versed in alluding to them, sometimes in his exhortations the writings of the Old Testament, and full of the and reprooks
. But those above mentioned being doctrine of the New. All this put together, sug- the chief, it may suffice to have opened our eyes gested matter to him in abundance on those sub- a little upon them, which, well examined, may conjects which came in his way; so that one may tribute towards our discovery of the rest. consider him, when he was writing, as beset with To these we may subjoin two external causes a crowd of thoughts, all striving for utterance. that have made no small increase of the native In this posture of mind it was almost impossible and original difficulties that keep us from an easy for him to keep that slow pace, and observe mi- and assured discovery of St. Paul's sense, in many nutely that order and method of ranging all be parts of his epistles; and those are: said, from which results an easy and obvious per First, The dividing of them into chapters and spicuity. To this plenty and vehemence of his, verses, as we have done, whereby they are so may be imputed those many large parentheses, chopped and minced, and as they are now printed, which a careful reader may observe in his epistles. stand so broken and divided, that not only the Upon this account also it is, that he often breaks common people take the verses usually for distinct off in the middle of an argument, to let in some aphorisms, but even men of more advanced knownew thought suggested by his own words ; which ledge, in reading them. Jose very much of the having pursued and explained, as far as conduced strength and force of the coherence, and the light to his present purpose, he reassumes again the that depends on it. Our minds are so weak and thread of his discourse, and goes on with it, with narrow, that they have need of all the helps and out taking any notice that he returns again to assistances that can be procured, to lay before what he had been before saying, though some-them undisturbedly, the thread and coherence of times it be so far off
, that it may well have slipt any discourse ; by which alone they are truly imout of his mind, and requires a very attentive rea- proved and lead into the genuine sense of the auder to observe, and so bring the disjointed mem- thor. When the eye is constantly disturbed with bers together, as to make up the connection, and loose sentences, that by their standing and sepa. see how the scattered parts of the discourse hang ration appear as so many distinct fragments, the together in a coherent, well-agreeing sense, that mind will have much ado to take in, and carry on makes it all of a piece.
in its memory an uniform discourse of dependent Besides the disturbance in perusing St. Paul's reasonings ; 'especially having from the cradle epistles, from the plenty and vivacity of his thoughts, been used to wrong impressions concerning them, which may obscure his method, and often hide his and constantly accustomed to hear them quoted sense from an unwary, or over-hasty reader; the as distinct sentences, without any limitation or frequent changing of the personage he speaks in, explication of their precise meaning from the renders the sense very uncertain, and is apt to place they stand in, and the relation they bear to mislead one that has not some clue to guide him: what goes before, or follows. These divisions, -sometimes by the pronoun I, he means himself, also, have given occasion to the reading these sometimes any Christian; sometimes a Jew, and epistles by parcels and in scraps, which has fur. sometimes any man, &c. If speaking of himself ther confirmed the evil arising from such parti, in the first person singular has so various mean- tions. And I doubt not but every one will confess ings, his use of the first person plural is with a far it to be a very unlikely way to come to the undergreater latitude; sometimes designing himself standing of any other letters, to read them piecealone, sometimes those with himself, whom he mea), a bit to-day and another scrap to-morrow, makes partners to the epistle ; sometimes with and so on, by broken intervals ; especially if the himself comprehending the other apostles, or pause and cessation would be made as the chappreachers of the gospel, or Christians: nay, ters the apostle's epistles are divided into, ending sometimes he in that way speaks of the converted sometimes in the middle of a discourse, and Jews, other times of the converted Gentiles, and sometimes in the middle of a sentence. It cannot sometimes of others, in a more or less extended therefore but be wondered, that that should be sense, every one of which varies the meaning of permitted to be done to Holy Writ, which would the place, and makes it to be differently under- visibly disturb the sense, and hinder the understood. I have forborne to trouble the reader with standing of any other book whatsoever. If Tulexamples of them here. If his own observation ly's epistles were so printed, and so used, I ask hath not already furnished him with them, a little whether they would not be much harder to be attention will satisfy him in the point.
