Imágenes de páginas

and from which I was now to see it for the last hammedans. Our guide, Mohammed, immediatetime.

ly rode up to what he called the principal house: While the servants went on, I rode to a fair and such, indeed, it seemed to be; the centre part green spot, and turned my horse's head round, being built high, so as at a distance to give it the that I might enjoy a few moment's solitary medi- appearance of a tower: at the same time he seni tation on the view before me! Surely no travel some of the villagers to inquire for sheik Ibrahim, ler would fail to snatch such a moment. With the head of the place. I found it difficult, howlittle bodily strength, and through a variety of ever, to conceive myself entering the chief house scenes in which troubles had been anticipated, of the village. I had, on dismounting, to pass though none had been experienced, I have thus through a wretched court yard; and, at the door, succeeded in accomplishing the pilgrimage to the found the point of precedence disputed with me holy city. “What good," I thought," has my by asses, oxen, sheep, and goats, a very large visit done here? Who will be the better for it? company. As I paused for a moment to look into Here—where the Saviour bled-how have I re- a residence which appeared within to be scarcely quited His love ?" These thoughts rapidly pass- habitable, these irrational tenants, not at all standed through my mind, raising such pensive feelings ing upon ceremony, but knowing well their preas I am no stranger to. "I feel that I have done scriptive title, herded downward into a sort of almost nothing : and even if, humanly speaking, I lower chamber; while my guide, behind me, pointhad done much, yet I must before my Master ac- ed to four steps, which, if I would have the goodknowledge that I am an unprofitable servant. ness to mount them, would raise me so many de. But it is now too late to amend this visit; for the grees above the brute creation. I very reluctanttime is past, and I must bid farewell to Jerusalem. ly complied; and, at once, found myself on a large The noon-day sun shines strong and bright upon mud floor; which, with a small recess on one side the city, and seems to mock its base condition. for the females of the family, presented at one What a contrast between its aspect at this dis- view the whole interior of the best house in the tance, and its actual state! Here, the smaller village. The nether inhabitants of this dwelling objects not being minutely discernible, the glow- were now lifting up such an inharmonious chorus, ing strains of David seem as true and lively as as gave presage of a very uncomfortable night. they were when they first answered to the touch" What are we to do?" I said to my servant : " and of his instrument of ten strings—Beautiful for when will this uproar cease?" "When the catsituation, the joy of the whole earth is Mount Zion. tle have had their fodder,” he replied; which hapStill, there seem to be her towers, her bulwarks, pily proved true: for, in less than ten minutes, all and her palaces challenging our admiration. But this disturbance yielded to a profound sleep, which I have now, for more than twenty days, known knew no interruption till the next morning light. that these are not the towers or the temple of an- The party below having thus supped and quieted cient times. At every step, coming forth out of themselves, the sheik and the men of the village the city, the heart is reminded of that prophecy, began to assemble on the upper floor, where I had accomplished to the letter, Jerusalem shall be trud- seated myself, near a large blazing fire; which, den down of the Gentiles.* All the streets are but for the immense amount of animal heat alreawretchedness; and the houses of the Jews more dy accumulated in the house, would have been especially (the people who once held a sceptre on very seasonable. The sheik, by way of complithis mountain of holiness) are as dunghills.” ment and protection, sat by me, leaning on my

While I gazed, my eyes filled with tears till I baggage and bedding; an omen of unwelcome could look no longer. The frequent ejaculation companions likely to be added to my party. A of the bishop of Nazareth came into my mind large assembly gradually collected in the room, “Lord, how long !" I thought, too, of those bre- not fewer than fifteen venerable, bearded men, ali thren, from whom I had just parted, and for whose with huge dirks at their sides—which, as they sat sakes I had an additional motive to pray, Peace down, they drew out and laid before them on the be within thy walls! I then suddenly broke off floor; but whether as a compliment, or merely for from this multitude of thoughts, which was grow- their own convenience, I could not divine. To ing too painful for me; and pursuing my journey, prevent their troublesome curiosity in asking after I felt by degrees as though my present mission my purposes, I made many inquiries into their afwas, in some sense, accomplished; and began to fairs, and learned that this house is indeed the indulge, more warmly, the hope of returning to castle of the village, and has served that end my family in peace.


