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named Cadmus. Their life is so brutal and tise circumcision like the Mohammedans.". shameful, that they are not fit to be spoken of; Niebuhr, Voyage en Arabie : Vol. II. pp. 279, except it be to humiliate man, my making him 280. feel that there is no depth of degradation, disorder, and extravagance, to which he may not
The Jesuit missionaries observe
« The conversion of the Jasidies was a new sink, when he takes his passions for his guide.”Lettres Edifiantes et Curieuses : Vol. I. p. 365.
object for the zeal of father Besson. The Jasi. dies are a people who adore the sun, and who offer worship to the devil as the author of evil.
“ Father Besson formed the resolution of conYESIDIENS.
veying to them the knowledge of the true God;
but, having been charged with the government of THE Yesidiens may not improperly be quoted, execute this design, he sent some missionaries to
our missions, and being no longer able himself to as forming a part of the population of Syria. them. The hour for the conversion of this un. They are by some considered to have had their origin in Persia ; but they are met with in the happy people was not yet come. It was not long countries which lie between Persia and the north before this was perceived by the missionaries, of Syria,* and even in Syria itself
, as may be in- whom father Besson sent to them. They returnferred from the fact of a Jesuit missionary's seek-ed, after having shaken off the dust from their ing them out, in his visits to Aleppo and Scande- feet. We wait the moment, when God shall be roon. An account of them is found in Mosheim's pleased, in his mercy, to dissipate the darkness Ecclesiastical History: Vol. IV. pp. 252, 253, and which hinders these blind men from seeing the note : Century 16. Sect. 3. Part 1. The follow
horrors of their mystery of iniquity.”—Lettres ing brief extracts are from Niebuhr, in his travels Edifiantes et Curieuses : 'Vol. I. p. 135. near Mosul; and from the Jesuit missions in
This sect is further alluded to, and little more Syria.
than alluded to, in the third volume of these LetSpeaking of a village entirely inhabited by Ye- tres. p. 462. sidiens, Niebuhr thus describes them:
“ They are called Yesidiens, and also Dauasin : but as the Turks do not allow the free exercise of any religion in their country, except to those who It may, in some measure, require an apology, possess sacred books, as the Mohammedans, Chris- to have exhibited to English readers such a tissue tians, and Jews, the Yesidiens are obliged to keep of various customs and notions, many of them the principles of their religion extremely secret. almost unmeaning, others utterly absurd, and not They, therefore, pass themselves off for Moham- a few of them impious. medans, Christians, or Jews; following the party The principal motive which the author had in of whatever person makes inquiry into their reli- making this brief introductory compilation, may gion. They speak with veneration of the Koran, be, perhaps, its best excuse. It was his wish of the Gospel, of the Pentateuch, and the Psalms; hereby to facilitate the inquiries, or rather to disand, when convicted of being Yesidiens, they embarrass the course, of other missionaries, who will then maintain that they are of the same reli- may in future times visit this country. gion as the Sonnites. Hence it is almost an im Many missionaries will have had neither leisure possibility to learn any thing certain on the sub- nor opportunity, previously to their arrival in Syjcct. Some charge them with adoring the devil, ria, for inquiring what are the notions or usages under the name of “Tecillebi,” that is to say, of the various sects existing there. On arriving, Lord. Others say that they exhibit a marked they will soon hear a degree of importance, greater veneration for the sun and for fire, that they are or less, attached to all this floating capital of hudownright Pagans, and that they have horrible man imaginations. Without some preparation ceremonies. I have been assured that the Daua- from books, they may enter on investigations of sin do 'not invoke the devil; but that they adore what has long been known ; with a prospect, proGod only, as the Creator and benefactor of all bably, of advancing no further than others have men. They cannot, however, bear to speak of advanced before them: and this in the pursuit of Satan, nor even to hear his name mentioned. an object, concerning which, if they had possessed When the Yesidiens come to Mosul, they are not the information already existing, they would have apprehended by the magistrate, although known ; learned to regard additional inquiries as of very but the people often endeavor to trick them ; for little worth. when these poor Yesidiens come to sell their eggs These remarks may be exemplified in the inor butter, the purchasers contrive first to get their stance of the Druses, of whom a fuller account articles in their possession, and then begin utter- has been collected in the preceding pages than of ing a thousand foolish expressions against Satan, any other body of men. The situation of this with a view to lower the price ; upon which the people is one of the first objects which strike the Yesidiens are content to leave their goods, at a eye and the ear of travellers in Syria : their loss, rather than be witness of such contemptuous power, their numbers, the secresy of their sect, language about the devil. The Yesidiens prac. the peculiarity of their customs, and a few charac
teristic rumors in circulation concerning themTournefort says of them that they are a wan
all conspire to stimulate curiosity. Yet probably dering race, and“ stretch every year quite from no information is to be had of their real state, Mosul or New Nineveh, to the sources of the Eu- much beyond what has long existed in print: or phrates."