understood, less easy and less pleasant to be read In the current also of his discourse, he some by much, than now they are ? times drops in the objections of others, and his How plain soever this abuse is, and what prejuanswers to them, without any change in the dice soever it does to the understanding of the sascheme of his language, that might give notice of cred Scripture, yet if a Bible was printed as it any other speaking besides himself. This re- should be, and as the several parts of it were writquires great attention to observe; and yet if it ten, in continued discourses where the argument is be neglected or overlooked, will make the reader I continued, I doubt not but the several parties would 81
complain of it as an innovation, and a dangerous had a mind to see nothing in St. Paul's epistles change in the publishing those holy books. And but just what he meant: whereas those others of indeed those who are for maintaining their opinions a quicker and gayer sight could see in them what and the systems of parties by sound of words, with they pleased. Nothing is more acceptable to fancy a neglect of the true sense of Scripture, would have than pliant terms and expressions that are not obreason to make and foment the outcry. They stinate; in such it can find its account with dewould most of them be immediately disarmed of light, and with them be illuminated, orthodox, intheir great magazine of artillery wherewith they fallible at pleasure, and in its own way. But defend themselves, and fall upon others, if the holy where the sense of the author goes visibly in its Scriptures were but laid before the eyes of Chris- own train, and the words receiving a determined tians in its due connection and consistency: it sense from their companions and adjacents, will would not then be so easy to snatch out a few not consent to give countenance and color to what words, as if they were separate from the rest, to is agreed to be right, and must be supported at serve a purpose, to which they do not at all be- any rate, there men of established orthodoxy do long, and with which they have nothing to do. not so well find their satisfaction. And, perhaps, But as the matter now stands, he that has a mind if it were well examined, it would be no very ex, to it may, at a cheap rate, be a notable champion travagant paradox to say, that there are fewer that for the truth; that is, for the doctrines of the sect bring their opinions to the sacred Scripture to be that chance or interest has cast him into. He tried by that infallible rule, than bring the sacred need but be furnished with verses of sacred Scriptures to their opinions, to bend it to them, to Scripture, containing words and expressions that make it as they can a cover and guard of them. are but flexible, (as all general, obscure, and And to this purpose its being divided into verses, doubtful ones are,) and his system, that has appro- and brought as much as may be into loose and priated them to the orthodoxy of his church, makes general aphorisms, makes it most useful and serthem immediately strong and irrefragable argu- viceable. And in this lies the other great cause ments for his opinion. This is the benefit of loose of obscurity and perplexedness, which has been sentences, and Scripture crumbled into verses, cast upon St. Paul's epistles from without. which quickly turn into independent aphorisms. St. Paul's
epistles, as they stand translated in But if the quotation in the verse produced were our English Bibles, are now by long and constant considered as a part of a continued coherent dis- use, become a part of the English language, and course, and so its sense were limited by the tenor common phraseology, especially in matters of reof the context, most of these forward and warm ligion. This every one uses familiarly, and thinks disputants would be quite stripped of those, which he understands; but it must be observed, that if they doubt not now to call spiritual weapons; and he has a distinct meaning when he uses those they would have often nothing to say that would words and phrases, and knows himself what he innot show their weakness, and manifestly fly in their tends by them, it is always according to the sense faces. I crave leave to set down a saying of the of his own system, and the articles or interpretalearned and judicious Mr. Selden: "In interpret- tions of the society he is engaged in. So that all ing the Scripture,” says he, “ many do as if a man this knowledge and understanding which he has should see one have ten pounds, which he reckon- in the use of these passages of sacred Scripture, ed by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10; meaning four was reaches no further than this, that he knows (and but four units, and five five units, &c.; and that that is very well) what he himself says, but therehe had in all but ten pounds. The other that sees by knows nothing at all what St. Paul said in them. him, takes not the figures together, as he doth, but The apostle wrote not by that man's system, and picks here and there ; and thereupon reports that so his meaning cannot be known by it. This being he had five pounds in one bag, and six pounds in the ordinary way of understanding the epistles, another bag, and nine pounds in another bag, &c., and every sect being perfectly orthodox in its own when, as in truth, he has but ten pounds in all. So judgment, what a great and invincible darkness we pick out a text here and there, to make it serve must this cast upon St. Paul's meaning to all those our turn; whereas if we take it altogether, and of that way, in all those places where his thoughts consider what went before, and what followed after, and sense run counter to what any party has we should find it meant no such thing.” I have espoused for orthodox; as it must unavoidably to heard sober Christians very much admire why or all but one of the different