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itself, and let the heretics blaspheme holy persons ing this our paternal and synodical exhortation
parts of them, indeed, are most admirable ; espe. In a preceding extract from the creed of this cially his touching discourse on the passion of council, we have noticed the manner in which Christ : but the following passage will sufficientthat assembly concluded their session, with loud ly prove to what lengths men will go, when once anathemas of all their opposers : the sense of this bewitched with the sorcery of idolatrous pascurse is, however, in the following document of the sions : Patriarch of Constantinople, expanded into detail “ Is it not true, Christians! that we sin daily, truly terrific-a most surprising contrast to the hourly, every moment ? Let the conscience of temper with which an apostle used the painful each one bear witness. Wo to us! by how many authority of excommunication. (See 1 Cor. v. kinds of sin is our life polluted! It seems to be 145. and 2 Cor. ii. 4-11.)
little better than one continuous, uninterrupted The Patriarch, having enlarged on the duty and chain of heavy transgressions. How much imbenefit of pilgrimages, concludes with the follow- purity in our thoughts, what foulness of speech ing denunciation :
upon our tongue, how many iniquities in our con« But what Christians soever, whether priests, duct, does the son of God see !-sees, yet foror laymen, or spiritual fathers devoted to the sin- bears, because He is long suffering. But when gle and monastic life, being stirred up by irrever- we, with vile ingratitude, unrepenting, uncorrectence and want of faith or covetousness and love ed, and resolved upon evil courses, provoke to the of filthy lucre, or subverted by the devil who en- uttermost the divine anger, and kindle His righte. vies good and profitable works, shall, by vain, fri- ous vengeance, He then endures no longer, but volous, and cold speeches, or by any other method armed with the sword, and the bow of His treof satanic deceit, hinder or turn aside Christians mendous and intolerable wrath, like a terrible from going to the worship of the holy sepulchre, warrior, He attacks us, and threatens our utter and giving to it alms and oblations, and shall thus ruin, death, and eternal punishment.-From this become the cause of their sin and spiritual hurt, fury and anger of the Son of God, whither shall and shall occasion to the holy sepulchre the priva- we, miserable sinners, flee? We have no other tion of the alms of Christian worshippers—such, hope than in repenting, and falling at the feet of if they cease not henceforth from this their sata- our merciful God; and, to this end, availing ournic and destructive irreverence, unbelief, and selves of the mediation of the priests, here in the error, let them be separated from the Lord God church below, and of the saints exalted to ParaAlmighty, and cursed, and without forgiveness ; dise. And consider, moreover, how all the monks, and, after death, not loosed : stones and iron shall and priests, and bishops, and patriarchs, unite in be loosed, but they never. Let them inherit the offering up supplications and prayers: chiefly. leprosy of Gehazi and the halter of Judas! Let | how all the saints of Paradise, the whole choir of them be groaning and trembling upon the earth, prophets and apostles, all the multitude of marlike Cain? Let the earth open and swallow them iyrs, and hermits, and virgins, all the ranks of the up, like Dathan and Abiram! Let their portion blessed angels, falling before the throne of the be with the traitor Judas, and the impious Jews divine majesty, implore pity and pardon for us! who crucified the Lord of life and glory! Let More than all these united intercessions of the the wrath of God be upon their heads, their works, church below and that above, avails one single and their possessions ! Let their labor and sweat word of the mother of God! Ah! when that be for utter vanity and destruction; and let them fearful Judge turns and sees the imploring counnever see prosperity in all the toil of their lives ! tenance of his mother, that most holy, most sweet Let them receive the curses of the three hundred mother, immediately he becomes gentle, and and eighteen holy and divine fathers in the coun- meek, and pacified-immediately he parts with the cil of Nice, and those of the other holy synods; sword and bow of divine wrath-immediately het and let them be under the judgment of eternal vouchsafes us reconciliation and love immediatefire, and victims of never-ending torments! But ly he bestows on us the desired pardon! .... do ye all do according as we write ; dutifully obey. “ He, who does not honor and revere his own
mother, is not worthy to be called a man! He, as the fictions of men. Neither is spirituality the who does not honor and revere the mother of God, natural bias of the heart : and hence our proneis not worthy to be called a Christian! Who can ness, in every age, to materialize religion ; to upboast himself a faithful servant of Jesus, if he be hold the form of godliness, while denying or manot a faithful servant of Mary? or how shall he nifesting indifference to, the power thereof. reverence the Son, who does not reverence the It is by many supposed that idolatry is the relimother? Ah! into whatever other irreverence it gion of the weak and ignorant alone but this is may be my misfortune to fall, may I never lose my false. It is a principle as clearly established by reverence for the Virgin Mary! In whatever history as any other, that idolatry has power to disaster, bodily or spiritual, I may be found, to her infatuate the wisest. Where it does not overwill I flee, sure of obtaining cure for my sick- power their judgment, yet it befools, it captivates nesses, consolation in my sorrows, and pardon for the passions, stiffes conscience, and completely my sins! Even in the depths of hell
, I hope for takes possession of the heart. What is then left salvation from the queen of heaven! I fear not for God? to be lost when taking refuge in her arms! Then It is not, therefore, for Englishmen, those espeonly, when I lose my reverence for the Virgin, cially whose children may visit these countries, to am I a lost soul.” Miniati's Greek Sermons, edit. contemplate without anxiety the connection of Venice, A. D. 1805, p. 397, et seq.
