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mainder of the Simplon. It really rises in my manners of too many of that order of persons in estimation. Not only is the road of a convenient Italy. The chief church here is of modern Greek width and excellent smoothness, but ten or twelve architecture; there are three altogether, and about refuges are built for travellers overtaken by bad fifteen priests. A convent of Capuchins, suppressed weather. In one of these we dined, at half-past ten. by Napoleon, has just been restored. When we We had boiled mutton, roast veal, potatoes, salad, asked the innkeeper what curiosities there were and very good light wine for four of us, for eight in the town, he said there was only a Calvary—a francs, about eighteen pence a piece. In continu- chapel, or temple, on some mountain, with a ing our route we had the Alps constantly in view. superstitious representation of our Saviour's pasThere are six or eight tunnels, or galleries, cut sion-a trait perfectly conclusive as to the general through sold rocks, to form part of the road; one state of opinions and information in the place. gallery is six hundred and eighty-there feet long, We are now in Italy. But, how fallen! How with enormous windows opened in the rude granite melancholy is it to think of the actual condition of to give light on the path. I observed at another this queen of nations! Ignorance, poverty, indoplace four beautiful cascades falling down the cliffs, lence, vice, superstition, misery, are but too visible which are carried under the road by aqueducts. on all sides. Half the time, in fact, which God Bonaparte began a new hospice: it has fourteen assigned to man for labor, is consumed in superwindows in front, and five on each side. The stitious festivals of saints; whilst the one day of work has stood still since 1814. An immense pillar sacred rest is desecrated to folly and sin. All this of granite lies neglected along the road, in another is the more deplorable, when compared with the part
, designed for his triumphal arch at Milan. It beauty of the country itself. The air is delicious attests, in the most affecting manner, the total - the balmy atmosphere soothes and enchants you. change which his fall instantly occasioned. Not Then the recollections also of past glory rush upon a creature has cared to remove it out of the way, the mind. Italy is associated with all our earliest or apply it to any other purpose. We were six learning. It is the country of poets, and artists, hours and a half in attaining the highest point of and orators, and warriors. Scarcely a spot is to the road. The zig-zags which it takes, to pre- be found that has not been the theatre of some serve the gentle ascent, are surprising.
celebrated action. The stupendous ruins which After passing the village of Simplon, we began adorn it, impress the mind with lofty ideas of the to descend towards Italy through a valley magni- skill and perseverance of man, and at the same ficently and sublimely rude. The horrors of the time teach us the perishableness and vanity of all impending rocks—the immense masses broken off his works. The towns are famed for the conspi. by the storms, and lying, scattered around—the cuous characters to whom they have given birth; perpendicular crags of their lofty sides_united whilst Rome once the mistress of the Pagan with the infinite variety which reigns in every part, world; then the first see of the Christian church: really penetrated my mind with astonishment; ac- and lastly, the source of the gross western apostacy customed as I have lately been to unusual gran from the faith-gives a deep interest to the whole deur in the works of nature. Then the descent country where it is situated. I confess, a mixed is so gradual, that we drove a fast trot all the way. feeling possesses my mind, for which I cannot In short, it would be worth while taking a journey distinctly account. Curiosity, surprise, veneration, to see this country, if there were no beautiful sorrow, fear, compassion, all have a part. Though road; and it would be almost worth while taking I am not going to Rome, yet I seem to share the journey to see the road, if there were no beau- all the emotions of travelling for the first time in tiful country: the combination of the two is un- Italy—and the impression is deeper from the counequalled, as I suppose, in the world. At four we try I have just left. entered Italy, properly so called, for on the conti In Switzerland, all was the grandeur and manent, Savoy is commonly considered as part of jesty of nature ; in Italy, it is the splendor and Italy. The name of the first Italian village is San perfection of architecture. In the one, the towns Marco.
were of themselves nothing; in the other, they The plain of the Valley of Osola is beautiful. It are every thing. In Switzerland, the modern is the first Italian plain we have seen ; it differs efforts for religion and liberty, and the fine spirit from the Swiss, in its greater fertility, softness, of the inhabitants, attract your chief attention; in and beauty; the meadows are more rich, the trees Italy, the ancient memorials of past power, and in finer verdure. The town of Domo d'Osola has the remains of science and literature. In Switabout three thousand inhabitants. There is no zerland, you connect the works of nature with the bookseller in the place— I mark this fact, where it men; in Italy, the men with the works, not of occurs, as implying a thousand consequences nature, but of art. The Swiss have for five centhe public mind is bound down in imperturbable turies been raising their poor and desolate counignorance and self-satisfaction. As we passed try, by their industry and good government, to be Isella, the second village in Italy, our baggage was the praise of Europe'; the Italians have for twelve searched; and the officer told us plainiy, the centuries been depressing, by their indolence and objects he looked after were books of religion and bad administration, the most fertile and luxuriant, politics—morals are left to themselves.