if there be further stores, similar to those already
OF A VISIT TO SYRIA AND PALESTINE.
half-revealed, it may possibly be better that they
JOURNAL should remain unknown. Should the unhealthy appetite still crave for further acquaintance with man's many inventions in these far-famed recesses of Mount Lebanon, it may, moreover, be doubted whether this singular race would ever admit a foreigner to the mysteries of Tuesday, Sept. 9, 1823.-We set sail from Alex. the order ; or, finally, were this practicablc, what andria to Beirout. missionary would be justified in purchasing such Saturday evening, Sept. 13.-Standing off the knowledge at the expense of Druse fraterniza- coast of Saide and Beirout, we had a brilliant tion?
view of the illuminations which take place on the
mountains on the eve of the festival of the holy The wisest of men was taught by his own ex. Cross. Froin north to south, there was a kind of perience, that in much wisdom is much grief : and semi-amphitheatrical exhibition of lights; which the great apostle under the gospel dispensation increased in brilliancy, as the darkness of evening desired to have his converts simple concerning came on. Some of them rose to a very considerevil : determining, for his part, to know nothing able height above the horizon, marking the great among them but Jesus Christ and him crucified! elevation of the mountains. I counted fisty. These It might seem, therefore, that, after having inves- large fires were lighted by the monasteries and tigated much the sentiments of erring men, it churches; and, throughout the whole of Mount were a wise resolution to relinquish such studies Lebanon, from Tripoli to Sour, and in various -never to revert to them but from a motive of other parts, this ceremony would take place. Connecessity—and gladly to seize the opportune mo- sidering that our view was partial, we may calcument for abandoning them.
late, that not fewer perhaps than 500 such fires To be wholly ignorant of the opinions of men
were lighted: the statement of numbers, howin Syria may be the happy lot of private Chris- ever, whether calculated, or reported by those who tians in our own country: but it is otherwise with ought to know, is not implicitly to be depended the duty of a missionary. His is the painful task upon. In subsequent remarks on the number of to read, not only his own evil heart, but the vo- monasteries, or of different sects and denominalume likewise of other men's experience; that he tions, or of the population of towns, I would premay know whom he has to encounter, what he has pare every person not to expect, what it is next to to refute, and where it is wisest to be silent and impossible to attain, perfect accuracy. to stop. Happy for him also, when he finds that period.
BEIROUT. For these reasons, while the private reader may Monday, Sept. 15.—I landed at Beirout; and pardon, the missionary student may probably be was kindly received by the English consul, Peter grateful to the writer for this introductory view. Abbot, Esq. He informs me, that Mr. Lewis Ånd may all, who shall have scanned these weary- is occupying the college at Antoura, purchased ing pages, be excited to a livelier sense of pity for by Mr. Way for the Jews Society; and that Mr. the benighted and deluded wanderers, whose Fisk and Mr. Wolff are with him, and Mr. King characters and sentiments have been thus vari- at Deir el Kamr. I was greatly surprised to hear ously depicted! How should our hearts glow at of the departure of Mr. Way from this country, the thought of the bringing in of a better hope ! and concerned to learn that illness had been the That hope the Christian finds in his Bible: to this cause. To Antoura I immediately sent an exunerring volume he turns his exhausted, aching press courier, with many letters from the west. eyes, and is revived! Most truly can the author Tuesday, Sept. 16, 1823.-Mr. Fisk and Mr. testify, that, after revolving for hours the ponder- Lewis came over to Beirout, to welcome me to ous tomes of the acts of the councils, the re- Syria. This is the first time, that, on landing in searches of Assemann, and many other volumi- a foreign station, I have found missionary brethren nous works, on suddenly casting a glance upon on the spot : and the benefit of it I felt inexpresthat ONE BOOK, never to be removed from his sibly; as, in the compass of a few words, a rapid table, often has he experienced such a lively view is taken of the bearings of every thing in the transition of feeling, as cannot be better de- country; and the heart, animated by the sight of scribed than by the well-known similie of our sa- fellow laborers and fellow sufferers, takes courage. cred poet
We wrote also to Mr. King at Deir el Kamr, to
join us at Antoura. On Wednesday and Thursday -As when a scout,
we conversed on many plans, and united in prayer Through dark and desert ways with peril gone
for a blessing on our future course.