forming between England and the Mediterranean. A feeling of duty to three classes of persons Our children may live to see the day, if we do has led the author to regard the notice of this not, when idolatry and pure religion shall come to subject as peculiarly opportune and necessary. the height of their conflict, antecedent to the tri.
1. The first class is HIS COUNTRYMEN. umph of the gospel, in these vast regions. Where
Great Britain has entered the Mediterranean the British name will appear in that-as yet un---not merely as in former times, with her fleets written-page of universal history, is a question and armies for a season ; but—with her perma- mainly depending on the character of the present nent civil power, governing and protecting Malta generation. and the Ionian Islands. This circumstance brings 2. But there is a duty owing—and a very imEnglishmen into nearer contact with those cor- portant duty it is to the PEOPLE WHO ARE LYING ruptions of Christianity, which three centuries UNDER THE DELUSION OF THESE PSEUDO-CHRISTIAN ago, prevailed in England; but which, in various IDOLATERS. churches of the Mediterranean and of the Levant, To pray for them, to reason with them, to abremain to this day precisely as described in the stain from participating in their sins, and to set homily of our church against idolatry.
them the higher example of pure worship and a The first impression made on most of his coun. consistent life-this, on our part, is that line of trymen by the sight of these papal and oriental duty, to which the Romish, the Greek, and the pageants, the author can testify, has been that of other oriental churches, were they sensible of their unqualified astonishment and disapprobation. corruption, would prefer a most touching claim. They had not conceived it possible for professing Insensible as they are of the guilt of their idolaChristians to carry their imitation of paganism so tries and desperately enamored of them, is their far. By use however this feeling wears off : ex- title to our compassion and our exertions thereby pressions of compassion succeed to those of ab- diminished? Rather, it is augmented ten-fold. horrence; till, ai length, even persons otherwise But on whom does this reasonable duty devolve ? respectable and decorous have been induced to Does it belong to the governments, or to the assist and participate in rites and ceremonies, churches, the residents, the visiters, or the misa most detrimental to the purity of the gospel. Thus sionaries, who may come in contact with these it is that
superstitions ? The question rather is, which of
all these is exempt! Surely none of them. The We first endure-then pity-then embrace! grand consideration, never to be lost sight of, is
the real sinfulness of these anti-christian super“ But are Englishmen in danger of becoming stitions! To rebuke them as most pernicious abidolaters?”_We reply: they are near the temp- surdities, to prove their inexpediency, or to riditation ; and, if they are not restrained by a reli- cule their folly, will have little weight. They are gious principle, no power on earth can rescue sins; and, as such, offensive to him, who has dethem. Strong sense, good education, and na- clared himself a jealous God. For the proof of tional chai eter, are no securities whatever to the this, the reader need only be referred to the sevirtue of those who shall venture upon forbidden cond commandment; or to the parting counsel of ground.
the last of the apostles—Keep yourselves from There is, in truth, a leaning in man's nature to idols. And if it should be rejoined, how is it posidolatry: there is a passion for all its follies—its sible that so large a portion of the professing Chrisfestiveness, its music, odors, and splendors, fas- tian church should have fallen into so gross a concinating each sense—a fond pleasure, too, in the tradiction of Scripture ?—the reply is obvious, that thought of having many deities, or at least hea- the mass of Christendom has been for ages devenly patrons, guardian angels, and tutelar saints, barred the use of the Scriptures. whom, as it was our own fancy which elected 3. The remaining class, on whose behalf these them to that office, our imagination represents as remarks are made, comprises a great multitude of being compliant to our humor, and tenderly indul- persons, for whom not Britain only, but many gent to our frailties. The great doctrines re- other nations, have latterly demonstrated a truly velation-the gracious offices of Father, Son, and Christian regard. I mean the unenlightened Holy Spirit-are not so congenial to our naturel Jews and MOHAMMEDANS.