to be its reproach. Switzerland, in short, is the On driving into the town, I was surprised to see land of freedom and of the purest form of Chrispriests, in their peculiar dress, but somewhat shab- tianity ; Italy, of slavery and of the most corrupt bily attired, standing about idly, or sitting in the state of the Christian doctrine.
But I am inmarket place, at the doors of cabarets, in company dulging in an endless strain of reflection. with the common people. Their jovial, careless To return. The vines are here very different, sort of look, struck me as characteristic of the lin point of luxuriance and beauty, from those of
the Rhine or of Switzerland; they are raised on lake. The fragrance was most gratifying to-day, treillises, often of granite, and always in regular though it is as late in the year as the middle of order, high enough to form arbors ; so that the Septeinber. Fountains and statues refresh and grass or corn grows beneath, and the field is one adorn every part of the grounds. In short, these bower. Where this is not the case, you have islands are the model of perfection in their way, beech, maple, or peach trees hung with vines, which way, indeed, has been out of taste for about joined from tree to tree by branches, suspended a century, and is undoubtedly stiff and unnatural; on ropes ; at other places, the terraces rise, load- but still, they reward one richly for the trouble of ed with vines, all up the mountain-side. The a visit. Some of the prospects from the islands, view of the rich black grapes, hanging under the on the lake and the bordering villages and mountreillis-work, is incomparably beautiful. We were, tains, are exquisite. The heights of the Simplon perhaps, a little partial in our judgment, because and the peaks of Mount Rosa and Saint Gothard the grapes of Switzerland, when we left it, were may be discerned from them. The Borromean as hard as stones ; whereas here the branches Palace, in each island, is an emblem of Italian hang in rich, ripe clusters everywhere, so that our finery and negligence. The wings of the principal postillion, as he walks up a hill, or a boy conduct one are completed : but the body is nothing but ing us to a sight, gathers large bunches unasked, bare walls. I understand this is almost general and brings them to us. I conceive, that Italy in Italy; the nobles build, or rather begin to build, must be something like to ancient Palestine, though immense houses—they half finish them--they doubtless much inferior to it.
soon allow them to decay and go to ruin ; a Arona, 41 miles from Domo d'Osola, 8 o'clock, complete well-appointed mansion is rare in this Friday evening, Sept. 12.-The weather is most country. propitious. We have had only one wet day (Au In approaching this town of Arona, where I am gust 31) since the storm on the Righi : to-day now writing, we ascended a hill to examine a there has been a soft delightful temperature, with colossal statue of cardinal Charles Borromeo, an out excessive heat. We set off at seven this eminent benefactor to Milan, and founder of the morning, and have been travelling a great way Sunday schools still existing there; he died in by the margin of the lovely Italian lake, called the year 1584. The statue itself is seventy-two Lago Maggiore ; its waters are smooth as a mir- feet high-twelve times the natural size, and five ror, so as to reflect every thing on its banks ; or six times as high, I think, as that of the duke towns on each side, mountains in varied outline, of Bedford in London—the pedestal thirty-six feet. crowning the prospect—the near scenery soft and The arm is twenty-eight feet long, the head twenty lovely, the distant bold and magnificent. It is, feet round, the nose two feet seven inches long, in some parts, one thousand eight hundred feet the circuit of the cloak fifty-four feet, &c. &c. deep. Eels abound in it, of the weight of thirty The attitude is that of one blessing the people.pounds.
