« AnteriorContinuar »
in silence upon his carpet, utterly unmindful of the Turk, attended by a numerous party, near the top scenes by which he was surrounded, was a true of the highest of the pyramids, who manifested all emblem of the character of his nation. In the the eager curiosity of Franks. The prejudices of countries professing Christianity there has been the people generally have been lessened by the a gradual progress in art and science during se- great number of Europeans in the employ of goveral centuries, but throughout the whole of the vernment, and the principal insults that the travelMahomedan empire, the minds of men seemed to ler now receives are from women and children. be sinking into a lethargy more and more pro Ibrahim Pacha has, perhaps, adopted the modes found, and all the signs of activity presented else- of thinking common among Europeans to a greatwhere under a thousand different forms were un er extent than any other Mussulman chief since able to arouse them from their slurnber. There the establishment of Islamism. The battle of Na. was the invention of printing, the introduction of varino taught him that the fangs of “the Christhe Newtonian system, and numberless other tian dogs" were not to be despised. It is difficult discoveries arising from the establishment of the to form a just estimate of his character, as the acinductive philosophy, the application of steam, and counts are contradictory of those who have had a revival of religion more pure and more extensive access to his presence. The exercise of cruelty than had been witnessed from the times of the is more frequently accompanied by the forms of apostles, but not one of these events, each of law than in his younger days, but it may be equal. which might exert a power sufficient to shake the ly severe and extensive. It appears from the pubworld, influenced in the least the mass of the lic prints that he has this year visited the convent Mahomedan population. Within the last few at Nazareth, and was present at the celebration years the sleep of centuries has been drawing to- of Easter in the church of the Sepulchre at Jeruwards a close, but the effects of the powerful salem. opiates that have been taken are evident upon the The charges are numerous that might be brought system, and the present excitement is but as the by the Mahomedan world against the church of awakening that precedes death.
Christ, and there lies at our door a mass of accuThe religion of Mahomet was established by the mulating guilt, that calls upon us loudly to exert sword; it is now perishing by the same process : ourselves by every means in our power to effect and the sword of its destruction is drawn from its its removal. The nations conquered by the first own scabbard, and wielded by its own arı. The caliphs were nearly all infested with the heresy of recent rebellion of Egypt has thrown the Ottoman Arius. There have been Christian churches empire into the hands of a Christian power; other among them in all periods of their history, but Christian powers have only to refuse interference, these churches are failen, and have the form of and its downfall would be the work of little more religion without the power. Then comes the imthan a single day. It would be in vain to bring portant question, By what means were the Maout the old garment of the prophet, the elevation homedans to receive the true light that shineth of which would once have been answered by the from heaven, and be rescued from their error, and Aashes of a million scimitars, as the virtue of its led into the way of peace? The Arians had put inspiration has gone for ever. There is a trem- out the light from before their own eyes, the Greek bling in the hearts of the people, produced by the and other churches had it still in possession, but very power that once gave them courage for the it was hidden in deep recesses to which no one conflict. They then believed that it was written could approach, and the Protestants looked on with in the book of fate that they must conquer; they criminal indifference. The recent expansion of now believe that it is written in the same book, Christian benevolence has extended as far as Conin characters equally imperishable, that they must stantinople, Smyrna, Alexandria, and many other fall.