For the purpose of making the gospel known which to believe is necessary to their entering the to the Jews, there already exist various societies: gate of the Christian dispensation. with regard to the Mohammedans, general mis 1. THE MESSIAH PROPHESIED OF IN THE OLD sionaries have been considered
although, per- TESTAMENT, WAS TO BE A DIVINE, YET SUFFERING haps, not with a sufficiently pointed designation-- PERSON. This is the well-established opinion of as intended for them. The approach to both Christians : on the contrary, the Jews, in their apthese will be, in great measure, by the Mediter- prehensions of the Messiah, neither rise so high ranean: but here it is that we find Christianity as to believe him divine, nor descend so low as to mainly corrupted. “And truth it is”-as the ve- expect that he should suffer. They look for a nerable founders of our church have powerfully king, earthly, yet glorious, perfectly holy yet huand almost prophetically remarked (Homily man; who is to reign triumphantly over the whole against peril of idolatry, part 3,) in a spirit of en- earth. It is not merely that they do not apprelarged charity and judgment, worthy of the best hend in what manner glory and suffering may be missionary age”-truth it is, that the Jews and compatible; but they have not learnt, from their Turks, who abhor images and idols, as directly own Scriptures, that the character of the Messiah forbidden by God's holy word, will never come to foretold by the prophets, is the character of a man the truth of our religion, whilst the stumbling of sorrows, and acquainted with grief, despised, reblocks of images remain among us, and lie in their jected, and put to death. Ought not Christ to way." By no other means, in fact, can a Pro- have suffered these things, and to enter into his glotestant expect to obtain a hearing with a Jew or ry?—is an argument, which they would meet with Mohammedan, than by the distinct avowal, that a direct negative: they see not that his humiliathese idolatrous corruptions are not only no part of tion was to lead to his exaltation : the veil is upon Christianity, but utterly contrary to it.
their hearts while they read Moses, and David, The controversy relative to the worship of and Isaiah, and Daniel, and the other prophets images and saints is one peculiarly tending to agi- who distinctly foretell the lowly state of the Mes. tate the most violent passions of mankind: it has siah. Hence, when we preach Christ crucified, therefore been the desire of the author, while not he is to the Jews a stumbling block. But may concealing truth, yet to speak with that temper ministers of the gospel endeavor to remove that which reason and charity demand. It is his ear- stumbling block, by exhibiting exclusively, or even nest prayer to God, that, as this is a point which primarily, an animating view of Christ reigning will probably never be suffered to rest, till the pu- gloriously upon earth, as he will do, when a voice rity of Christ's kingdom shall have been establish- from heaven shall declare, The kingdoms of this ed in the earth, so all the friends of that kingdom world are become the kingdom of our Lord, and of may have grace given them to confront and ex- His Christ? The attempt would be as fallacious, pose the delusions of the powers of darkness with as it would be unscriptural. The offence of the courage, and, at the same time, with meekness of cross must not, because it is offensive, be therewisdom.
fore disguised. The Gentile is to be humbled : the Jew is to be humbled : both must learn to glory in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ. The true doctrine of the cross is, therefore, to be made
the most prominent of all: till that is received, noTHE JEWS.
thing is savingly received; nor can it be admitted,
till erery high imagination be cast down. A missionary to the Jews has substantially the 2. That Jesus of Nazareth is, in fact, the only same work to do, as a missionary to any other Messiah ; that being already come, he has wrought body of men; namely, to preach to them the great out man's redemption; and consequently, that doctrine, that God was in Christ, reconciling the THE JEWS HAVE BEEN SUFFERING NOW THESE world unto himself. The sole difference between EIGHTEEN HUNDRED YEARS A SPECIAL PUNISHthe case of the Jews and that of any other body MENT ON ACCOUNT OF THEIR REJECTION AND MURof men, (a heathen nation for example,) is that DER OF THIS MESSENGER OF THE EVERLASTING COwe find the Jews in a different stage of opinion. VENANT OF PEACE—these are topics which must The main point to be aimed at, in preaching to come home, with the greatest poignancy, to the the one and to the other, is precisely the same : conscience of a Jew, in order to his real converit is to bring them to receive Christ as the power sion. “They shall look upon him whom they have of God, and the wisdom of God.