times in their quarrels with their neighbors. They described to me who were their friends, and who their enemies. As far, as Beer, a town

which I had passed, about an hour and a half to In the evening, at sunset, we turned off from the south of Ain Yabroud, they have friends : but, the road a little to the left, to sleep at Ain Ya- on the other side of Beer, to Jerusalem, and in all broud; a poor village of about fifty houses, all Mo- that region, enemies; their head sheik, Ishmael,

being at war with the celebrated Abu Goosh, who

lives between Jerusalem and Ramla. In conse* The author wonld here add, that he has, subsequently, very often meditated on that phrase: and quence, they cannot go to Jerusalem: and having he can with iruth affirm, that no expression could lately sold oil, the produce of their land, to persous have been invented more descriptive of the visible living there, they cannot themselves carry it ; but state of Jerusalem, than this single phrase, trodden the purchasers are obliged to come from Jerusadown-furnished by the most lively and descriptive lem, to fetch it. On the other side, to the nortli, of all writings extant, the Bible.

they are at war with Sangyl. Thus they are be


set on all quarters. I began to point out the un- enough illustrates a verse of Scripture. It was a natural troubles of war; reminding them that they family returning from their work in the field, were all of one blood, and that they themselves bringing wood home for fuel. Several of them felt the inconveniences of this bad system: from were young girls; the youngest a child not above all which the chief sheik, Ibrahim, drew back four years of age, which the others were continuwith evident marks of distaste. I could not help ally scolding for not keeping up with them, al. thinking, how much more readily do most men though it was manifestly struggling under a very welcome a fomenter of quarrels, than a peace- disproportionate share of the family burden. This maker! Had I brought them some evil news of might explain the latter clause of Lamentations their neighbors, something to rouse their bad pas. v. 13. They took the young men to grind, and sions, they would have been better pleased than the children fell under the wood." they were with these abstract reasonings. The Arriving fatigued in the evening at Nablous, I sheik, unable to withstand my remarks, retorted only sent my letters, without waiting on the gothe argumentum ad hominem; asking whether vernor; he immediately sent his secretary, who, the case was not the same exactly with the Chris- it appeared, was the son of the chief of the Satians at Jerusalem, and he supposed in other coun- maritans. The father, now in years, formerly tries also. I said, " But such are not true Chris- filled the office. I was lodging, as before, at the tians: for our religion commands us to love one house of the Greek priest. He insisted on servanother; and they who violate this rule, cease to 'ing up coffee, to which the Samaritan, with some be Christians." My servant, perceiving the sheik reluctance, assented. I was not at all pleased and his wide circle considerably dissatisfied with with the ill compliment paid to him, and, through the turn of the conversation, would interpret for him, to the government of Nablous, by the Greek me no further. If my remarks should have left priest who sipped the coffee before he presented it no good impression on the minds of these Arab to him, a ceremony which I have never before peasants, may they convey a lesson to those who witnessed in any house that I have yet visited in read these lines! By our fruits will men judge the east; but which, if report speaks true, of foul of our faith. Thus, in fact, have professing Chris- deeds lately done in this city, was not a superflutians been judged in Palestine; and thus will Pro- ous, or unmeaning act, testant missionaries be judged who shall go thi Close adjoining to the house of the priest, and ther. Having signified my desire of rest, the par- in a manner part of it, was the church. It was ty broke up; but about ten remained, with whom the eve of Saint Saba, and the Christian people I had to sleep upon the floor : so we all lay, were assembling to divine service. I counted stretched out, foot to foot, or head to head. thirty-six men present, a large proportion of the

male Christian population of this modern Sychem; but in the narrow anti-room, where females stand,

there was but one woman—a perfect contrast to Tuesday, Dec. 16, 1823.–Left Ain Yabroud at the occasional religious services of our own couneight o'clock in the morning, and passed Sangyl try! but easily to be accounted for. Here, public in two hours and a half; arriving at Khan Leban devotion being in an unknown language, assumes in one hour more : here I rested a while.

more the appearance of a mere task; and, conseAn hour after, on the way to Nablous, we met quently, men, are expected to attend it as if transwith the first insult