The right hand is raised gently, the left clasps the From Baveno, we embarked to visit the Borro- Breviary :* (which is thirteen feet high) the head mean Isles, so called from the ancient Italian is bare; the countenance most benignant; the family which possesses and has adorned them.- garments those of a cardinal, in easy, flowing They are two, Isola Bella and Isola Madre. The drapery. So admirably natural is the whole, that principal one is a mile and a half round; originally you have no idea of its enormous dimensions on à barren rock, but now covered with gardens, first looking at it. It is curious that we thought grottos, and terraces, raised on arches and arcades. we discovered a likenese between the cardinal In some parts the arches are ten stories high, one and the present count Borromeo, whom we hapover another, raised from the lower part of the pened to meet as we landed on his island: the rock to the highest terrace; which is one hundred resemblance in the nose seemed to us to be strikand twenty feet above the surface of the lake, and ing. The head, feet, and hands of this Colossus forty feet square. A pegasus placed on the sum are made of bronze; the body of copper; the pemit gives the whole island something of the ap- destal is of stone. There are no steps within the pearance of a pyramid. The aspect of these pedestal, as you might expect; but my sons had arches and terraces from the road was most beau-to ascend by a ladder from the outside to the part tiful—there was something quite novel in the view of the statue where the fold of the cloak falls. of the mass of gardens and buildings rising at once Under this bronze fold they entered, and then asout of the water, as by enchantment.
cended to the head of the figure, and sat with ease Nor were we disappointed when we came near in the nostrils. A stone pillar with iron spikes er. We saw in the gardens, cedars, myrtle trees, fixed in it, by way of stairs, runs up the interior cypresses of enormous girth, aloes, Egyptian of the statue to support it. I really quite trembled grapes, serpentine cucumbers a yard and a half as they went up the quivering ladder of forty-eight long; a plant from the Canaries, which grew steps, and when they entered the statue, and twenty-four feet high in thirty-two days; but the afterwards looked out to me from a kind of door most abundant species of trees were the citrons, which opened in the back of it, a hundred feet which lined the walls of the terraces, and had above my head, (half as high as the Monument in large cabbages planted at their roots, to protect London) I was really alarmed. Thank God, they them from the intense heat of the sun. There came down safe. were also vines, olives, and orange trees in profu The inńs in Italy are contrived for delight.sion. More than thirty thousand oranges and We are now sitting with our windows open ; citrons are gathered every year. In the time when the gardens are in flower the sweet per * So the guide-books call it--for my part, I hope fume spreads for a considerable distance over the l it is the Bible.
flower-pots are placed in every nook ; grapes for their farms, but divide the returns with ther hang all around in rich clusters ; open galleries landlord. Ploughing is performed by oxen. The and platforms conduct from one part of the house agricultural instruments are deplorable ; and the to another; the floors are all brick or stone ; the inhabitants are generally poor. Many of the rooms are lofty; and if they were but clean, all churches have small square towers, very lofty, would be well. We have now the finest fruit at with six or seven stories, and windows in each.breakfast and dinner, and good light wines at a The towns are slovenly and dirty beyond all defranc a bottle. The people are of a copper color. scription : one would think there was scarcely a The women wear handkerchiefs over their heads comfortable house in them. like veils. At Domo d'Osola, the streets had two In coming down to Sesto, we had a noble view narrow slips of smooth flags in the middle, for the of mount Rosa, with its perpetual snows, which wheels of carriages, the rest being rough pebbles. appeared higher than any Alp we had seen, on We are under stricter police laws than ever ; our account of the low situation of the plain from passports are sent for at every town, as soon as which we viewed it. It is with regret we took we enter; and we have a license for post-horses, leave, for a time, of these magnificent scenes. I which we have to show at each stage. Such is should have told you, that in Savoy, the women the liberty of the Sardinian and Austrian domi- were the chief laborers in the fields. I saw, senions in Italy.
veral times, a plough guided by a woman ; who There are about three thousand people in this with one hand held the plough, and with the other town of Arona, six churches and forty priests, drove a miserable lean cow, which drew it through with sixty monks ; no bookseller-compare this the dusty land. with the state of English towns of the same ex I will just say, about the Alps generally (for I tent-Banbury for instance ; where there is one expect now to have to quit the subject) that the church and one clergyman, but large schools, line where the snow rests on them perpetually is numerous benevolent institutions, and perhaps a from eight thousand four hundred and fifty, to dozen booksellers. Italy swarms with monks and nine thousand one hundred feet above the level ignorance.