Friday, Sept. 19.—Left Beirout for Antoura. The goodly prospect of some foreign land
Not being able to bear much exertion in the heat, First seen, or some renown'd metropolis
I was four hours and three-quarters on the journey: With glist'ring spires and pinnacles adorn'd,
it may easily be done in less. The scenery through
the valley of Nahr el Kelb was very fine; remindWhich now the rising sun gilds with his beams ! ing me sometimes of Derbyshire scenery--though
Paradise Lost : Book III. not of the softer parts, as Dove-Dale—but with
one additional feature, which no part of Derby
The churches and convents in Mount Lebanon shire enjoys, a noble prospect of the sea.
have bells-a most pleasing distinction in the heart I found Mr. Wolff extremely unwell
. He seems of Turkey: they remind one of college life; soundto be so absorbed in his pursuits, and to carry the ing for dinner, matins, and vespers. labors of body and mind to such a full stretch, At present the Maronites are suffering extreme that it would be a miracle if he were well. Mr.
“avanias," or extortions, from their ruler, the Fisk says, that, ever since crossing the desert, his Emir Bechir. It is a peculiar privilege enjoyed health has been visibly declining. I have given by Europeans, that their houses can give protechim some very seasonable medicine, and put him tion to the natives. A very few days ago, a on a new diet. He has as little idea of taking young Sheik took asylum in this college; the miscare of himself, as if he had no body. His resionaries were a little perplexed by this new kind searches in Jerusalem appear to have been very
of visit; though, for the sake of humanity, there interesting, and his labors there very useful. are cases in which every feeling man would be
Saturday, Sept. 20.-We had much conversa- glad to possess and exercise this privilege ; yet tion about this college of Antoura. The only topic bordering, at is seems to do, on interference with which I will here notice, is, that, as celibate col- the civil authorities of the place, or with the polileges are on no account whatever to be contemplat- tical state of the country, it might evidently be ed, it is of great moment that missionaries should sometimes an embarassing circumstance to a be happy in the choice of their partners. The Christian missionary. wife of a missionary residing here, should be of a
Beirout is under the Pacha of Acre. In the cheerful temper: she should know how to put up city and near it, are a few Turks; but none in the with vexatious circumstances, without being fret- mountains : which are under the direct rule of the ted: she should be able quickly to throw aside her Emir Bechir, commonly called Prince of the various troubles; especially, she ought practically Druses ; although he is, himself
, not of that body, to understand the duties of a good mistress toward but by profession a Christian. He holds his office servants; for she will have to TRAIN servants
under the Pacha of Acre. she will not FIND them : she must be a thoroughly
We, this afternoon, began a custom, which we good, and good-tempered, manager. And her continued nearly every day during our residence husband had need to be very kind to her; for she together at this place that of engaging in conwill give up a great deal for him and his mission. ference on some religious subject, of a nature The monastic life must never more be encouraged. bearing practically on our missionary work. A If any of our Protestant missionaries remain single, subject was proposed by each in rotation, and a let it be for facility of travelling ; but not to people day beforehand; so that time for reflection upon it monasteries. This part of the world needs--as might be secured. Our conversation was precedindeed what part does not ?—the benefit of well-re-ed by prayer; after which each in turn gave his gulated female society; not for the sake of giving opinion, the rest noting down in a book what was an elegant polish, but to inspire feeling and gen
said. These parties usually lasted two hours.* tleness. The bishop, Mar Hanna Maroni, called, and sat
* As the college of Antoura has recently acquirwith us two hours. He superintends the nunneries ed a new interest from its connection with the Lonadjacent; in this he is acting for Monseignior don Jews' Society, in may be agreeable to the reader Gandolfi, who is absent at luis summer house. to be made acquainted with the circumstances, Mar Hanna Maroni is the Maronite Patriarch's which led, about a hundred years ago, to its firsi Vicar; and is an aged and clever man, but disap- establishment. They are thus related by the Supepointed at not having been elected Patriarch some rior of the Jesuit missionaries in the first volume of months ago, when the present Patriarch, a rather the “ Lettres Edifiantes et Curieuses.” This account young man, was raised in preference to him. He of the five principal merchants
, directors of the