systems, in all those dinary illiterate people, who were professors, that passages that any way relate to the points in conshowed a concern for religion, seemed much more troversy between them? conversant in St. Paul's epistles, than in the plain This is a mischief which, however frequent and er, and as it seemed to them, much more intelligible almost natural, reaches so far, that it would justly parts of the New Testament: they confessed, that make all those who depend upon them, wholly difthough they read St. Paul's epistles with their best fident of commentators, and let them see how little attention, yet they generally found them too hard help was to be expected from them, in relying on to be mastered; and they labored in vain so far to them for the true sense of the sacred Scripture, reach the apostle's meaning all along, in the train did they not take care to help to cozen themselves, of what he said, as to read them with that satis- by choosing to use and pin their faith on such exfaction that arises from a feeling that we under-positors as explain the sacred Scripture in favor of stand and fully comprehend the force and reason those opinions that they beforehand have voted ora ing of an author; and therefore they could not thodox, and bring to the sacred Scripture, not for imagine what those saw in them, whose eyes they trial, but confirmation. Nobody can think that thought not much better than their own. But the any text of St. Paul's epistles has two contrary case was plain : these sober, inquisitive readers I meanings; and yet so it must have to two differ
ent men, who taking two commentators of different the apostle's text; but this I will own, that till I sects for their respective guides into the sense of took this way, St. Paul's epistles to me, in the orany one of the epistles, shall build upon their re- dinary way of reading and studying them, were spective expositions. We need go no further for very obscure parts of Scripture, that left me almost a proof of it, than the notes of the two celebrated every where at a loss : and I was at a great uncommentators on the New Testament, Dr. Ham- certainty in which of the contrary senses, that mond and Beza, both men of parts and learning, were to be found in his commentators, he was to be and both thought, by their followers, men mighty taken. Whether what I have done has made it in the sacred Scriptures. So that here we see any clearer and more visible now, I must leave the hopes of great benefit and light from exposi- others to judge. This I beg leave to say for mytors and commentators is, in a great part, abated; self, that if some very sober judicious Christians, and those who have most need of their help can no strangers to the sacred Scriptures; nay, learnreceive but little from them, and can have very little ed divines of the church of England, had not assurance of reaching the apostle's sense by what professed that by the perusal of these following they find in them, whilst matters remain in the papers they understood the epistles better much same state they are in at present. For those who than they did before, and had not, with repeated find they need help, and would borrow light from instances, pressed me to publish them, I should not expositors, either consult only those who have the have consented they should have gone beyond my good luck to be thought sound and orthodox, own private use, for which they were at first deavoiding those of different sentiments from them- signed, and where they made me not repent my selves in the great and approved points of their pains. systems, as dangerous, and not fit to be meddled If any one be so far pleased with my endeawith ; or else with indifferency look into the notes vors, as to think it worth while to be informed of all commentators promiscuously. The first of what was the clue I guided myself by through all these take pains only to confirm themselves in the the dark passages of these epistles, I shall minutely opinions and tenets they have already, which, tell him the steps by which I was brought into this whether it be the way to get the true meaning of way, that he may judge whether I proceeded ra. what St. Paul delivered is easy to determine. The tionally, upon right grounds or no, if so be, any others, with much more fairness to themselves, thing in so mean an example as mine may be though with reaping little more advantage, (unless worth his notice. they have something else to guide them into the After I had found, by long experience, that the apostle's meaning than the comments themselves,) reading of the text and comments in the ordinary seek help on all hands, and refuse not to be taught way, proved not so successful as I wished to the by any one, who offers to enlighten them in any end proposed, I began to suspect that in reading of the dark passages. But here though they a chapter, as was usual, and thereupon sometimes avoid the mischief which the others fall into, of consulting expositors upon some hard places of it, being confined in their sense, and seeing nothing which at that time most affected me, as relating but that in St. Paul's writings, be it right or wrong, to points then under consideration in my own yet they run into as great on the other side, and mind, or in debate amongst others, was not a right instead of being confirmed in the meaning that method to get into the true sense of these epistles. they thought they saw in the text, are distracted I saw plainly, after I began once to refleet on it, with an hundred, suggested by those they advis- that if any one now should write me a letter, as ed with; and so, instead of that one sense of long at St. Paul's to the Romans, concerning such the Scripture, which they carried with them to a matter as that is, in a style as foreign, and extheir commentators, return from them with none pressions as dubious as his seem to be, if I should at all.
