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Saturday, 23rd.-Set out a little before seven; May the rays of Gospel light, stopped to breakfast at eleven; and proceeded Redd’ning now the eastern sky, again at twenty minutes past twelve. In endea Chaste away the mists of nightvoring to cross a gully, where the ground was Reveal a day of glory nigh. swampy, the wagon stuck fast, one of the hind wheels sinking in the mud. Two ineffectual at

May the word in weakness spoken tempts having been made to drag it out, I dis

Bring conviction to each breast ; mounted; and, throwing my bags across my

May the hearts that grace has broken,

In Jesus find relief and rest! horse's back, proceeded on foot with the prisoners, &c. It was at a quarter to five that we left the

To us this grace was freely givenwagon, and, after walking about fifteen miles, we

Swift the tidings let us bear, reached Mr. Plankenberg's hut (a trading station Emulate the saints in heaven, recently established on the Tugăla) at nine. This Who ceaseless hymn His goodness there. morning it was my intention to have started much earlier, in order to have reached the White Shields What are all our earthly schemes, (Clomanthleen) by sunset ; but unfortunately the If they only centre here? people belonging to the wagon overslept them Nothing but delusive dreamsselves.

Phantoms that a while appear. Sunday, 24th.—Being desirous to commence If our hearts indeed have tasted, the Zoolu mission by public worship on this day, God is gracious—we shall feel ; I crossed the river soon after eight, and reached Life itself

were worse than wasted, the Clomanthleen Inthlopi (White Clomanthleen) Could we dare His truth conceal. at eleven. We travelled slowly on account of the prisoners, the distance being not more than Heralds of redeeming grace, nine miles. The principal part of the regiment To every clime His love we'll bear; were absent, notwithstanding which the Incosa

His standard raise in every placecase (Momahau,) and about thirty-five people, To tribes unknown His name declare! including the prisoners, assembled in front of Nongalaza's hut, when I addressed them for about Till earth shall echo back the sound an hour on the leading truths of the Gospel, con In one united song of praise ; cluding with prayer. All were very attentive, And love, and joy, and peace abound and said at the conclusion, that they understood An earnest of millennial days. the words that had been spoken. That it was literally the words which they meant may be well Hark, again celestial strains !imagined, and certainly inferred, from the inquiry “ Hallelujah! it is done! which was immediately afterwards made by the Jesus our Redeemer reigns ? principal man present, whether God's house. (al His travail o'er-His victory won !” luding to his habitation in heaven) was as handsome as their Issigördlo. May it please the God Monday, 25th.-On reaching the Tugăla, the of all grace, who has so mercifully opened a way prisoners, according to agreement, were consignfor the good news of salvation by Jesus Christ to ed to the charge of Mambayendi ; but so apprebe proclaimed in this land, to give abundant in- hensive were they of the severity of their own crease to his own word, that it may accomplish countrymen, that yesterday morning they actuthat which he pleaseth, and prosper in the thing ally refused to proceed until I assured them that whereunto he has sent it; and may I, and all it was my intention to accompany them, and that who may hereafter labor in this vineyard, regard I should not lose sight of them until they reached ourselves but as worthless instruments in his Congella, and were delivered over to the Indoonas. hands, and look ever and solely to Him for that Last night a messenger arrived from Umgūnanaheavenly strength and grace which he has pro- ni, where Dingarn was then staying. He had mised, and without which all our labor will be in been ordered to proceed to Port Natal to inquire vain! “ Not unto us, O Lord ! not unto us, but respecting the deserter, but on hearing at the unto thy name be the glory for ever and ever. Black Clomanthleen, that I was here, he had Amen."