of the sea ; the line where FIR-TREES and FlowThe Borromean motto is “ Humililas ;" which Ers flourish, six thousand: the lowest line wbere is inscribed even on each flower-pot of the superb CORN will grow, three thousand seven hundred garden in the islands, and on the picture of the As- and fifty; and where VINES can be cultivated, cension of St. Borromeo to heaven, in the church one thousand nine hundred and fifty feet. Thus of what is called the Sacred Mount, where the the same mountains exhibit every variety of prostupendous statue is placed; on the ascent to duct. Their heads are craggy, inaccessible, which Mount, by the by, there are six or more without the possibility of vegetation; their bases chapels dedicated to the same saint. I asked the are covered with rich corn-fields, or luxuriant waiter here, quite accidentally, if they were all pastures; the middle consists of pastures less Catholics at Arona ; he looked at me with asto- productive, interspersed with a great variety of nishment, and said, yes :-perceiving his surprise, plants. The summits, in fact, are doomed to all I told him I was an Englishman and a Protestant, the rigors of an Icelandic winter; whilst at their and that the English believed in Jesus Christ their feet, one enjoys the warmth of an Italian sun. Saviour, though they did not believe in the Pope; There is something very instructive in this at which the man seemed more astonished still. scale of vegetation for I must moralize for a Such slight circumstances as these, serve at least moment. The degree of the sun's heat reguto betray the habits of thought in the common lates every thing in the natural world. All is people in Italy. All is sealed up in impenetrable sterile as it recedes from it. May we not say, in ignorance and superstition. I suppose, if I had like manner, as to the moral world, that fruitfulattempted ever so mildly to convince him of the ness in holy love and obedience is just in proporerrors of Popery, I should soon have heard of it tion as our principles and habits place us under from the police.
the vivifying influences of grace? The nearer Milan, Saturday evening, half-past 8, Sept. 13, we approach to the centre of all warmth and life, 44 miles from Arona, about 1950 miles from Lon the more fruitful: as we recede, all withers and don.-We set off this morning at half-past seven, dies. My main quarrel with Popery and with and came to Sesto Calende, on the Tesin. It merely nominal Protestantism is, that they conwas near this town that Hannibal is thought to ceal and exclude the genial light and heat of the have conveyed his elephants across the river and "Sun of Righteousness,” and substitute a cold, defeated the Romans, three hundred years before freezing superstition or indifference in its stead. Christ.
Christ our Lord is to the moral world, what the The Lombardo-Venetian kingdom of the Em- glorious orb of day is to the natural—the source peror of Austria begins here. Happily our pass- and fountain of life and growth and joy. ports were signed by the Austrian ambassador But to return to our route to Milan-We were before we left Bern, or we should have had to re- much surprised to find more than one large church trace our steps ; several Englishmen, for want of built in the midst of the fields, with not a house this formality, have actually been compelled to near; and, therefore, apparently for the travelreturn. We dined at Cascenia at half-past eleven, ling peasants in passing from town to town. This and entered Milan at half-past three. The coun- may, perhaps, be an excusable trait of supersti. try through which we passed is flat, and wretch- tion ; a trait of another kind we discovered at edly cultivated, but fertile. The pastures are dinner. The waiter asked us three francs each often excellent. The grass is regularly cut four for some cold meat, wine, and fruits; we hesitimes a year. The tenants pay no rent in money tated. Upon which an English gentleman told
us we had only to give him two francs each, and paintings on the glass, also tend to increase the one for himself, and he would be content; the general gloomy appearance. rogue took the money without a word.
The statue of St. Bartholomew, within the caMilan, where we now are, is considered, next thedral, is considered as a chef-d'ouvre-but the to Rome and Naples, one of the largest cities of subject is frightful—the martyr is represented just Italy. It was the ancient Mediolanum; and in the act of being flayed alive-the skin hangs was founded as early as Tarquinius Priscus, 670 down loose like a garment behind him. Two years before Christ. It was the capital of Bona- pulpits in the choir much pleased us. They are parte's kingdom of Italy, and is now the joint- of fine bronze, each running round an immense capital with Venicet of the Italian dominions of pillar, like a gallery ; one is supported with ad. the emperor of Austria. It has nearly one hun-mirable figures of Cyprian, Ambrose, Austin, and dred and fifty thousand inhabitants ; the outer Jerome; and the other, by the four mysterious wall is ten miles in circuit, and it is one of the very animals of Ezekiel. The tomb of Carlo Borrofew great cities not built on a river. The Adda meo is most splendid. It is a room of silver gilt, and Tesin, however, communicate with it by ca- and contains a superb altar, and the history, in nals. We are at the Royal Hotel, and are ex- bas-relief, of the chief events of his life-beyond tremely well accommodated. The landlord tells conception magnificent. The shrine is of rock us that his servants have, during the last nine crystal. The summit of the tower of the catheyears, perfectly learned the English taste. dral presents a beautiful and extensive view of the
Immediately after our arrival, we hastened to city and plain of Milan ; with its rivers, gardens, see the celebrated cathedral, built of white mar- groves, vineyards, and numerous towns; bounded ble, the grandest and most imposing specimen of by the neighboring Alps, and more remote ApenGothic architecture now remaining; and the nines. finest church in Europe, after St. Peter's at Rome, Still all is an entire flat; the plain of fair Italy. and St. Paul's at London. It is also the largest In this respect, Switzerland, dear Switzerland, far in Italy, next to St. Peter's. It is four hundred surpasses it. As we approached Milan, a small and forty-nine feet long, two hundred and seventy- hedge in the road was sufficient to conceal the five wide, and two hundred and thirty-eight high. whole of the place from us. The town has some It was begun in 1386, and is yet unfinished; but, fine streets, with handsome foot-pavements; but strange to say, Bonaparte did more to complete it as it is very ancient, most of the streets are narin a few years, than had been done in three hun- row, and irregularly built. Its superb private dred previousmor than will be done, perhaps, in edifices and palaces are but few ; in these it three hundred to come.