divide it into fifteen or sixteen chapters, and read This indeed seems to make the case desperate; of them one to-day, and another to-morrow, &c., it for, if the comments and expositions of pious and was ten to one I should never come to a full and learned men cannot be depended on, whither shall clear comprehension of it. The way to understand we go for help? To which I answer, I would not the mind of him that wrote it, every one would be mistaken, as if I thought the labors of the agree, was to read the whole letter through, from learned in this case wholly lost, and fruitless. one end to the other, all at once, to see what was There is great use and benet to be made of them, the main subject and tendency of it: or if it had when we have once got a rule to know which of several views and purposes in it, not dependent their expositions, in the great variety there is of one of another, nor in a subordination to one chief them, explains the words and phrases according to aim and end, to discover what those different matthe apostle's meaning. Till then it is evident, ters were, and where the author concluded one from what is above said, they serve for the most and began another : and if there were any nepart to no other use, but either to make us find our cessity of dividing the epistle into parts, to make own sense, and not his, in St. Paul's words, or else the boundaries of them. to find in them no settled sense at all.
In prosecution of this thought, I concluded it Here it will be asked, how shall we come by necessary, for the understanding of any one of St. this rule you mention? Where is that touchstone Paul's epistles, to read it all through at one sitting, to be had, that will show us whether the meaning and to observe, as well as I could, the drift and we ourselves put, or take as put by others upon design of his writing it. If the first reading gave St Paul's words in his epistles, be truly his mean- me some light, the second gave me more; and so ing or no? I will not say the way which I pro- I persisted on reading, constantly, the whole epis, pose, and have in the following paraphrase follow- tle over at once, till I came to have a good general ed, vill make us infallible in our interpetations of view of the apostle's main purpose in writing the
epistle, the chief branches of his discourse wherein. How then came it that the like was thought much he prosecuted it, the arguments he used, and the wanting in his epistles ? and of this there appeardisposition of the whole.
ed to me this plain reason : the particularities of This, I confess, is not to be obtained by one or the history in which these speeches are inserted, two hasty readings; it must be repeated again show St. Paul's end in speaking; which being and again, with a close attention to the tenor of seen, casts a light on the whole, and shows the the discourse, and a perfect neglect of the divi- pertinency of all that he says. But his epistles not sions into chapters and verses. On the contrary, being so circumstantiated, there being no concurthe safest way is to suppose that the epistle has ring history that plainly declares the disposition but one business, and one aim; till, by a frequent St. Paul was in, what the actions, expectations, or perusal of it, you are forced to see there are distinct demands of those to whom he wrote required him independent matters in it, which will forwardly to speak to, we are nowhere told. All this, and a enough show themselves.
great deal more, necessary to guide us into the It requires so much more pains, judgment, and true meaning of the epistles, is to be had only from application to find the coherence of obscure and the epistles themselves, and to be gathered from abstruse writings, and makes them so much the thence with stubborn attention, and more than more unfit to serve prejudice and pre-occupation common application. when found, that it is not to be wondered that St. This being the only safe guide (under the Spirit Paul's epistles have, with many, passed rather for of God, that dictated these sacred writings, that disjointed, loose, pious discourses, full of warmth can be relied on, I hope I may be excused, if Í venand zeal and overflows of light, rather than for ture to say, that the utmost ought to be done to calm, strong, coherent reasonings, that carried a observe and trace out St. Paul's reasonings; to thread of argument and consistency all through follow the thread of his discourse in each of his them.