is connected with the history of M. Lambert, one says there are in Mount Lebanon upwards of French congregation established at Saide, which eighty convents; of which about ten are Greek will be noticed hereafter. This person, having Catholic, three Armenian Catholic, and one Syrian learnt, from the missionaries the necessity and adCatholic,—the rest all Maronite. Of Greeks, vantages of a mission to Ispahan, the capital of Percalled by them schismatic, but styled, by them- sia, concieved the design of devoting, bimself to this selves, the orthodox, there are no convents in the service; having put his affairs in order, and drawn mountains. He, himself, studied at Rome; and up his last will and testament, he quitted Saide was there when Pope Ganganelli abolished the with the intention of joining the missionary Fathers order of the Jesuits in 1773. At that time there India, near to Meliapor. Here he visited the tomb
in Persia. After many vicissitudes, he landed in was a Maronite house at Rome; which, in the of St. Thomas, and took counsel with a religieuse French revolution, was sold and secularised. A of the order of St. Augustine; who, having fully new one has not been established. It was, indeed, considered what might be the nature of his vocation, arranged, that, with regard to the alienated pro- advised him to go straight to Rome, and there apply perty of the Propaganda, the former and the pre- to the Superior General of the Jesuits. He did this, sent possessors should equally divide and suffer and was accepted. After two years of novitiate, the detriment: but possession has, in this in- he was ordained priest, and appointed to Palestine? stance, proved to be nine points of the law; and The narration then proceeds
as follows:the losers enjoy, up to this hour, nothing more than
“He quitted Pome with two young Jesuits, who repeated promises of restitution. The various three embarked in a vessel destined for Saide or
earnestly desired to accompany him. They all Maronities who go to Rome act as teachers or Tripoli; but providence, which had thus far coninterpreters, and thus procure a little interest for ducted Father Lambert, and designed to use him themselves; there are four or five there now. for the establishment of a mission to the Maronites,
Sunday, Sept. 21, 1823. In the morning ! A priest and a sheik from Ain el Warka called preached to our small family in English, from 2 in the morning. Sunday is a visiting day here Cor. iv. 1, 2. “ Therefore seeing we have this also! May our example benefit them! ininistry, as we have received mercy, we faint Monday, Sept. 22, 1823.-Mr. Fisk and myself not: but have renounced the hidden things of dis- called on Mar Hanna Maroni. He relates that honesty ; not walking in craftiness, nor handling there is trouble in the mountains; and states the the word of God deceitfully; but, by manifesta- following facts as the cause of it. As several of tion of the truth, commending ourselves to every the Sheiks have fled from their homes, for asylum man's conscience in the sight of God.” In the in Frank houses, the Emir has sent a party of fifty evening, Mr. Fisk preached in Italian, from Isaiah soldiers, who passed by this place only yesterday, viü. 20. “To the law, and to the testimony: if to set fire to the houses of those absconded they speak not according to this word, it is be. Sheiks, and cut down their fruit trees; so as to cause there is no light in them.” The household force them out of their hiding places. He thinks here consists (besides ourselves) of a converted there will be a re-action-a slight rebellion. Jew, Reuben Coster, whom Mr. Way brought It is but a very few months since this prince filed with him from Nice; and a young Jew of Jeru- from Mount Lebanon to Egypt, in order to escape salem, Abraham by name, who, though not a con- from the vengeance of three assembled Pachas, vert, joins in our services : there are also two ser- who besieged the Pacha of Acre. He has now vants, Maronites.
returned in safety; and, besides replacing various I was much interested, walking in the evening pecuniary losses at the expense of the chieftains on the terrace to meditate on the 104th Psalm, among the mountains, he is also singling out those with
many of the expressions in verses 16–18 who did not stand true to his cause during his and 24–26, as verified to my sight; especially in temporary flight. turning to the noble view of the western sea The bishop received us in the “ Parlatorio” of the very same great deep which David contem- the nunnery. Several nuns came to the grated plated when celebrating the praises of Jehovah. window. There are twenty-three of them who
have taken the vow. One, of eighty years of suffered a violent tempest to cast his vessel on the coasts adjacent to a little village called Antoura. age-two or three, of twenty or twenty-five. The inhabitants, seeing a vessel approach their They were all very talkative, and very inquisitive ; coast, took it for a Corsair; and, without particu- evidently curious to know something of that world, larly examining what it was, ran and seized Father from which they are now for ever secluded. The Lambert
, his two companions, and some other pas- bishop, who speaks Italian fluently, inveighed bitsengers, and conducted them before the commandant terly against all monachism ; and said, if he were of the country.