The Incosa-case (Nomahau) is very

friendly, doing all she can to make me comfort. Let the voice of joy arise,

able ;

but I have been much disappointed at the Grateful praise our bosoms swell; present deserted state of the town—many of the Hark! they echo from the skies

people are with the king, but the greater part at The triumphs of Emmanuel !

their out-places. The wagon with my baggage

arrived this afternoon; they had extricated themEvery knee to him shall bow,

selves from the dilemma in which we had left them Every crown before him fall;

soon after our departure. The nations that forget him now,

Tuesday, 26th.—Left some of my baggage in E’re long upon his name shall call." charge of Nomahau, and soon after nine set out,

accompanied by Mambayendi and three additional Not one tittle e'er shall fail

baggage-bearers. The footpath from this place Of every promise He has made ; to Congella passes through a more populous district The prayer of faith shall still prevail

, than the wagon route, and the country is more Though sense may deem it long delayed. level, and clothed with trees. This part of the

come on.


country abounds with wild guinea-fowl, several Wednesday, 27th.-Set out at eight—soon after coveys of which were seen; as also bucks, and a began to ascend. Stopped to breakfast at Indufew Kafir crane, a beautiful bird, with a grey mani, one of the king's villages. At the Injanplumage and a handsome top-knot; the black dûna none of the prisoners, excepting Mankanjana, feathers which cover the head and throat are of a would taste the amăss (curdled milk) that was ofglossy jet black, and to the touch as soft as the fered them, alleging that as they were in disgrace, richest velvet. The wings are in general use it was not proper for them to partake of it among among the Amakosa to decorate their heads when their friends: the two women here again declined going to war. On our way we met the messen- it, but Umboobo was less scrupulous, and drank gers returning, who had been sent forward by free from the calabash that was set before them. Nomahau to announce my approach to the king. Rested here two hours, and proceeded again at a They said that he had expressed himself as much quarter to twelve. Passed Inglalăni, and rested pleased, when informed that the deserters had three-quarters of an hour at Sablongăzi, another been secured, but could not yet believe that it was small village, situated on the crest of a steep mountrue, nor should he, until he had seen them. He tain. Some of the ascents and descents were so had yesterday left Ungūnanani on his return to steep, that I frequently found it necessary to disCongella.

mount. There are few trees in these mountains, We reached the Injandūna at noon, and re- but they are all well clothed with grass, and the mained to rest and breakfast two hours and a half

. parts that are cultivated near the villages produce Had not this place lain directly in the route, I excellent Indian corn and Kafir corn. would gladly have avoided it, in order to spare the We now struck into the path we had formerly feelings of Nonha. This morning she had been travelled, our present route having been more inthe gazing-stock of all the villagers by the way, land, and at half-past four we reached Congella, who had run out to see the prisoners as they pass- where crowds of people were peeping over the ed—but here a more formal ordeal awaited her. fence and filling the gateway, in order to catch a Before any provisions could be procured for them, glimpse of the prisoners as they passed. Scarcely Ugocha (the Incosa-case) came down to the gate had we entered the town, when I received a mesnear which she was sitting with the other prison- sage from the king, desiring to see me; and the ers, and, surrounded by all the people of the place, prisoners now consigned to the charge of the Inscolded them both roundly. This, under other doonas, were taken into his presence at the same circumstances, would have been all highly proper; time; being directed to place themselves at a rebut as it was agreed by all that they would be put spectable distance, while he appeared from withto death on their reaching Congella, I could not in his fence overlooking the whole party. He apbut feel great pity for her situation. So much peared in high glee. His women were all singing agitated was her mind with the apprehension of around him; and on my seating myself, he pointthe cruel death which awaited her, (they are al-ed to me and said, that it was on my account this ways impaled, after being struck on the head with rejoicing was made. I could have burst into knobbed sticks,) that she told me on Sunday even- tears—it was a most trying situation. Dingarn ing, while instructing the prisoners, that before himself was leading the tune; crouched beneath. she crossed the Tugă la she could attend, but that him, in front of the fence, was one of his servants, now her mind was in too disturbed a state. performing all the usual gesticulations of frantic

Proceeding from this place, the country is still joy; while the unfortunate prisoners, but a little fertile and populous, well watered by the Umson- distance on my right, were destined to witness dusi and Evoota, both of which streams we crossed, these unfeeling ebullitions of delight, occasioned, and soon after the Amatakoola, beyond which are as it was evident, by their appearance, bound, and some fine trees. Among these were several within the reach of punishment. Not satisfied known by the colonists as the Kafir Boom, but with one song, several were added, which, with called by the natives Umseensi; they were the the clapping of hands in chorus, must have been first I had seen in blossom, and certainly made a audible at a considerable distance. I scarcely most splendid appearance. It somewhat resem- dared turn to the right; the countenances of Nonha bles the English elder, but throws out short bossy and her companions were truly distressing! Durthorns on every part of the trunk and branches ; ing the whole journey of one hundred and twenty it grows to the height of twenty or thirty feet, and miles they had anticipated a cruel death ; and now sheds its leaves in winter; but the blossom gene- every instant they expected to be hurried away to rally remains in great beauty for a considerable execution. The songs at length being ended, and time afterwards, appearing at the ends of the twigs a large bowl of beer being presented to me, Dinlike a shuttle-cock with crimson feathers. garn came out with some dignity, habited in a