, and indeed the only one, ex-acting some work of business, while their wives are perienced by me in all this journey. A man ran enduring heavy drudgery at home. In England, after us, some distance, with a long staff in his our week day services, better adapted to touch hand, announcing another who soon followed, car- the heart, are attractive to the more feeling sex; rying a gun: he was the sheik of the district. while the men excuse their non-attendance, on We halted, to know his pleasure. His pleasure the plea of ever-urgent occupation. was, first, to know who and what we were, who presumed to pass without paying tribute : to which the answer was short-that I was an Englishman, and the bearer of two letters from the Wednesday, Dec. 17, 1823.-On leaving Nagovernor of Jerusalem to the governor of Na- blous, we found that heavy rain had fallen in the blous. He said, he acknowledged no governor; night, and more was likely to fall: I had, therethat his village had always been free and inde-fore, good reason to press on without any delay to pendent; that a man of Jerusalem had come to Beirout. I returned by the same stages as those buy oxen of him, to the value of two hundred by which we came : nothing remarkable occurring piastres, and by night had driven away the oxen on the way; unless I were to notice that the Lawithout payment; that he should, therefore, take tin convent at Nazareth had been in this interval, Mohammed into custody till the money was sent much deserted, there being only six friars left in him from Jerusalem, unless I was willing to pay it—the others were gone either to Bethlehem or down the 200 piastres. As we were only three Acre. hours from Nablous, we agreed that Mohammed Between Acre and Tyre, I met a very respectshould be detained, and I go on to the governor able elderly person in black Frank clothes, who with my letters. Upon this our assailant dropped informed me that he was an Irish Roman Catholic his high pretensions, and finally suffered us to go, priest, and had vowed, or as he expressed it

, had without gaining a single para, and with no other made a promise to God, that he would go all the inconvenience to than the ay.

way on foot to Jerusalem; and, having thus far A little further on, my servant directed my at- kept his promise, voyages of course excepted, he tention to a common circumstance, which aptly I will probably hold on, till his feet stand within the




gates of the holy city. I was in such urgent Nahoura to Acre

6 haste to escape the rain, and reach my destination Acre to Nazareth before night-fall , that I could not stop to converse Nazareth to Tiberias

55 with him as I wished.* As it was, I was under Tiberias to Safet

65 the necessity of halting short of Tyre, and sleep Safet to Hattyn ing in a most miserable hut, not water-proofthe Hattyn to Cana

21 rain dropping through on my bed—at Ras el Ain. Cana to Nazareth

15 All the rest of the way to Beirout, I was occasion Nazareth to Gennyn

6 ally incommoded by stormy weather; but happily Gennyn to Nablous

84 nothing like illness detained me before my arrival Nablous to Sangyl in that city, which took place late on Monday Sangyl to Ain Yabroud

21 night, the 22d of.December.

Ain Yabroub to Jerusalem

64 Here, to my great joy, I found Mr. and Mrs. The time from Acre to Nazareth was increased Bird, Mr. and Mrs. Goodell

, and Mr. King, occu- by perhaps two hours, from the guide not being pying a house, and giving a new missionary at- well acquainted with the road. traction to the place. I have reason to record A traveller, on horseback, and unincumbered with especial gratitude, the many acts of Christian with baggage, would perform most of these diskindness which I experienced under the hospitable tances, especially in fine weather, in a shorter roof of our American friends. These offices of time. love were, indeed, most seasonable; as my stay in Beirout, which it was supposed would not exceed a week or two, was unexpectedly protracted to fifty days, during which anxious period the effect of my journeying developed itself in a painful il). NOTES TO THE JOURNAL ness which fell upon me, but which providentially spent its force before my departure. An opportunity for Alexandria, at length, offered

A. on the 9th of February, 1824; when I quitted Syria with such emotions of thankfulness, as might ILLUSTRATIONS OF SCRIPTURE. well arise in the breast of one who, after performing in past years several almost solitary journeys, had spent nearly all the last five months in the so WHILE walking out one evening, a few fields' ciety of missionary brethren and sisters. With distance from Deir el Kamr, with Hanna Doomathese, already become eight in number, I had often ni, the son of my host, to see a detached garden experienced the blessing spoken of in those ex. belonging to his father, he pointed out to me, near pressive words—“We have fellowship one with it

, a small, solid, stone building, apparently a another; and, truly our fellowship is with the house ; very solemnly adding, “ Kabbar beity,' Father, and with his Son, Jesus Christ." “ the sepulchre of our family.” It had neither

door nor window. He then directed my attention ITINERARY OF THE AUTHOR.