the Pope, he would immediately abolish every " This commandant was Abunaufel, a Maronite, brotherhood and sisterhood of them. The freethe most respectable of his nation. The fame of his dom of the sisters was not inferior to his. On my probity was so great, that Louis XIV, of happy mentioning that I was married, they inquired memory, chose him, although a subject of the Grand Seignior, to be Consul of the French nation, and sent wished me to bring my wife to visit them. On
very particularly about my wife and children, and him his brevet to that effect. A
" It was before this person that Father Lambert this the abbess, a lively woman of about thirtyand his two companions appeared. Abunaufel in- five years of age, asked my companion whether terrogated them. In their answers they declared he were married : on his answering in the negawhat they were, showing him the patents of the Re- tive, she vehemently demanded, “Why not ?" verend Father General.
and did not spare reproofs. The bishop, though Abunaufel readily perceived that these suppos- himself unmarried, added in Arabic_"Sijra bla ed Corsairs were missionaries sent him by Provi- tamr” _“ A tree without fruit!” dence. He gave them the best reception possible, and lodged them in this house. Their arrival, and
I cannot say that I was led to form a favorable
Mr. the intercourse which he had with them, suggested opinion of monasticism, or of nunneries. to him the idea of establishing a mission in his Fisk and myself conversing fully on this subject country, in order to give the Naronites of Mount afterwards, agreed that those nunneries, which Lebanon that spiritual assistance of which they are are under the closest seclusion and confinement, so often deprived. He made the proposition to are, in some instances, liable to become the most Father Lambert, and offered him a seitlement in his corrupt. In Jerusalem, the nuns have the liberty own domain ; situated in a part of Mount Lebanon of visiting their friends. These, being in some called * Kesroan.
measure under the public eye, are probably more "Father Lambert, after having consulted the su
correct. periors of our Syrian missions and received favorable answers, accepted, on their part, the offers of
I inquired from the bishop, in reference to the Abunaufel. 'This person kept his word with the acknowledging of the council of Trent, which missionaries; appointing them a lot of ground suffi- was solemnly done by a national council of the cient to build a small house with a chapel: she even Maronite clergy in the year 1736, whether the bore a share of the necessary expenses. Father acts of that council were printed in Arabic. No Lambert was the man chosen by God to be the —he replied: but they have a manuscript copy in founder of the mission of Antoura. He opened il Arabic. It is difficult to me to conceive how with an extraordinary concourse of people, who as, these clergy of the mountains should have sisted at the first exercises of the mission. Aided thoroughly weighed all the matter contained in by his two companions, he continued his exertions the acts of that council; but not difficult to untill death, with indefatigable zeal."--Lettres Edifi- derstand how they should have been disciplined antes et Curieuses; vol. 1. pp. 220—229.
* The name of this district is sometimes spell, into adopting it. Implicit faith believes, and imKastravan. It lies between Beirout and Tripoli. plicit obedience submits to ANY THING.
Tuesday, Sept. 23.–Mr. King refreshed us by na Maroni, who very readily gave me letters for his arrival. We are now five missionaries—all
, Ain el Warka; a college about four hours to the in some degree, with different objects or under north, in which the Maronites are taught Syriac, different characters; but all uniting in Christian and prepared for the priesthood. He also gave love, counsel, and labor, on Mount Lebanon-Mr. me a letter for Hanna Stambooli, a priest, who Fisk, a missionary, from America to Palestine- seems to be doing penance at Ain el Warka, and Mr. King, whose original plan was to study Arabic, is compelled to perform the office of preceptor in order to return, after three years, as Arabic pro there. In the afternoon, I set off, with Mr. sessor to one of the colleges of America, is here Wolff, to perform this visit. We arrived just at adding missionary exertions to his studies_Mr. sunset. I cannot say that we were received with Wolft, a converted Jew, laboring for the Jews, much hospitality: there was, in fact, an air of reunder the patronage of wealthy and noble-minded serve and coldness, which was to be attributed to individuals—Mr. Lewis, a clergyman of our united various little circumstances, needless to relate church, for the same cause under the Jews' So here. The superior, however, ordered us a supciety—and myself serving the Church Missionary per, and made various apologies for its not being Society.