At a little before sunset ascended a hill, and new cloak of many colors, and wearing across his stopped at Hengi, a village belonging to Mangani, forehead a band of the pink ribbon I had formerly the Indoona of Intoutella. The sun declined in given him By this time the whole male populagreat beauty behind a bold range of mountains, tion had assembled, and, seating themselves over which the summit of that near to Congella around us in a half circle, when a formal treat was just visible. So little attention was paid to commenced, the king in person demanding of each the wants of the prisoners, that it became neces- of the prisoners why they had left his country. sary to insist on their being regularly supplied with The offences were stated, and evidence given by provisions ; and here the unfeeling wretches, when many who were present. Mankanjāna was the urged on their arrival to give them some Indian first who was questioned, and his replies were corn, replied, in their presence, “What is the use given in a sitting posture, Dingarn standing the of giving them food, they are dead already.” whole time; but when it came to Nanha's tum,

both the women were desired to stand up, on that their lives should be spared, which, indeed, which Nongalaza, with great emphasis, exclaim was all that I had expected to obtain. To this ed, “ There is the woman we used to call our conclusion, as Dingarn informed me, they had mother: she was placed by the king to provide come last night; and he also stated that Manfood for the warriors on their return from battle!" kanjána, had he not sent an insolent message to Her case was then entered into minutely. As the him, and made so many efforts to escape, would sun had set during this long conversation, Dingarn have been pardoned. • They are all sentenced to said that, if I chose, I could retire, and that he be kept in confinement, and I fear this will be for would see me again in the morning.

life. The business being now over, the men were Having ascertained that there was no intention called together, and soon surrounded us in a dense to execute them this evening, I took my leave : semicircle, sitting three-deep on the ground.the people, however, remained a considerable time Among these were six men from a distant tribe, longer to regale themselves on tough beef, which, who, until my first arrival here, had never before in anticipation of my arrival with the prisoners, seen a white person. Dingarn himself pointed had been cooked for distribution. As I rose to them out to me; and observing that I took some leave the assembly, Dingarn observed: “Now we interest in them, ordered them to sit in a group see that you belong to the Zoolus." I replied, before me. In order to try their nerves, Dingarn, " It will always be my desire to prove myself a by way of sport, requested my interpreter to bring friend to the Zoolus." A good supply of meat his gun, which to their great surprise was twice and fire-wood was soon after sent to my hut, fired, the men instinctively placed their hands to which, although removed from its original position, their ears on hearing the report. Some inquiries was the same which I had formerly occupied.— were then made by Dingarn, who had approached The transit I had hoped would have dislodged the me to examine my dress, as to the method of colony of rats, but I was soon convinced of their making cloth; and, on his again seating himself, predilection to their former haunts.

the European mode of constructing houses was Thursday, 281h.-Went up, by desire of the discussed. He was greatly interested in the deking, at ten_found him seated on the outside of scriptions of each, and expressed much astonishthe Issigordlo, habited in a cloak which was com- ment at the facts which I related of rooms being pleted at Intoutella, and accompanied by five of built in our houses one over the other, thinking it his principal Indoonas, seated near him on the impossible that the floors should not break through ground. As it was my wish to make an impres- with the weight. sion, in the hope of obtaining the release of the The important topic of beads was then introprisoners, I appeared in full uniform. All were duced ; and on this subject he was particularly loud in their congratulations, and thanked me desirous of information. " Where do they come inuch for having brought back the deserters. I from ?" “ What are they made of ?"

