Imágenes de páginas

great convert answering him verse by verse. I crowd of people coming in and going out, and lost the sight of this curiosity also; whether from staring around them; but not one prayer, nor one the ignorance of my guide or not, I cannot say. verse of the Holy Scriptures intelligible to the peo

St. Ambrose died in the year 397, in the 57th ple, not even if they knew Latin; nor one word year of his age, and the 23d of his episcopate. He of a sermon; in short, it was nothing more nor has been charged with leaning too much towards less than a PAGAN SHOW. the incipient superstitions of his day, and thus un We returned to our inn, and, after our English consciously of helping forward the growth of mo- service, we went to see the catechising. This nastic bondage and prelatical pride. Something was founded by Borromeo, in the sixteenth cenof this charge may be true; but he lived and died tury, and is one of the peculiarities of the diocese firm and unbending in all the fundamentals of di- of Milan. The children meet in classes of ten or vine truth. He loved the Saviour. He depended twenty, drawn up between the pillars of the vast on his merits only for justification. He relied on cathedral, and separated from each other by curthe illumination and grace of the Holy Spirit. He tains; the boys on one side, the girls on the other. delighted in communion with God. A rich unction In all the churches of the city there are classes of godliness rests on his writings; and he was one also. Many grown people were mingled with the of the most fervent, humble, laborious, and chari- children. A priest, and sometimes a layman, sat table of all Christian bishops.

in the midst of each class, and seemed to be exI know not whether I am too ardent in my feel- plaining familiarly the Christian religion. The ings; but I must confess, that Zurich, Basle, Ge- sight was quite interesting Tables for learning neva, Milan, and Lyon, are the spots most dear to write were placed in different recesses. The to my recollection amongst all the places crowded children were exceedingly attentive. At the door with beauties of another

kind, which have attract- of each school, the words, pax vobis, peace be un. ed my notice during my tour.

to you, were inscribed on a board; the names of I need scarcely add, that in forming my judg- the scholars were also on boards. Each school ment of St. Ambrose, my guide has been Milner, had a small pulpit, with a green cloth in front, whose incomparable Ecclesiastical History, widely bearing the Borromean motto, Humilitas. as it is circulated, is not nearly so well known as Now what can, in itself, be more excellent than it deserves. For evangelical purity, accurate dis- all this? But mark the corruption of Popery : crimination of character, laborious research, sound these poor children are all made members of a judgment, decision, fidelity, I know no book like it fraternity, and purchase indulgences for their sins in the compass of English theology. As an ec- by coming to school. A brief of the Pope, dated clesiastical history it stands not merely unrivalled, 1609, affords a perpetual indulgence to the chil

, but ALONE.

dren in a sort of running lease of six thousand years, eight thousand years, &c., and these indul.

gences are applicable to the recovering of souls LETTER XIV.

out of purgatory ; the prayers also before school

are full of error and idolatry. All this I saw with Milan, Sept. 13.-Chamberry, Sept. 19, 1823. my own eyes and heard with my own ears; for I

was curious to understand the bearings of these Sunday at Milan-Sunday Schools,Punch-Vir- celebrated schools. Thus is the infant mind fet

gin Mary-Noisy Festival-Popery like Pagan- tered and imprisoned. ism-Church of St. Ambrose-Library-Amphi Still I do not doubt that much good may be theatre of Bonaparte - Unfinished Triumphal done on the whole--the Catholic catechisms conArch-Remains of Roman Baths-Mint-Pontain the foundation of the Christian religion, a geTesio-Turin-Churches - Palace-Ambioggio neral view of Scripture history, explanations of -Lans-le-bourg-Ancient Arch at Susa-Mount the creation and redemption of mankind, some Cenis Road-Reflections-St. Michael-Aiguebelle-Cuamberry-Life of Borromeo-Extracts good instructions on the moral law, sound statefrom Writings.