yields, not only to Rome and Genoa, but to FloThis noble edifice, as you first approach it, rence. I observe all is done to keep out the bursts upon the eye most majestically. The fa- heat : the shops have no windows ; curtains hang çade is magnificent, and the three other sides are on the outside of the doors; the people come out hardly inferior. The immense mass of perfectly chiefly in the evening; and on great festivals white marble, of which it is built, its amazing they ascend the roof of their cathedral, and pass size, the labor manifest in its several parts, and the their evenings in the coolness which it furnishes. exquisite finish of the ornaments and statues The streets have two single rows of flags, in the which adorn it, fill the mind of a stranger with middle, for the wheels of the carriages, and someadmiration. We gained the best idea of the times double sets. The windows have three shutbeauties of its alabaster walls by going up on the ters: first, Venetian; then glass; then, on the roof, which is itself covered with slabs of marble. inside, wood, exclude the hot air. We then saw quite closely the fret-work, the Sunday morning, Sept. 14.- This is one of my carving, and the sculpture, and marked the grace melancholy Sundays.' An immense Catholic of the figures, and the symmetry and elegance of town of one hundred and fifty thousand souls each pinnacle. Above the dome there rises an the ecclesiastical apparatus enormous ; about two elegant tower, like an obelisk. We walked up hundred churches, eighty convents,* and one hunstairs of marble, we leaned on balustrades of dred religious houses compare this with the Promarble, we passed through galleries of marble ; testant establishments of Birmingham or Manwhilst the walls were literally studded with sta- chester, which fall as far short of what such a tues, and every niche filled with its archbishop or crowded population fairly demands, as the Milan saintthere are in all more than four thousand establishment exceeds it. We might surely learn figures. The fact is, as marble is obtained with something in England of the duty of greater zeal ease and in great abundance in Italy, and admits and attention to our pure form of Christianity, of nicer workmanship than stone, the full benefit from the excessive diligence of the Catholics in has been taken of these advantages. The in- their corrupt superstitions. terior of the building, however, is obscured with I feel a peculiar veneration for Milan on two dust and smoke, and incense, and burning lamps; accounts: Śt. Ambrose, whom Milner dwells on so that it does not look nearly so handsome as the with such commendations, was the light of this outside. The smallness of the windows, and the city in the fourth century; Carlo Borromeo,
whose benevolence exceeds all description, was • Milan is about ten miles in circumference; Na- archbishop here in the sixteenth. This last 1 ples fifteen, besides seven large suburbs, and con- know at present little of; but Ambrose was one tains 450,000 inhabitants; Rome is thirteen miles, of the most humble and spiritual of the fathers of within the circuit of its walls. + Milan and Venice are placed on a par with each
* One hundred and fourteen convents are said to other.
have been suppressed by Napoleon.
I am yours,
NOTICE OF ST. AMBROSE.