to a considerable number of similar buildings, at

a distance: which, to the eye, are exactly like

Hours, houses ; but which are, in fact, family mansions Beirout to Saide

104 for the dead. They have a most melancholy apSaide to Sour

9 pearance, which made him shudder while he exSour to Nahoura

51 plained their use. They seem, by their dead

walls, which must be opened at each several in* The account which we afterward heard of the terment of the members of a family, to say,

“ This is an unkindly house, to which visiters do progress of this pilgrim was as follows:–Having arrived at Nazareth, he heard that there were so not willingly throng ; but, one by one, they will be many difficulties likely to be met with, if he pro- forced to enter; and none who enter ever come ceeded on foot to Jerusalem, that he determined to out again." return to Acre, and thence take a passage in a boat Perhaps this custom, which prevails particularly to Jaffa. In the mean time a rumor of the plague at Deir el Kamr, and in the lonely neighboring at Tiberias induced the pacha of Acre to establish parts of the mountain, may have been of great a quarantine in that city. The Irish priest, while antiquity; and may serve to explain some Scrip, he remained in Nazareth, attended with the greatest ture phrases. The prophet Samuel was buried humanity to a dying Italian, from whom every body in his house at Ramah : 1 Sam. xxv. 1: it could else fled, supposing him to be infected with the

Joab “ was plague. 'Unacquainted with the horror which that hardly be in his dwelling-house. apprehension inspires in persons accustomed to the buried in his own house in the wilderness :" 1 Levant, he seemed astonished at the selfishness of Kings ii. 34. This was “the house appointed for their fears, and himself alone supported the lan- all living :” Job xxx. 23. guishing patient many hours in his arms. The

Carpzovius remarks, “ Vix credendum est secase was, however, of a consumptive nature; the pulchra in ipsis ædibus sub tecto fuisse ...qualife of his attendant would otherwise, in all proba- propter rectius intelligitur id omne quod ad dobility, have been forfeited. He, after this, returned to Acre; but, quarantine having been established, mum pertinet, eidemque cohæret; ac proin etiam was not permitted to enter; and himself suffered area, vel hortus, in cujus forte angulo exteriori much from the inclemency of the season. He finally tale quoddam extruxerunt monumentum.” The reached the holy city in safety—" his vow com- view of these sepulchral houses at Deir el Kamr pleted."

puts the matter beyond conjecture.

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Possibly, likewise, the passages in Proverbs ii. The figure in Isaiah lü. 10, “The Lord hath 18, 19, and vi. 27, and ix. 18, describing the made bare his holy arm," is most lively : for the house of a wanton woman, may have drawn their loose sleeve of the Arab shirt, as well as that of imagery from this custom. • He knoweth not the outer garment, leaves the arm so completely that the dead are there......her house inclineth free, that, in an instant, the left hand passing up unto death, and her paths unto the dead. None the right arm makes it bare ; and this is done that go unto her return again."

when a person—a soldier, for example, about to

strike with the sword-intends to give his right Gen. xvii. 6, 10, and xxvii. 14, 17. arm full play. The image represents Jehovah as

suddenly prepared to inflict some tremendous, yet When we had finished our meals, in the family righteous judgment—so effectual, " that all the in which I resided at Deir el Kamr, and were ends of the world shall see the salvation of God.” risen, the mother, daughter, and daughter-in-law, The other point illustrated occurs in the second who had been waiting at the door, came in, and verse of the same chapter : where the sense of partook of what remained. Thus it is in Syria : the last expressions is, to an oriertal, extremely and thus it has been, probably, ever since Abra- natural—"Shake thyself from the dust-arise ham, a Syrian ready to perish, traversed these re- sit down, O Jerusalem.” It is no uncommon gions, dwelling in tents: when Sarah, having pre- thing to see an individual

, or a group of persons, pared an entertainment for three divine strangers, even when very well-dressed, sitting, with their did not present it, that being. Abraham's office ; feet drawn under them, upon the bare earth, pasbut stood at the tent-door, which was behind him. sing whole hours in idle conversation. EuroSo Rebekah prepared food for her husband to eat, peans would require a chair; but the natives here and sent it in by the hand of Jacob.

prefer the ground. In the heat of summer and

autumn, it is pleasant to them to while away their Prov. xi. 21.

time in this manner, under the shade of a tree.