ments on the divinity of Christ, and the Holy

Trinity ; some acknowledgments of the fall of MILAN, Sunday evening, Sept. 14, 1823. man, and the necessity of the grace of God's Holy

Spirit; with inculcations of repentance, contrition, MY DEAREST SISTER-I have witnessed to-day, humility, self-denial, watchfulness, and preparation with grief and indignation, all the superstitions of for death and judgment. These catechisms are Popery in their full triumph. In other towns, the not brief summaries, but rather full explanations neighborhood of Protestantism has been some of religion; making up small volumes of fifty or check on the display of idolatry; but here in Italy, more pages. In the frontispiece of the catechism where a Protestant is scarcely tolerated, except for the diocese of Geneva is the following affectin the chapels of ambassadors, you see what things ing sentence, under the figure of our Lord, “ Son tend to; Popery has its unimpeded course ; every amour et mon crime ont mis Jésus à mort”-a thing follows the guidance and authority of the sentiment which cannot but produce good. Still prevailing taste in religion.

all is wofully mixed up with superstition, and error, At half-past ten this morning we went to the and human traditions; and the consequence of cathedral, where seats were obtained for us in the this mixture is, that vital truths are so associated gallery near the altar. We saw the whole of the in the mind, from early youth, with the follies of proceedings at High Mass-priests almost without Popery, that even the most pious men of that comend-incense - singing -music-processions - munion do not enough distinguish between them. perpe changes of dress-four persons with mi. If you deny transubstantiation, they suppose you tres, whom the people called the little bishops-a disbelieve the divinity of Christ ; if you avow that

you are not a Papist, they suppose that you are a and identity of the superstitions. Such is Dr. Midherctic, and have renounced the faith, &c. It was dleton's testimony, in his most interesting, elegant, thus that such eminent Christians as Pascal, Ni- learned, and decisive “ Letter from Rome,” in the cole, Quesnel, Fénélon, and the great men of the year 1729 *—a testimony confirmed by all imparJansenist school, lived and died in the church of tial writers since.t Rome. “A voluntary humility,” as well as the A late traveller, for instance, I says, there is the "worshipping of angels,”—Coloss. ü. 18—may well same strange mixture of the ceremonies of Paganbe noted by Št. Paul as an error, which ought zea- ism with the rites of the Roman Catholic religion lously to be excluded from the Christian church. in Sicily. The feast de la Vara, at Messina, is ob

After dinner, at half-past three, we had our se- viously founded on that of the Panatheneum cecond English service, at our hotel, and then were lebrated at Athens, in all the abundant details of hurried out to see, what you will think incredible folly and impiety. The festivals of Saturn and in a Christian country, altars set up in the open Rhea are also continued there, under names slightair to the Virgin Mary, with hangings, festoons ly changed; and more than one ancient Pagan of lamps, priests offering prayers, hung on deity, is now a Christian saint. The Sicilians show cords stretched across the streets, the houses

and you the mountain of Saint Venus, the well of Saint squales gaily adorned with carpets and lights; Juno, the chapel of Saint Mercury! || the churches open and illuminated, and crowds The facility with which the Jesuit Missionaries passing in and out; while priests were giving re- in Japan and China allowed their converts to retain lics to kiss to the devotees who came kneeling at the rites and usages of Paganism, is well known, the altar in the most rapid succession; and soldiers and is entirely consistent with the above statewere parading about to keep in order the assem-ments. The Spanish Missionaries in America actbled mobs. I never was so astonished in all my life. ed the same part. Popery conceals and corrupts Religion was, in fact, turned into an OPEN NOISY Christianity; and then alloys it further with the AMUSEMENT. Before the cathedral itself, there was peculiar habits and superstitions of each country. 9 an amazing crowd to witness Punch and his wife But to pass to another subject. What a la