pierced, and they shall mourn for Him as one The very state of opinion among the Jews, cre- mourneth for his only son; and shall be in bitterates however a peculiar additional necessity for ness for Him as one that is in bitterness for his placing this doctrine and this object in the very first-born.” No less than the tenderest imaginaclearest light. The actual civil condition of this ble sorrow and anguish will penetrate the soul of people, their habits of thinking, their expectations a Jew, in whom national feelings and Christian and their prospects have, all of them, a tendency relentings shall have their proper force. Every to draw away their minds from the essential doc- one is led to expect that a brokenness of heart, a trine of Christ crucified. It is scarcely possible love to Christ, an adoring gratitude, a devotedto meet them in argument on their own ground, ness to his service, at the hazard, or even the cerwithout obscuring the glory of the gospel. This tainty of losing all things for Him-emotions not shall be illustrated in two important Scriptural differing in kind from those which pious Christians subjects ; with regard to both of which it will be experience, but surpassing them wonderfully in seen how widely the thoughts of the Jewish peo- degree-will
, in the general accomplishnient of ple have ever revolted, and still revolt, from that prophecy, characterize the truly converted Jew.
From this, however, the spirit of that people at stood, in their season, by Christian politicians. present revolts. They are as far from the doc- But how much beneath the standard of right feeltrine of genuine repentance, as they are from that ing in a Christian public, would be such speculaof the atonement.
tions on conquests, commercial contracts, or poliThe feelings of many devout Christians are, in tical expediency. How easily might multitudes of the present day, wound up to the highest pitch in Christians be misled on topics of this nature! favor of the Jews. Prophecy is explored-histo- That, for which the contributions, the efforts, and ry is carefully collated-conjecture catches at the prayers of the religious part of mankind should every probability—and even the sagacity of the be especially desired, in reference to the Jews, is politicians of this world is challenged to discern no other than their spiritual conversion; here, no ihe signs of the times, and to sympathize with the limit need be placed to guard the public mind earnest expectation of the friends of this people. against excess or error, but such as is common All sincere Christians must surely rejoice at wit- generally to all religious subjects. nessing this excitement. Without great excite While the residence of the Jews as a nation ment, nothing great was ever done, or even at- seems to be no proper subject for the excitement tempted. But, in proportion to the force of this of public religious feeling, there is, nevertheless, impulse, is the necessity of its receiving a wise one point in their temporal condition, which claims and Scriptural direction. We would not pre- the strongest regard from Christian benevolence. sume to criticise either prophecy or the interpre- Humanity, but much more Christianity, requires, tations of prophecy: but we would ask, what was on their behalf, that, in whatsoever part of the it that distinguished the character of the apostles world they may be scattered, they should be proand of St. Paul, who were all of them converted tected from insult, injury, and oppression. ŜysJews? was it not a feeling of—one might almost tematic injustice is that which they have expesay-inconceivable adoration at the view of this rienced in every age ; and, at various periods, in great mystery, GOD MANIFEST IN THE FLESH? every nation, without exception. The judgment Ēven when the case of the Jews is the particular of God inflicted upon them, through the medium subject of their consideration, (as in Rom. ix. x. of natural causes, has rendered them, in the social and xi.) do they not turn every thing to this sole relations, what they are. Two features of chaend of the law? Whenever the doctrine of the racter are most apparent in their history—the incarnate Redeemer comes before them, they inadness of the oppressed, and the meanness of seem to be filled with a divine fulness, which can the oppressed ; but, for these frightful characterfind no utterance. Or, rather, the doctrine is not istics, the oppressor is at least as responsible as accidentally or occasionally brought to their minds: they. It is, however, gratifying to observe, that, they know nothing else—they determine to know in the present age, distinguished by a rising denothing else-save Jesus Christ, and him cruci- testation of every kind of slavery, the peculiar fied.