epistles; to show how it goes on still directed with But this muttering of lazy or ill-disposed read- the same view, and pertinently drawing the several ers, hindered ine not from persisting in the course incidents towards the same point. To understand I had begun : 1 continued to read the same epistle him right, his inferences should be strictly observover and over, and over again, till I came to dis- ed, and it should be carefully examined from what cover, as appeared to me, what was the drift they are drawn, and what they tend to. He is and aim of it; and by what steps and arguments certainly a coherent, argumentative, pertinent St. Paul prosecuted his purpose. I remembered writer; and care, I think, should be taken, in exthat St. Paul was miraculously called to the minis- pounding of him, to show that he is so. But though try of the gospel, and declared to be a chosen I say he bas'weighty aims in his epistles, which vessel ; that he had the whole doctrine of the gos- he steadily keeps in his eye, and drives at it in all pel from God by immediate revelation, and was that he says; yet I do not say that he puts his appointed to be the apostle of the Gentiles, for the discourses into an artificial method, or leads his propagating of it in the heathen world. This was reader into a distinction of his arguments, or gives enough to persuade me that he was not a man of them notice of new matter by rhetorical or studied loose and shattered parts, incapable to argue, and transitions. He has no ornaments borrowed from unfit to convince those he had to deal with. God the Greek eloquence; no notions of their philosoknows how to choose fit instruments for the busi- phy mixed with his doctrine to set it off. The ness he employs them in. A large stock of Jew- enticing words of man's wisdom,' whereby he ish learning he had taken in at the feet of Ga means all the studied rules of the Grecian schools, maliel; and for his information in Christian know- which made them such masters in the art of speakledge, and the mysteries and depths of the dis- ing, he, as he says himself, 1 Cor. 2. iv., wholly pensation of grace by Jesus Christ, God himself neglected. The reason whereof he gives in the had condescended to be his instructor and teacher. next verse, and in other places; but the politeness The light of the gospel he had received from the of language, delicacy of style, fineness of expresFountain and Father of Light himself
, who, I con- sion, la bored periods, artificial transitions, and a very cluded, had not furnished him, in this extraordinary methodical ranging of the parts with such other manner, if all this plentiful stock of learning and embellishments as make a discourse enter the illumination had been in danger to have been lost, inind smoothly, and strike the fancy at first hear. or proved useless, in a jumbled and confused head; ing, have little or no place in his style; yet conor have laid up such a store of admirable and herence of discourse, and a direct tendency of all useful knowledge in a man who, for want of method the parts of it to the argument in hand, are most and order, clearness of conception, or pertinency eminently to be found in him. This I take to be in discourse, could not draw it out into use with his character, and doubt not but he will be found the greatest advantages of force and coherence to be so upon diligent examination. And in this, That he knew how to prosecute his purpose with if it be so, we have a clue, if we will take the pains strength of argument and close reasoning, without to find it, that will conduct us with surety through incoherent sallies, or the intermixing of things those seemingly dark places and imagined intriforeign to his business, was evident to me from cacies, in which Christians have wandered so far several speeches of his recorded in the Acts : and one from another as to find quite contrary senses. it was hard to think that a man who could talk Whether a superficial reading, accompanied with so much consistency and clearness of convic- with the common opinion of his invincible obscurition, should not be able to write without confusion, ty, has kept off some from seeking in him the coinextricable obscurity, and perpetual rambling. herence of a discourse, tending, with close, strong The force, order, and perspicuity of those dis- reasoning, to a point; or a seemingly more honor. courses could not be denied to be very visible. I able opinion of one that had been rapt up into the
third heaven, as if from a man so warmed and illu- view. When he gave his thoughts utterance upon minated as he had been, nothing could be expect any point, the matter flowed like a torrent, but it ed but flashes of light, and raptures of zeal, hin- is plain, it was a matter he was perfectly master dered others to look for a train of reasoning, pro- of: he fully possessed the entire revelation he had ceeding on regular and cogent argumentation, received from God, had thoroughly digested it, all from a man raised above the ordinary pitch of hu- the parts were formed together in his mind into manity to a higher and brighter way of illumina- one well-contracted harmonious body: so that he tion; or else whether others were loath to beat was no way at an uncertainty, nor ever in the their heads about the tenor and coherence in St. least at a loss concerning any branch of it. One Paul's discourses, which, if found out, possibly may see his thoughts were all of a piece in all his might set him at a manifest and irreconcilable dif- epistles ; his notions were at all times uniform, and ference with their systems; it is certain that whal- constantly the same, though his expressions very ever hath been the cause, this way of getting the various. In them he seems to take great liberty. true sense of St. Paul's epistles seems not to have This at least is certain, that no one seems less tied been much made use of, or at least so thoroughly up to a form of words. If then, having by the pursued as I am apt to think it deserves.