“How are told them that I required no thanks; that I had they made ?" “ Cannot we learn to make them ?" only done what it was my duty to do. Dingarn -were a few of the questions which, to the best said, that now his people would love him; whereas of my ability, I endeavored to answer satisfactobefore they had hated him, because he refused to rily ; but he was not satisfied until I promised, permit an army to go down to Port Natal: that should I live to see England again, and return, for two years the chiefs had been urging him to that I would bring him some of the material of destroy all the black people there, but that he had which they are made. The people were then withheld his consent. Nongalaza and the other desired to sing, which they continued to do for chiefs assented, saying, that for the last two years some time; and, although seated, performed the this had been their desire; that they should not manual part in excellent time and much grace, have molested the white people, but that they had Dingarn and the Indoonas often accompanying requested the king to allow them to kill all the them in the evolutions of their hands. In order blacks. I told Dingarn that we thanked him for that the compliment might not be mistaken, the his forbearance, as those who had fled from his king informed me that he had purposely called the country richly deserved punishment; and, turn- people together in order that I might hear how ing to the Indoonas, added, " Now you see how they sang at Congella. Had it not been for a good the counsel was that the king gave you.” powerful sun, and the incumbrance of a cloth uni. Þingarn observed, that now he was convinced form, I could have enjoyed both the scene and the that the white people at Port Natal wished to do many animating songs which continued until noon; him good. I told him that peaceable words were but as, in addition to these inconveniences, I had better than armies ; by sending out warriors he not yet breakfasted, I somewhat relieved wher could only obtain the bodies of men, but by peace- this long conference was at length broken words he gained their hearts : that now we During the intervals of the songs, six head of catwere all united to observe the treaty, and that, as tle were speared for distribution among the people ; long as he adhered to this part of the agreement, some within a few yards of the spot where we he inight rely upon it we should to ours. As he were seated. They all ran some little distance appeared in high good humor, I thought it a good after receiving the spear, which is not thrown, opportunity to introduce my suit in favor of the but thrust into the side near the heart ; and, on prisoners, and strove hard to obtain an uncondi- their falling, parties were despatched to make the tional pardon. This, however, I soon found was necessary preparations for disposing of the meat. far too large a request, and indeed his arguments On returning to my hut I wrote to Port Natal, at to the contrary, founded on the usages of the the request of Dingarn, to inform the settlers that country, were too powerful to combat. I there- he had demanded, under the stipulations of the fore contented myself with obtaining his assurance treaty, the children belonging to No:ha's party.

As they had been allowed by the Numzana, or towns; are built in the same form, but without head of the village, where they had taken refuge, fences; and contain the whole population of the to make their escape, it had been arranged, on tribe, which is now greatly diminished. The male my setting out for this place, that, in the event population does not exceed a hundred; but as each of their being demanded, either themselves or man has from five to ten wives, the whole, inclu. Umfazaguátu (the Numzāna) should be given up. ding children, may be estimated at about twelve

Friday, 29th.-Last night I had a long conver- hundred. They were formerly independent, but sation with three of the Unguani people, respect- subjugated by Charka, who deprived' them of all ing their country and knowledge of a Supreme their cattle: they have neither sheep nor goats, and, Being, &c. These were the persons pointed out as grain is but scantily cultivated, they are often by Dingarn, as having never before seen a white necessitated to subsist entirely on roots. The flats man. On being told yesterday that God had are covered with very high grass, and these, as spoken words to men for the regulation of their well as the mountains, produce large timber. Wild conduct here, they had very anxiously inquired. animals abound, and, besides those common in this • What has he said?" They, as well as the pri- part of the country, they have the rhinoceros and soners, were accordingly sent for this morning to tiger: they appeared to know nothing either of attend the prayers in my hut, when an exposition the ostrich or cameleopard. The eyland is the of the Ten Commandments was given. On leav- only large animal they hunt, being fearful to aping I was surprised to hear from the prisoners, proach the elephant, although aware of the value that they had tasted nothing since the last food of its tusks. Alligators abound in the rivers, some we had given them on the road, which was about of which they describe as large, but all fordable at three o'clock on Wednesday. I immediately de certain times. The Lesūta is the largest next to sired Umpondombeeni to boil some lupõko meal the Umpongola, which divides them from the which I had by me; but he was unable to borrow Zoolu country, and after that the Motani : these a vessel for the purpose, my own saucepan being are all much wider than the Tugăla. They have too small. It now struck me that there must be no canoes, and only first saw the sea when they some design in such unfeeling conduct; and, send- came into this neighborhood. They seemed to ing for Mainbayendi, I informed him of what they be an insulated tribe, having no relation with any had just said, desiring him to acquaint the king, other people than their conquerors. All speak the and to say, that I felt convinced it could not be Zoolu language ; and, until they perceived us conhis intention to starve them. He was also desired versing in English, said that it was the first time to inform him, that I had continued to instruct they had heard a tongue differing from their own. them, but should not do so in future without his Indeed Umkolwani was highly amused åt my permission, as it was only in the Clomanthleen communicating with him through an interpreter, that he had allowed me to teach. This I deemed and shrewdly observed, “ You speak to him, and necessary, as he would not fail to hear every par. then he speak to me;" and, on the reason being ticular. Mambayendi soon returned with an an- explained, snapped his fingers * in evident surprise. swer, which quite weighed down my spirits.- In appearance and dress, or rather undress, they Dingarn's reply was, “You have done your ut- are similar to the Zoolus, and as they now genemost in bringing them bound to me, and then rally wear the ring on the head, which has been speaking for them; but as they have committed adopted since they became tributary to Charka, great offences you must not ask for them any they are scarcely to be distinguished from them.