- literally, Punch and his wife:* priests were mentable reflection is it, that all this is in a mingled in the crowd; and the thing is so much a Christian country, and under color of Christianity, matter of course, that nearly every picture of this and even on the Christian Sabbath. The fact cathedral, has, I understand, Punch and his audi- is, the Sabbath is almost unknown here as the tory in the fore-ground; thus the farce is kept up day of sanctification and holy rest! Doubtless, throughout this sacred day.

in so vast a population, there are many secret And what is all this, but the ceremonies of an- disciples of the Lord Christ, who "sigh and cry for cient Roman Heathenism colored over with modern all the abominations that be done in the midst Roman Christianity? The resemblance between thereof;” but as to the mass of the people, the Popery and Paganism in Italy strikes every impar- Sunday is forgotten, obliterated, lost—nay, it tial observer. The names of things only are chang- is turned into the very worst day of all the ed. There are the same prostrations—the same week-no idea enters their minds of the divine incense—the same holy water-the same lamps purpose and mercy in it, of which the Lord himself and candles—the same votive offerings and tablets speaks by his prophet, “I gave them my sabbaths, -the same temples, with the names of the hea- to be a sign between me and them, that they then deities slightly altered to suit the names of might know that I am the Lord that SANCTIFY pretended saints—the same adoration of images them.” I should conceive there are but very, very the same worship of the supposed guardians of few Bibles amongst all this population of one hun. roads and highways—the same pamps and proces- dred and fifty thousand souls. sions--the same flagellations at certain periods What do we owe to Luther, Calvin, Zuingle, --the same pretended miracles. It is not a little Cranmer, Ridley, Knox, &c. who, under God, lived curious, that the very superstitions which the early Christian fathers most vehemently condemned * There may possibly be, in Dr. Middleton's Letin the Pagan rites, are now celebrated at Rome, ter, some attacks on the Popish miracles in that gein open day, as a part of Christian worship. As to neral spirit of incredulity and levity which seems to the fact of the similiarity of the heathen and Popish condemn all miracles—and against which a young ceremonies, it is admitted on all hands. The Ita- reader cannot be too much on his guard. lan antiquaries delight in tracing, in all simplicity,

+ See Rome in the 19th century, above referred to.

I M. Forbin. the resemblance; whilst the theologians defend it

|| See "Extract from Les Souvenirs de la Sicile," on the ground of the necessity, in the conversion

supra. of the gentiles, of dissembling and winking at many In a report made a year or two back on the state things, and yeilding to the times. And if at last of religion in the south of India, we are informed they are pressed with tne notorious idolatry and that the Roman Catholics at Tinnevelly, a large folly of many of these usages, they explain them district under the Presidency of Madras, besides the away, precisely as the heathen did their worship idolatrous ceremonies which the church of Rome of false deities; and thus establish the connection openly sanctions, “add such others as their hea

thenish inclinations and the customs of the country * Italy is the native country of Punch. A priest suggest. At all the great festivals of the church at Naples once observing the crowd more attentive they conform to the customs of the Heathens; excepe to Punch, then exhibiting, than to himself who was that they call their 'Swamies' by names of Apostles preaching, suddenly seized a crucifix, and pointing and other saints, instead of Rama, Siva, &c. They to the figure of our Lord, exclaimed, “Ecco il vero draw the Rutt and carry their idols in procession, Puncinello." He turned the admiration of the multi- exactly like the Heathen. The distinction of Hea: tude instantaneously to himself.

then castes is observed among them."

and died to rescue us from similar darkness! hundred broad, and capable of holding forty thouAnd what an effusion of grace must have ac- sand persons; a truly Roman work. It is as spa. companied their labors, to give them the success cious, though less elevated than the celebrated with which they were crowned throughout the amphitheatre of Verona. The seats are made of greater part of Europe. And how great must be turf