method before proposed got into the sense of the For, granting that he was full-stored with the several epistles, we will but compare what he says knowledge of the things he treated of, for he had in the places where he treats of the same subject, light from heaven, it was God himself furnished we can hardly be mistaken in his sense, nor doubt him, and he could not want: allowing also that he what it was that he believed and taught concernhad ability to make use of the knowledge given ing those points of the Christian religion. I know him, for the end for which it was given him, viz., it is not unusual to find a multitude of texts heaped the information, conviction, and conversion of up for the maintaining of an espoused proposition, others; and accordingly that he knew how to di- but in a sense often so remote from their true rect his discourse to the point in hand, we cannot meaning, that one can hardly avoid thinking that widely mistake the parts his discourse employed those who so used them either sought not or about it, when we have any where found out the valued not the sense; and were satisfied with the point he drives at: wherever we have got a view sound, where they could but get that to favor of his design, and the aim he proposed to himself them. But a verbal concordance leads not always in writing, we may be sure that such or such an to texts of the same meaning: trusting too much interpretation does not give us his genuine sense, it thereto, will furnish us but with slight proofs in being nothing at all to his present purpose. Nay, many cases; and any one may observe how apt among various meanings given a text, it fails not that is to jumble together passages of Scripture to direct us to the best, and very often to assure not relating to the same matter, and thereby to us of the true. For it is no presumption, when disturb and unsettle the true meaning of Holy one sees a man arguing for this or that proposition, Scripture. I have therefore said that we should if he be a sober man, master of reason or common compare together places of Scripture treating of sense, and takes any care of what he says, to pro- the same point. Thus, indeed, one part of the nounce with confidence, in several cases, that he sacred text could not fail to give light unto ancould not talk thus or thus.
other. And since the providence of God hath so I do not yet so magnify this method of studying ordered it, that St. Paul has written a great numSt. Paul's epistles, as well as other parts of sacred ber of epistles, which though upon different occaScripture, as to think it will perfectly clear every sions, and to several purposes, yet are all confined hard place, and leave no doubt unresolved. I know within the business of his apostleship, and so conexpressions now out of use, opinions of those times tain nothing but points of Christian instruction, not heard of in our days, allusions to customs lost amongst which he seldom fails to drop in, and to us, and various circumstances and particulari- often to enlarge on the great and distinguishing ties of the parties, which we cannot come at, &c., doctrines of our holy religion ; which, if quitting must needs continue several passages in the dark, our own infallability in that analogy of faith which now to us at this distance, which shone with full we have made to ourselves, or have implicitly light to those they were directed to. But for all adopted from some other, we would carefully lay that, the studying of St. Paul's epistles in the way together, and diligently compare and study, I am I have proposed, will, I humbly conceive, carry us apt to think would give us St. Paul's system in a a great length in the right understanding of them, clear and indisputable sense; which every one and make us rejoice in the light we receive from must acknowledge to be a better standard to interthose most useful parts of divine revelation, by fur- pret his meaning by, in any obscure and doubtful nishing us with visible grounds that we are not parts of his epistles, if any such should still remistaken, whilst the consistency of the discourse main, than the system, confession, or articles of and the pertinency of it to the design he is upon, any church or society of Christians yet known, vouches it worthy of our great apostle. At least which, however pretended to be founded on ScripI hope it may be my excuse for having endeavor- ture, are visibly the contrivances of men, (fallible ed to make St. Paul an interpreter to me of his both in their opinions and interpretations,) and, as own epistles.
is visible in most of them, made with partial views, To this may be added another help, which St. and adapted to what the occasions of that time, Paul himself affords us, towards the attaining the and the present circumstances they were then in, true meaning contained in his epistles. He that were thought to require, for the support or justifireads him with the attention I propose, will easily cation of themselves. Their philosophy also has observe, that as he was full of the doctrine of the its part in misleading men from the true sense of gospel, so it lay all clear and in order open to his the sacred Scripture. He that shall attentively