Their bonds must kill them!” I was not Their women also shave their heads, but wear the again to teach them; and he had given orders small tuft on the crown somewhat higher. The that they should not be supplied with food. In- whole country to the north and west they describe human wretch ! The death they had so much as an arid desert, extending, especially to the dreaded would have been mercy compared with northward, beyond their knowledge, and much the torture of lingering out a few more days of broken with abrupt precipices. In the northern painful existence, and at last falling the famished desert, which is entirely sand, there is a large river, victims of hunger and want. Ton true, indeed, to the banks of which they have been, but none were the last words that fell from them on leava have ever crossed it, nor have they ever heard of ing my hut. As it appeared by their statement any people living beyond them either north or west. that Mankanjána alone had been informed that on the east there is a tribe of Zoolus called No. he was not to be killed, I endeavored to quell their bambas, from whom they obtain iron for heading fears, by saying that the king had himself assured their spears and assegais: they heard of Sofala, bu? me that all their lives should be spared; on which have never been there, or seen any of the people. Nonha, in a mournful voice, replied, “ They are Their houses are of a similar construction with killing us now.”

these, but formed chiefly of mats and reeds. Their Had another long conversation with Umkol- king, Sobūza, the same who Charky subdued, has wani, who is an inferior chief among the Unguáni, still the power of life and death. Malefactors, the substance of which I shall now relate : when capitally punished, are struck on the head

They belong to a tribe called Unguani, situated with knobbed sticks, as is the practice here, but as far as I could collect, to the N. N. E. of Unkūng. they are never impaled ; with the exception of inglove, at a distance of nine days journey. On these, their dead are always interred, being first the fifth day from Unkūnginglove, they reached the river Impongolo, and four days more bring them

* A Zoolu can scarcely speak without snapping to Elăngani, where their king, Sobaza, resides. his fingers at every sentence; and when energetic, Nearer to the Umpongola is another town, called a double snap is often made, and that between every Nobamba both are small compared to the Zoolu four or five words.