Richly-adorned females, as well as men, may often The expression though hand join in hand, may be seen thus amusing themselves. As may nabear a slight correction ; conformable both to the turally be expected, with whatever care they original Hebrew, and also to the custom actually may, at first sitting down, choose their place, yet prevailing in Syria. The original simply sig.. the flowing dress by degrees gathers up the dust : nifies, hand to hand. And this is the custom of as this occurs, they, from time to time, arise, adpersons in the east, when they greet each other, just themselves, shake off the dust, and then sit or strike hands, in token of friendship and agree down again. The captive daughter of Zion, ment. They touch their right hands respectively; therefore, brought down to the dust of suffering and then raise them up to their lips and forehead. and oppression, is commanded to arise and shake This is the universal eastern courtesy: the Eng- herself from that dust; and then, with grace and lish version, and the devices grounded upon it

, dignity and composure and security, to sit down; give the idea of hand clasped in hand, which is to take, as it were, again, her seat and her rank European, rather than oriental. The sense, there- amid the company of the nations of the earth, jore, is, Thınigh hand meet hand-intimating, that which had before afflicted her, and trampled her heart assents to heart in the perpetration of wick- to the earth. edness—yet shall not the wicked go unpunished. It may be proper to notice that bishop Lowth

gives another rendering—Arise, ascend thy lofty Isaiah xiv. 8.

seat—and quotes eastern customs, to justify the

version : but I see no necessity for the alteration, As we passed through the extensive forest of although to English ears it may sound more apfir-trees situated between Deir el Kamr and Ainep, propriate. A person of rank in the east often we had already heard, at some distance, the sits down upon the ground, with his attendants stroke of one solitary axe, resounding from hill to about him. hill. On reaching the spot, we found a peasant, whose labor had been so far successful, that he

Matt. vi. 3, and Prov. vi. 13. had felled his tree and lopped the branches. He was now hewing it in the middle, so as to balance The manner in which the Samaritan priest dethe two halves upon his camel ; which stood pa-sired me, on parting, to express our mutual goodtiently by him, waiting for his load. In the days will, was by an action, than which there is not of Hiram, king of Tyre, and subsequently under one more common in all the Levant. He put the the kings of Babylon, this romantic solitude was fore-finger of his right hand parallel to that of his not so peaceful : that most poetic image in Isaiah, left, and then rapidly rubbed them together, while who makes these very trees vocal, exulting in the I was expected to do the same, repeating the downfall of the destroyer of nations, seems now words, "right, right;" or, in common acceptation, to be almost realized anew-_“Yea, the fir-trees re “ together, together.” It is in this manner that joice at thee, and the cedars of Lebanon, saying, persons express their consent on all occasions ; Since thou art laid down, no feller is come up on concluding a bargain, on engaging to bear one against us."

another company, and on every kind of friendly Isaiah lii. 2, 10.

agreement or good understanding.

May not this serve to explain the phrase in The use of the oriental dress, which I now Matt. vi. 3: “ Let not thy left hand know what wear, to the mind various Scriptural illus- thy right hand doeth ?" that is, “Let not thy trations, of which I will only mention two. heart consent to its own good thoughts, with a

sinful self-applause.” So much is said, in the Old females at Deir el Kamr, and in all the adjacent Testament, of speaking with the eyes, hands, and region of Mount Lebanon. In the cities on the even feet, that it is scarcely understood by Eng- sea-coast it is not so frequently seen. It is called lishmen. They should see the expressive and in- Tantoor; and is set on the forehead, projecting numerable gesticulations of foreigners when they like a straight horn. It is from fifteen to twenty converse: many a question is answered, and inches long; in its thickness gradually diminishmany a significant remark conveyed, by even ing; having its diameter at one extremity about children, learn this language much sooner four inches, at the other about two. It is hollow, than their mother tongue. Perhaps the express otherwise the weight would be insupportable to sion of Solomon, that the wicked man speaketh the stiffest neck; and it is tinselled over, so as to with his feet, (Prov, vi. 13,) may appear more na- give it a silvery appearance. The end with the tural, when it is considered that the mode of sit. larger diameter rests on the forehead, where it is ting on the ground in the east brings the feet into strapped to, by one strap passing behind the head, view, nearly in the same direct line as the hands; and another passing under the chin: the horn itthe whole body crouching down together, and the self protrudes straight forward, inclining upward, hands, in fact, often resting upon the feet. at an angle of about twenty or thirty degrees. Matt. xxvi, 23, and John xii. 25—27.