case of the Jews appears to be obtaining a proIf, then, in the various discussions and treatises portionate share of public feeling. May these to which the subject of the conversion of the Jews sentiments in their favor continue, and increase a gives rise, any thing else than this which the apos- thousand-fold till that time, when it shall please tles held forth in their discourses and writings God to display the power of His Spirit, in gathershould usurp the attention of the public mind, it ing to gather the lost sheep of the house of Israel seems to be the duty of Christian ministers, not into the fold of our Redeemer; making them as merely to disavow it, but to protest against it. No miraculous a monument of His free mercy,as they private interpretations should be suffered, for a now are of His deserved judgments. moment, to come into competition with the broad In the mean time, let it be considered how much and obvious meaning of thiat gospel, which testi- is gained, when one converted Jewish missionary fies to Jew and Gentile repentance toward God and gives his heart and life to the service of his Masfaith in our Lord Jesus Christ. No vision of ter, Christ. There are some circumstances in milennial glory must ever interfere to hide from such a character, which, when fully developed, the eye of faith that innumerable company, whose may be regarded as peculiarly conducive to his eternal and ever new song is, Worthy is the Lamb usefulness in foreign missions. The first is, that that was slain! Every thing, which is not in ac- his conversion seems likely to be attended with an cordance with this strain, should be viewed with extraordinary degree of contrition, zeal, and affecjealousy, as savoring not of the things of God, but | tion: he, that hath had much forgiven, will love of those of man.
much. Another consideration is, that he has, from In what regards the restoration of the Jews to his very birth and by long habit, been accustomed the land of their fathers, it is manifestly a subject to regard himself as without a local, national habiin which Christians, whose wisdom consists in tation of his own; he feels, consequently, that, holy fear, will desire to follow Providence, and although England, or France, or Germany, or any not lead. If, on the partition or allotment of na other country, may give him the title, and in many tions, the possession of a particular region were to cases the reality, of protection; yet he cannot look depend on the power to purchase it, the Jews have to Judea and say, " There is my king; there is my always been sufficiently rich to buy a larger tract government; and there is my home:" thus one of of land than Palestine. If their settlement in that the strongest ties to earth exists not in his case, country is to grow out of a conviction, on the part in reference to all the social relations of this of the most influential governments that such a world, his national character, is already that of a measure would be politically expedient, the expe- stranger, and a wanderer, and an expectant. Such diency will doubtless be made to appear by many a person, under the powerful influence of divine concurring indications, which will be well under- grace, seems to be, in his out ward training, better
furnished for apostolic labors, than the native of or Peter, or Barnabas to arise ; from what counany civilized and established country. Should he try might we expect such a character, if not from manifest an early disposition to visit distant lands that people who possess on earth no country? he is not so much entangled by the tender appre. Waiving, however, what may to some appear too hensions of the domestic circle: all his kindred much like a matter of speculation ; and acknoware familiar with foreign life; most of them have ledging, that, after all, the Great Head of the already suffered many vicissitudes; and their un- church acts herein as a Sovereign, bestowing his quiet thoughts, if not their pilgrim feet, have roved gifts very differently from our calculations ; there far and wide on the surface of the globe. Should is yet, in this view of Jewish character, something he, in countries where the government is oppres- which conveys a most instructive lesson to every sive, meet with obstacles, indignities, or injuries, Christian missionary. He, more especially, who his national history, and probably his specific edu- would undertake the office of an evangelist to the cation, has taught him how to suffer, to evade, to Jews, must be fully prepared to suffer the consurmount, or even turn to his advantage, circum- tempt of many; who will despise him, because stances which would throw a domesticated Eng- they despise the objects of his mission. More lishman into despair. He enters the wide field of than this : he may, in some countries, expect to the world, intending to visit people of many kin- share their oppressions ; and, instead of having dreds and tribes and tongues, with the certain any hope of civil protection at hand, he must be prospect of encountering the most untoward cir- fore God betake himself to prayer; and, like a cumstances ; but then he enters with a Tact of poor man, use toward the oppressor, many entrea. mind, which to the Jew alone is national; his, in ties and much Christian persuasion. Let a misall its indescribable detail, is, in truth, the motto, sionary to the Jews settle in Jerusalem; let him Vincit qui patitur. Imagine the case, then, of a take, as a model for his manner of life, that touchconverted Jew devoted to the work of missions, ing description of the Redeemer—"In all their and passing from land to land, and from continent affliction, he was afflicted :" let him to the Jews to continent, on that embassage : suppose, fur- become as a Jew—they will then love him, for his ther, the love of Christ to be deeply impressed on sympathy ; understand him, for his resemblance his heart, and his temper to remain unsettled and to them: and for his self-devotedness, put faith in unattached to any spot; and we have an image him and in his words. To missionaries of this before our minds of a character, perhaps more stamp, in fact, and to such alone, can it ever be nearly apostolical, and better adapted for the expected that God will grant the honor of exten. founding of new churches, than could in any other sive success; whether it be among Jews or Gensituation be conceived. If there be another Paul, I tiles, that they are sent to labor.