, and rise one above another on the sloping the guilt of those Protestant countries, who are bank. There are ten rows of them. They are suffering the light of truth to go out in their of course all open to the heavens. The amusechurches, and are substituting false schemes of ments are foot and horse races, and naval fights; religion, or forms of cold orthodoxy, for the life the arena being easily filled with water, by giving principles of the Reformation! May we means of sluices. We much admired the chariots "walk in the light” whilst it remains with us, lest made after the ancient Roman models, and used in "darkness" should again, in just judgment, be al- the games. There is a suitable gallery on one lowed to “ come upon us !”.

side for distinguished personages; and the whole Monday evening, eight o'clock, Sept. 15, 1823. is surrounded with a wall

. We next proceeded to -We hired a voiture this morning, and drove Bonaparte's villa, which is beautiful; and his gate about this great city from eight o'clock till six, ex- of Marengo also, except that by a great mistake cept taking an hour for refreshment. We have he dedicated it to “Peace the preserver of nabeen richly rewarded. I shall say little of the tions." churches. This place is the toyshop of the Virgin But the most splendid and affecting monument Mary: we observe every where tradesmen for of his fame, is the incomplete triumphal arch at selling wax candles, images, crucifixes, ornaments the entrance of the Simplon road. The unfinish-this speaks for itself—"Demetrius and his crafts- ed stones remain where they were at his death. men." "I will only mention, that I observed a The bas-reliefs, which were to record his triumphs, direct claim of miraculous powers on the tomb of a are covered with dust. The sheds for the work Dominican rector (miraculorum gloriâ clarus.) men are deserted. You walk amidst the halfPlenary indulgences also were stuck up on almost formed designs. No one cares to finish the plan; every church. Two inscriptions, however, under and a total obliteration seems to have effaced the the cross of our Lord, pleased me: "Having made gaudy fascination which once attended his name. peace by the blood of his cross ;” and “ For the In the breasts of the people, however, here as elsejoy that was set before him, he despised the shame.” where, he still lives, and comparisons not the most If some of these old inscriptions were but acted flattering are made between him and the Austrian upon, a mighty change would soon take place.

government. The church that delighted me most was that of After this we went to inspect some very curious St. Ambrose, anciently the cathedral, and where Roman antiquities; a noble range of sixteen lofty he ordinarily officiated, founded in the fourth cen- pillars, formerly belonging to the baths of Milan. tury, on the site of a temple of Bacchus. Some re- They are fine Corinthian fluted pillars of white mains of the conquered heathen temple were seen marble of Paros, of admirable proportion, and placin different stones about the building, especially a ed at the most just distances from each other. bas-relief of Bacchanals, a pillar, with serpents, They are near the church of St. Lorenzo, and are einblematic of Esculapius; and the chair of St. thought to have been erected at a time when the Ambrose, formerly used in the idol temple. The purest architectural taste prevailed. The royal church is very old, and built of brick, and is almost palace, and that of the archbishop, had nothing buried by the elevation of the ground all around it. in them very remarkable. At the mint we saw You descend several steps to the large court, sur- a balance which turned with the eight hundredth rounded with galleries in front of it, and then se- part of a grain. The practice all over Bonaparte's veral more steps in entering the church itself. kingdoms of marking the value of each coin on The body of St. Ambrose is supposed to lie under the face of it, seems to be very good. A franc is the high altar. I confess I sat with reverence in marked a franc, five francs, five france, and so on. the chair of this great luminary of the church, The hospitals and charitable institutions, amountand mused on the fatal tendency to corruption ing to about thirty, we could not visit. in man, which in a few centuries could engraft Many of the women here wear at the back of on St. Ambrose's doctrines, idolatries and super- the head a semi-circle of broad cut pieces of tin, stitions almost as gross as those which he over. something like a fan, with two transverse pieces threw.

at the bottom of them towards the neck, like two The Ambrosian Library, called after the name pewter spoons joined by the handles—a costume of Ambrose, was founded by Fred. Borromeo, purely Roman. The general dress of the women cousin to the famous Borroraeo; it contains thirty is very becoming, with black or white veils; if thousand volumes. We were shown fifty-eight they have not veus, they draw the shawl over the leaves of a most curious MS. of the Iliad of the head. One of the most peculiar customs at Mi. fifth century before Christ, of which Angelo Mai lan is the hanging of the window-curtains, of all published a fac simile in 1810; a manuscript Vir- sorts of colors, not within the house, but on the gil

, with marginal notes by Petrarch; a Latin outside. It is singular also, to observe the dirty translation of Josephus, written on papyrus, of the blacksmith, or awkward shoe-boy, eating immense third century; and a very valuable volume of de- bunches of ripe black grapes, which would sell in signs by Leonardi da Vinci.