Over the farther extremity they throw the veil,

which thus serves the double purpose of modesty To witness the daily family habits, in the house and shade. in which I lived at Deir el Kamr, forcibly remind I could hear no account of the origin of this unied me of Scripture scenes. The absence of the corn costume. In its style it differs materially females at our meals has been already noticed. from the horns described by Bruce in Abyssina, There is another custom, by no means agreeable and by other travellers; which have been consito a European ; to which, however, that I might dered as illustrating those passages in Scripture, not seem unfriendly, I would have willingly en- Lift not up your horn on high..... Thine horn hast deavored to submit, but it was impossible to learn thou exalted, fc. For, here it is the females that it in the short compass of a twenty days' visit

, wear it; and not the men, as in Abyssinia : it has There are set on the table, in the evening, two po appearance of strength, nor indeed to me of or three messes of stewed meat, vegetables, and beauty; although, doubtless, among the females sour milk. To me, the privilege of a knife and of Mount Lebanon there may be as much vanity spoon and plate was granted: but the rest all in their mode of adjusting and bearing this article helped themselves immediately from the dish; in of dress, as is to be found at any European toilet. which it was no uncommon thing to see more than Some, indeed, though very few, wear this monfive Arab fingers at one time. Their bread, which strous ornament, protruding from one side of the is extremely thin, tearing and folding up like a face instead of the front: but I could obtain no sheet of paper

, is used for the purpose of rolling satisfactory account of this heretical fashion, any together a large mouthful, or sopping up the fluid more than of the orthodox position of the Tan. and vegetables. But the practice which was most revolting to me was this: when the master It is not worn by the Druse women only. The of the house found in the dish any dainty morsel, servant of the house where I lived at Deir el Kamr he took it out with his fingers, and applied it to my wore one: so also did a young woman whose marmouth. This was true Syrian courtesy and hos- riage I there witnessed; several likewise of the pitality; and, had I been sufficiently well-bred, virgins, that were her fellows, and bore her commy mouth would have opened to receive it. On pany, wore this head-dress. All these were Chrismy pointing to my plate, however, he had the tians. Hanna Doomani told me that it is used goodness to deposit the choice morsel there. I chiefly by the lower orders; at least that those would not have noticed so trivial a circumstance, who have been brought up at Damascus, or at the if it did not exactly illustrate what the evange principal cities, would not think of wearing it. In lists record of the last supper. St. Matthew re-other words, probably, it is the true ancient felates that the traitor was described by our Lord male mountaineer's costume; but what is its dein these terms__"He, that dippeth his hand with gree of antiquity, it may be difficult to discover. me in the dish, the same shall betray me:" xxvi. In examining various critics for the oriental 23. From this it may be inferred that Judas sat sense of the word “horn,” the following passages near to our Lord; perhaps on one side next to occurred, which may serve, in a collateral manhim. St. John, who was leaning on Jesus' bo- ner, to illustrate the costume of the Tantoor. som, describes the fact with an additional circum- These passages refer to a drawing, with which stance. Upon his asking, “ Lord, who is it?" almost every child is familiar, who has seen the Jesus answered, “ He it is, to whom I shall give a

old picture books, representing the person of sop, when I have dipped it. And when he had Moses. By a vulgar error, he is often depicted dipped the sop, he gave it to Judas Iscariot, the as having a horn projecting from his forehead, or a son of Simon. And after the sop, Satan entered ray of glory beaming forth in that form. The oriinto him:" xiii. 25–27.

gin of this is referred by the critics to a too servile

rendering, in the Vulgate, of the original Hebrew. B.

Glassius (Philologia Sacra, p. 819,) after giving THE TANTOOR, A FEMALE HEAD DRESS IN

various metaphorical senses of the word “horn, adds this signification, in conclusion : “ In modum

cornuum radios diffundere, coruscare, radiare, The most extraordinary oriental costume which splendere, significat. Exodus xxxiv. 29, 30, 35. I have yet seen, is the head-dress worn by many Ubi de Mosis facie splendescente sermo est. Chald.



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