the church, two or three centuries before Popery, still many persons of distinction in the city reproperly speaking, began. In this city Ambrose mained Pagans, especially amongst the senators. preached ; it was here Austin heard him, at- The tradition, therefore, as to his cathedral, mentracted by the fame of his eloquence. It was tioned in my next letter, may be considered auhere also, that Angilbertus, bishop of Milan in the thentic. ninth century, refused to own the supremacy of His conduct towards the emperor Theodosius the Pope ; indeed, the church of Milan did 'not has deservedly raised his character in all succeedsubmit to the Roman see till two hundred years ing ages. The emperor professed Christianity, afterwards. May God raise up another Ambrose and in the main is thought to have been a decito purify and recall the city and churches, which dedly pious prince; but he was of a passionate he instructed thirteen or fourteen centuries ago! temper, and the inhabitants of Thessalonica havNothing is impossible with God; but Popery ing, in a tumult, put to death one of his officers, he seems to infatuate this people. On the church of signed a warrant for military execution, though he Milan notices are affixed, that whoever causes a had previously promised Ambrose to forgive them. mass to be said there, may deliver any one he In three hours seven thousand persons, without trial chooses from purgatory. In the mean time, this and without distinction, were massacred. The debasing superstition goes hand in hand with se. Bishop upon this refused to admit Theodosius into cret infidelity and unblushing vice.
the church of Milan for more than eight months, But once more adieu. May God make me and then only after doing public penance. Mr. prize more the essence of Christianity, and dwell Addison, who travelled in Italy in 1699 and 1700, less on those adventitious circumstances which says, he was shown the gate of a church that St. are so soon carried to excess, or converted to su- Ambrose shut against the emperor. No such perstition! The Gospel in its simplicity, power, entrance was pointed out to us, probably from the holiness, and love, is all in all. Here we cannot neglect of our guide ; for the tradition itself of be too earnest, too fervent, too watchful. Other such pieces of local history is commonly indelible. things are valuable as they promote this, and only But it is as the instructor of his great convert, as they do so. If they obscure or supersede what St. Augustine, or Austin, that I most cherish the they ought to aid and adorn, they become per- memory of Ambrose. Austin was sunk in the nicious and even destructive.
depths of Manichæism, when about the year 384,
and the 30th of his age, a requisition was made D. W. from Milan to the prefect of Rome, where he then
resided, to send a professor of rhetoric to that city. Austin obtained this honorable appointment. He sought the acquaintance of Ambrose because
he was skilful in rhetoric. Ambrose received him Ambrose was one of the brightest luminaries like a father, and Austin conceived an affection of the fourth century. He was born in the year for him, not as a teacher of truth, which he had 338, and was educated for the law. The emperor no idea of discovering in the Christian church, but Valentinian appointed him judge at Milan, A. D. as a man kind to him; and he studiously attended 374, where he became renowned for prudence his lectures, only with a curious desire of discoverand justice, during five years. At the end of that ing whether fame had done justice to his eloquence time, a tumult having arisen in the cathedral at or not. He stood, indifferent and fastidious with the election of a bishop, Ambrose repaired thither respect to this matter, and, at the same time, dein order to quell it. An infant's voice was on a lighted with the sweetness of his language. But sudden heard in the crowd, “ Ambrose is bishop.” the ideas which he neglected came into his mind, The whole assembly caught the words; and, for- together with the words with which he was pleasgetting he was a layman, vociforated with one ed; and he gradually was brought to attend to the consent, " Ambrose is bishop.” The judge was doctrines of the bishop. Thus imperceptibly did confounded and alarmed, and absolutely refused the grace of God work in the mind of this extrato accept of the nomination. The emperor, how- ordinary man! It was long before he unbosomed ever, whose court was at Milan, at length com- himself to his instructor. He tells us it was out pelled him to assent.
of his power to consult him as he could wish, surHis first act was to make over all his property rounded as he was with crowds of persons whose to the church. He then commenced a particular necessities he relieved. During the little time in and most devout study of the Scriptures. His la- which he was from them, (and the time was but bors afterwards, as bishop, were incessant. In little,) he either refreshed his body with food or his the instruction of catechumens he employed so mind with reading. much pains, that five bishops could scarcely do | After two or three years of inward conflict, he what he alone performed. He preached every at length gave in his name for baptism; which Lord's day, and frequently in the week. When Ambrose administered to him, little thinking that he was fiercely persecuted by Justina the empress, he was admitting into the church a convert who, a patroness of Arianism, and was required to yield in the gracious purposes of God, was designed to up his church, he spent whole days and nights in be the bright glory of the western church, and the the sacred place, employing the people in singing main restorer of decayed Christianity in the world. divine hymns and psalms; and on this occasion he There was a little chapel lately rebuilt when Mr. introduced, for the first time, the responsive sing- Addison visited Milan, on one of the walls of ing, after the manner of the east, to preserve them which an inscription stated, that it was in that from weariness. Arianism was, by his doctrine place that Austin was baptized, and that on this and his zeal, at length expelled from Italy: But l'occasion St. Ambrose first sung his Te Deum, his