England for three shillings, or three shillings and I know you will ask, what memorials of Bona- six-pence a pound, as he goes along the streets. parte I visited. In reply I have to say, that we -But I must quit Milan, which though it has went to see his amphitheatre, with which I was distressed, has delighted and instructed us, and thuch delighted. It is one thousand feet long, five has more than amply repaid us the journey.

Turin, capital of the principality of Piedmont, have arcades on each side. A rivulet of clear 98 miles from Milan, 2047 from London by our water flows down the middle of each street. The route, Tuesday evening.-We left Milan this street of the Po is one of the finest in Europe. morning at a quarter past five, and in fourteen There is an uniformity in all this; but the arcades hours and a half reached this splendid and far- are so noble, and the city so well built, that the famed city. We left our friend and fellow-tra- appearance is imposing: "It far surpasses Bern, veller, who had accompanied us from England, which, I suppose, must have been built in imita. to go on to Rome for the winter. The two dear tion of it. The character of the inhabitants is boys and I took the carriage which met us at like their dialect, Italian with a mixture of French. Martigny last Tuesday from Lausanne, and posted Their dress is little different from that of the hither. We had three horses and no luggage French. Their manners are polished, from the (every thing is at Lausanne ;) so that we have long residence of the court. The English used made a most excellent day's journey. The plain formerly to remain for some time here, before of Piedmont is of course level; it is also extremely they prosecuted their Italian tour; in order to ill cukivated, and so marshy, from the numerous perfect themselves in the language and habits of streams falling into the Tesin or the Po, and per- the country. Since the revolution they more petually overflowing the country, that we hardly commonly rest for this purpose at Geneva. They saw a vine the whole hundred miles. The vil. are thus kept from the snares and seductions of a lages and towns bear sad marks of that want of luxurious court, and the associations, of a dissolute energy and spirit connected with the prostrate Italian population. tendency of despotic governments. Switzerland As to churches, there are one hundred and ten, far, far exceeds what we have yet seen of Pied with about five thousand priests, monks, &c. Almont, in all respects, except that indescribable soft most all the churches we visited were filled with balmy air, which soothes the whole frame. The people, and two priests officiating at separate alhedges are often of acacia. The grapes and tars. At the Jesuits' church, I inquired if there peaches are spread in immense baskets for sale were any of that order now at Turin; the guide in every little village. We gave three-halfpence replied, yes; that they were beginning again, and for a pound of delicious black grapes, and half a were arranging their affairs! Thus the zeal and franc, fourpence halfpenny, for a bottle of light activity of the Roman Catholic church still rewine-for we did not stop to eat. The people main unabated. In some things it deserves to here are of a pure olive color. The priests jos- be imitated by. Protestant countries. Its ample tle you almost at every corner. The chief corn provision of churches and ecclesiastical ministers in this country, and in Lombardy also, is Indian -its watchfulness over the people within its juris wheat and some rice.