better prepared : a cheerful welcome would have The village, if such it may be called, of An- made a much humbler supper a grateful entertoura, consists of about twenty small and scatter- tainment. Hanna Stambooli, as his name is de1 ed houses ; of which three are ecclesiastical signed to indicate, has studied at Constantinople;
namely, the residence of Monseignior Gandolfi, which gives him a character of great superiority vicar apostolic of the Pope, now absent from to the Maronite mountaineers. He very eagerly home; the nụnnery, and the college, in which we asked, if I would take him to England, and seemare living, and which was endowed about ninety ed chagrined that some such plan could not be years ago. Several monasteries are within sight, devised for him. Something, however, better or within a moderate distance. This, in fact, than talent united with the love of travelling is
may be considered, generally, to be the character requisite to induce us to take up and patronise Į of the mountains. Their population consists al- the men of the east. Here are twenty-two pu
most entirely of monks and peasants. Of the pils : only one or two, however, came near us. | peasants, a great number carry arms. In fact, Of these, one was Luigi Assemanni, great ne
every young man may, in some sense, be called a phew of the celebrated author of the Bibliotheca
soldier; and would, in case of need, muster as Orientalis ;" the same who was the pope's legate į such: the gun, which serves him for field-sport in the national council of the Maronites in 1736. į and sustenance, is ready for the call of war; and This is a tender and rather an interesting youth, + his discipline consists in the bracing, hardy habits of eighteen years of age; he left Rome at the
of a mountaineer. It would be difficult for Euro. age of eleven ; and hopes to return thither, as
pean troops to find their way through Mount Le- Oriental interpreter, in the course of a few years. Į banon, if the natives chose to embarrass them. I gave him an Arabic testament, writing for him
The country is here as remarkable for the in- a direction in it, by which he might find me in numerable multitude of its mulberry trees, as Malta ; accompanied by some good advice. Egypt is for its palm trees. During the chief part of the year, these mulberry trees clothe the prospect, in every direction, with a most delightful verdure. As they are not cultivated for fruit, Saturday, Sept. 27, 1823.-Very early in the but for their leaves, from which a great quantity morning we departed. The superior being, at of silk-worms are reared, they are polled generaly church, we could not personally take leave of him; when the stem is about six week'high ; and the and, of the young students, it was plain we should small branches, or rather twigs, then burst out see nothing. In our way to Antoura we called at in most luxuriant foliage. An immense quantity the convent of Hareesa, or Arissa; and here of silk is thus raised in Syria. The trees are spent the middle of the day. Padre Carlo, the planted in regular lines. In the winter months, superior, was absent : he is a Franciscan friar, they pass a light plough over the soil between and was long in Egypt. He acted as dragoman them, so that it may drink in the rain inore plen- to general Desaix, who commanded the expedition tifully. I do not remember to have seen mulberry in 1798. What scenes for a missionary to have trees reared in Egypt; though I know of no rea- passed through! not indeed necessarily involving son why they should not flourish in some parts of guilty participation ; but bringing him continually that country. In Psalm lxxvii. 48, in the prayer- within the sphere of temptation-making deeds of book translation, it is said, that God destroyed iheir violence, and lust, and rapine, and treachery familiar mulberry trees with the frost. This would be a to his eye; and entirely distracting him from the dreadful calamity to a country in the circum- peaceful, retiring, and laborious life of a missionary. stances in which Lebanon now is, as it would ruin This Padre has been the usual round of Jerusan the valuable trade of silk. The true sense, how- lem, Nazareth, &c. He has the whole of this ever, of that verse is given in the version of the beautiful, spacious, and airy convent to himself. Bible, where the word is rendered sycamore trees. It is impossible to survey what this convent once This tree has a leaf somewhat like the leaf of must have been, and what it now is, without feel the mulberry tree ; and its fruit is a wild fig. The ing as if Rome were evidently on the decline. wood of it is peculiarly durable.
See her outworks-her foreign, boasted missions -reduced to a mere shade! However, the house
at present, serves as an asylum for some of the Friday, Sept. 20.- I called on the bishop Han- Emir's subjects, who, during his flight to Egypt
CONVENT OF HAREESA.
CONVENT OF AIN EL WARKA.