bound up in their clothes and mats. They de- this method, on account of its baneful climate, will scribe the hot winds as sometimes so oppressive perhaps be the most judicious. The follow.g are as to oblige them to leave their houses, and as the names of the three men whom I endeavored cend the very tops of the mountains in order to to instruct,obtain a gasp of air. The climate is so exceedingly unhealty, and that at all times of the year, that Umkolwāni (Chief,) Umkolwani said he expected to find many ill on Makătakata, his return, although it was winter; that season, Unganāssi. if any, being the most sickly. Rain is unknown, but the nightly dews are heavy. The prevailing The two lads named Umthlathla and Cussesendana sickness is of two kinds—one, an affection of the were absent cutting wood. throat and lungs, from which they often recover ; This evening the principal Indoonas assembled but the other is a seizure so sudden and fatal, that in my hut to inform me that the king had made frequently in a few minutes, and generally in a me a present of twelve head of oxen; and that quarter of an hour, from the first attack, life is ex- he wished them to be considered as a token of his tinct. On these occasions they complain of pains gratitude, for having concluded the treaty with in the loins, back, and front of the head; and, him: that as such a “fast word” had passed beafter death, vomit a black liquid from the mouth. tween him and me, it was right that there should They have no knowledge of medicine, and inva- be something to show, as a proof that it had been riably leave the sick to languish without attempt accepted on both sides. I told them that, as a ing any remedy. A removal from this insalubri- pledge of the king's favor, I would certainly acous climate frequently restores them when suffer- cept them; but that I required no presents; all I ing from the first named disorder; and Umkolwāni wished for was friendship. They replied, that if himself declared, that on quitting his country the I did not accept them there would be nothing to complaint in his chest had immediately left him. show : that the king had desired them to say, that In common with the Amakosa, Zoolus, &c. they that on this day he received me into his country, observe the festival of the First Fruits. Circun- and that these oxen would be a token to all of what sion is still practised among them, notwithstanding he had done; that he was not yet tired, but should the desuetude into which it has here gone since do more hereafter. I assured them that my desire the reign of Charka. Although they had heard to befriend the king would not be increased by any of white people, we are the first whom they had presents he could make; that now he knew me, ever seen. They all acknowledged that when and would always find me the same ever desithey first saw us they mistook us for wild beasts; rous to do him and his people service. They said and one of them actually ran from my horse, who it was not the king only who thanked me this day; was quietly feeding near the town, taking him also it was the whole Zoolu nation. Having inspecto for some ferocious animal. On hearing the issi- ed the herd which were driven to a spot near my bum (gun) go off yesterday, they said that they hut, the Indoonas returned according to custom to thought the heavens were opening, and began to thank the king in my name. This present was in be alarmed. The effect of some lucifer matches addition to a cow sent for slaughtering this afternow exhibited, surprised them greatly. And they noon; but I could enjoy nothing ; the very sight informed me, that when they returned to their own of plenty filled my mind with the horrid spectacle people, they should tell them that “they had seen of suffering, which was about to be exhibited in a white men, and that they had the fire." On the hut not far removed from my own. subject of religion they were in total darkness ; Saturday, 30th.Understood that a bowl of every tradition had worn out ; and they presented beer had been given to the prisoners yesterday by the awful spectacle of immortal beings without order of the king; my servants likewise contrived the knowledge or acknowledgment of a Creator. to give them the liver of the cow. This apparUmkolwäni confessed that, while on his long jour- ent consideration on the part of Dingarn I consineys, he had often wondered how things came, der only as an aggravation to their sufferings, but could never find out; and had always suppos- like the brief respite which the tiger gives to his ed they came by chance. When the body died, prey, and was probably intended as a blind, merethey conceived that it perished; but the soul, after ly to sustain their lives until our departure. it was in the ground entered the body of a snake. Early this morning Mambayendi brought a Ofa day of future retribution they had not the slight- message from the king, expressing his wish, if it est idea, nor did they know any thing of an evil were not inconvenient, that I would return to spirit. What a blank is the life of man, without a Port Natal, as he was anxious to hear tidings of knowledge of God! and how pitiable and cheer- some recent deserters. On this, I sent to inform less his condition, until the Sun of Righteousness | him that it had been my intention to have aparises within to raise his affections to things above, prised him this day of my proposed return on and shed the love of God abroad in his heart! I Monday ; but as he was anxious for me to pro. was in great hopes that one of these interesting ceed, should the weather clear up (there had been people would have remained with me, with the in- much rain during the night,) I would set out this iention of instructing him; and, by the blessing of forenoon, although we should not travel to-morGod, preparing him to bear the glad tidings of sal- row, as it was our holy-day. On taking leave of vation to his benighted coumtrymen; but, notwith- Dingarn, I took an opportunity to thank him perstanding the sickness which they had all felt, and sonally for the oxen, saying, that when I looked again apprehended, the charms of home and a upon them I should think of the agreement exist. land of nativity were too powerful allurements : ing between him and the white people at Port should mistionaries ever be sent to that country, Natal. He said, that on my next visit he should

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