diction—its care in visiting the sick—its diligence Turin, Wednesday morning, half-past eight. in catechising, &c. are examples to the reformed My boys have taken eleven hours? sleep to ba- communities. A pure and spiritual religion ought!! lance accounts. This city, of eighty-five thou- to be the motive to similar, and even greater ex. sand souls, is beautifully situated on the northern ertions; only abating every thing approaching to bank of the Po, which, rising at mount Viso, intolerance and dominion over the conscience.1 crosses northern Italy, and after bathing the walls For in the church of Rome, what is good in itself, of fifty cities, and receiving thirty rivers, in a is so corrupted, as to leave a melancholy imprescourse of three hundred miles, empties itself into -sion on the mind. Still, with regard to churches the Adriatic sea. It is the king of Italian foods. is it not painful to reflect that in Catholic counIndeed the Po, and the Tesin, are the only two tries accommodation is provided for the entire porivers famed in song, which are on our route. pulation; whilst in many parts of England, one The Tesin or Ticino, we have crossed more than in ten-twelve-fifteen, is all that the churches once; it springs from Mount St. Bernard, tra- will contain. Thank God this disproportion is verses the Lago Maggiore, runs by Pavia, and now by degrees lessening! then discharges itself into the Po.

At the church of St. Mary of the Consolation, Ambioggio, twenty-one miles from Turin, on the we were solemnly assured of the miracles which road to Lyon, half-past eight, Wednesday evening. the Virgin had wrought. The walls indeed were -We are now actually on our way to England, covered with the votive offerings of those who and every step will advance us nearer home. imagined they had received miraculous benefits. Thanks be to God for preservation and every But this was not more extraordinary than the needful mercy hitherto, during a long journey: chapel of the Holy Napkin, in the cathedral; May we be brought again to my dear Ann; and in which chapel is preserved the very napkin in with her and our little girl arrive safely in London! which our Saviour was enfolded after his cruciI must now give you some account of our drive fixion, with the marks of his sacred blood! The this morning about Turin. We set off at half- servant who told me this, did it not only with gra. past nine in a voiture. In six hours we had vi- vity, but with an awe in his voice and manner sited many of the chief curiosities. What shall quite unique. He assured me that the Pope had I say to you about this famous city, formerly the seen it in passing through the city—this was an

| gayest of Italy? It is a royal residence of the irresistible proof! king of Sardinia, the streets of which are built What would the noble Claudius, bishop of Tuall in straight lines, or radii, which meet in a rin in the ninth century, have said to these supercentre. There are one hundred and forty-five. stitions? You remember, perhaps, the name. He It is about four miles in circuit. The fortifications may be called, truly, the first Reformer from were domolished after the battle of Marengo. Popery. From the year 817 to 839 he continued to The houses are uniform, and many of the streets protest against the errors of the see of Rome.

and kept them from being introduced into his dio- naments ; indeed, the ornaments are too profusely cese, in spite of the violent opposition which was scattered, and the city hardly contains one chaste raised against him. In the remains of his wri- model of architecture. Turin is, however, by far

tings which are extant, he declares Jesus Christ more elegant, finished, splendid, attractive, than À to be the only Head of the Church—he condemns the enormous mercantile city of Milan. Weno

the doctrine of human merits, and the placing ticed that the tradesmen at Turin affix their traditions on the same level with the Scriptures names and trades not above their shop windows, --he maintains that we are saved by faith only, but on pieces of embroidered cloth, extended behe holds the fallibility of the church-exposes the tween the doors of the adjoining houses. futility of praying for the dead, and the sinfulness We dined at half-past three, and at five came of the idolatrous practices then supported by the on two stages to this small town, because the rain Roman see. The valleys of Piedmont, inhabited had fallen all day, and we were afraid of snow on now by the Waldenses, or Vaudois, of whom I mount Cenis ; indeed, the rain made it impossible hope to tell you something more particularly, were to walk about Turin, and therefore we left it with in his diocese; and it is probable those less regret. We crossed, at Turin, the Po, in were much increased and confirmed by his la- going to the queen’s, palace : perhaps no river has bors.*

been more celebrated by the poets ; but where But to return to Turin. At the university we we saw it, it scarcely answered my expectations. saw many undoubted antiquities of Roman fame The bridge over it is a noble structure. -busts of Cicero—altars-household godstri Thursday, Sept. 18, Lans-le-bourg, at the foot pods, and a head-dress like what I described as of Mount Cenis, on the French side, five o'clock. now worn at Milan,—all exceedingly curious. We set off this morning from Ambioggio, at å The university contains two thousand five hun quarter before six, and came in three hours to dred students. There are one hundred and Susa, on the Italian side of mount Cenis. Here twenty thousand volumes in the library. I asked we beheld with admiration the triumphal arch, if they had any manuscripts of the Scriptures; raised in honor of Augustus, by Cottius, king of the librarian stared, and then showed me a Latin the Cottian Alps. After eighteen centuries, it is • Bible of Thomas Aquinas ! But at Vercelli they in excellent preservation ; the elegance, simplicity, profess to have the autograph of St. Mark's Gos- and majesty of it, surpasses much the intended pel—the sacred original of the evangelist—in arch of Bonaparte. The inscription is become Latin; mistaking, I suppose, the celebrated Codex faint; but it records the names of the twelve naVercellensis of Eusebius for it; or else confound- tions who remained faithful to Augustus, when all ing Vercelli with Venice.t

the rest threw off the Roman yoke. It is curious, The royal palace forms one side of an immense that the designs of those who are commemorated square, in the midst of which is a fortified tower, by these arches were similar : Augustus to subsurrounded with a moat, erected by the duke of due France, Bonaparte to subdue staly; only in Savoy. I think it is the very largest square I the first instance, Italy was the aggressor, and in have seen on the continent. "I was pleasud to the second, France. Bonaparte's plan was, like see in the palace a portrait of our Charles I.; that of Augustus, to keep in subjection a conand, which is singular, of Calvin. The small li- quered country, by making a road for his artillery brary of the private chapel contained a Bible, directly across its natural fortifications, the Alps. Austin's Confessions and Letters, and Nicole's The characteristics of military ambition are the Essays; all excellent books.

This leads one to same in every age. hope, that the same judgment and piety which The road which Bonaparte restored and imformed such a selection, might possibly govern proved over Mount Cenis was finished in 1811, the habits and conduct of some of the royal per- six years after he had executed the astonishing sonages for whom it was made. It was the first work of the Simplon : next to that road, I suppose, time I had seen a Bible in a private Catholic it is the finest in the world. The day, however, library.

has been so exceedingly rainy, that we could be The arsenal had thirty thousand muskets of no judges of the scenery around us.

The road is English manufacture. We observed in the Mu- in itself admirably good, and the ascent and deseum a stuffed wolf, taken two years ago near scent most gradual. There are twenty-six houses Turin, after having killed twelve or thirteen child of refuge, and a military hospice for two thoudren. From the observatory we had a command- sand men. The highest point of the Cenis is ing view of the city and neighborhood. The about nine thousand feet. We have been exchurches generally are magnificent structures, in tremely cold, but without snow. We are now marble of every vein and color, with profuse or two thousand feet lower, and still need a fire.

We left Italy, properly so called, about two or See Milner, Cent. IX.

three to-day, and came again into Savoy. From † Jean Andre Irico published at Milan, in 1743, Domo d'Osola to Mount Cenis, we have travelled the book of the Gospels found among the MSS. of in Italy about two hundred and twenty miles : we the church of Vercelli. It is supposed to be in the have had a specimen of Italian scenery, climate, very hand-writing of Eusebius, of Vercelli, who manners, religion ; we have visited the capitals lived in the fourth century, and was a friend of of Lornbardy and Piedmont. We have seen PopeAthanasius. The MS. is deposited amongst the relics, which are preserved with superstitious re- ry in all its deepest traits of dominant superstiverence in the author's church at Vercelli. There tion, just as we saw it at Bonn, Franckfort, and is a pretended autograph of St. Mark's Gospel at Bern, in its most restrained and modest form. Venice; but it is merely a copy of the Latin ver- | The rapid visit has been new, instructive, and yet, sion.

most alarming. The general imor on is me

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