places similarly situated, but the work has been The changes that are taking place are the more hitherto of a preparatory nature; the missionaries interesting, because among such a people any have not yet been able to make any concentrated change is wonderful, and a change for the better attack upon the strong holds of Mahomet, and the is almost beyond the limits of belief. Some of body of the people have never had Christianity these innovations have not been effected without brought before them in its pure simplicity and nathe shedding of much blood, but the opposition tive power. It is well known that there is a law has ceased, and the Turks see daily the most se- in existence, that any Mussulman who renounces rious inroads upon the customs of their ancestors, his religion shall be put to death. Under these without a single conservative movement. The circumstances, the principal efforts must at pregreat doctrine to which much of their apathy was sent be made by the establishment of schools, by to be attributed, has been openly disregarded in private conversations, and by the distribution of the adoption of quarantine, and the establishment tracts and of copies of the Scriptures; but misof schools of anatomical dissection. The com- sionaries must be at hand to instruct more fully mands of Mahomet have been at all times evaded, those who, by such means, have received "the but it was in secret: now, they are broken by all light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the classes without shame, or the least attempt at face of Jesus Christ,” and prepare them for an concealment. In an hotel at Alexandria, I saw a open profession of the cross, and the consequences party of Turks, high in office, drinking to each of that profession. It is to be feared that without other's health in bumpers of champagne. The great watchfulness on our part, the spread of fast of the Ramzan was last year publicly broken knowledge by the instrumentality of the presses by no less a personage than the governor of Da- now established, will be only the prelude to a more mascus. In some minds there are indications of open profession of infidelity; and skepticism, as in excitement and enterprise. I met a respectable too many parallel cases, will take the place of su
perstition. Ibrahim Pacha was asked by a friend
GREECE. of mine whether he himself would put to death one of his own people who might embrace Chris. The northern boundary of Greece cannot be detianity, and his reply was this :—“It is a hard fined with precision, as its extent was not the question : we have laws —-" It is the opinion same at all periods of its history; but its southern of those competent to judge, that neither Ibrahim boundary was at all times the Mediterranean sea. nor Ali Pachia would carry this law into execu- No place in Greece Proper is mentioned in the tion, but it is probable that the first native con- Old Testament, but among those places to which verts might suffer from private revenge or a gene- reference is made in the New, are included Achaia, ral attack of the people.
Athens, Berea, Corinth, Illyricum, Macedonia, It was one of the noblest triumphs ever achiev- Philippi, and Thessalonica ; and if the term Greece ed by the gospel, when the hordes who burst from be extended to all the places inhabited by Greeks, their fastnesses in the north of Europe upon the it will also include, in the provinces of Asia Minor, Roman empire, and established themselves even Bithynia, Cappadocia, Cilicia, Colosse, Galatia, in the centre of the imperial city, were converted Icorium, Lycaonia, Lycia, Myria, Mysia, Pamfrom idolatry to the religion of Christ. With these phylia, Phrygia, Pontus, Pisidia, Tarsus, and the conversions the victories of the cross appeared to seven churches of Asia. By the prophets Greece
The conquerors of the Roman empire is called Javan. Isa. lxvi. 19; Ezek. xxvii. 13, 19; were many of them conquered in turn, by the Daniel xi. 2. In the vision seen by Daniel, he Turks and Saracens ; but in no place was the re- beheld a he-goat that came from the west, that ligion of the victorious Mussulmans abandoned for had a notable horn between his eyes; and he tells that of the vanquished Christians. For the space us, “the rough goat is the king of Græcia, and of nearly one thousand years there was not a sin- the great horn that is between his eyes is the first gle instance of a national conversion to Christian- king.”. Dan. viii. 21. The prophet Joel charges ity. The front of cruel and relentless hostility the inhabitants of Tyre and Sidon with having was exhibited by the Moslems towards the Naza sold the children of Judah and Jerusalem to the rines, whom they suffered to exist within the bor-, Grecians. Joel u. 6. In the Apocrypha there are ders of their land, and their opposition was so suc- several references to Greece. The word Greek cessful, that the law against conversion slumbered is sometimes equivalent to Gentile in the writings in its concealment, and few have been the spirits of St. Paul. The ancient states were many of from among the followers of the false prophet, them well peopled, but the population of the mowho, for Christ's sake, have been willing to suffer dern kingdom of Greece does not much exceed death, or found worthy to join the noble army of a million souls, and its superficies has been calcumartyrs in heaven. It is, however, to be hoped lated at 1100 geographical square miles. that there have been conversions in secret, that were known only to God. A fellow traveller informed me that a muleteer, with whom he entered into conversation in Greece, confessed to him that
ATHENS. he was a convert from Mahomedanism. When travelling between Ancona and Loretto, in Italy, I SAILED from Ægina, July 24, in company with a I was told that at one of the villages through Belgian gentleman, who had espoused the side of which I passed, a Turk_had a few days before the king of Holland during the late war. The been publicly baptized. The signs of the times sailors of our caique manifested great pride in are in some respects fair and promising, and pointing out to us the spots in sight, that had though there is much to depress the servants of been consecrated by the deeds of their fathers. Christ who are laboring in these regions, there There was not a cape, or cove, or island, that has are other circumstances, in the book of prophecy, not been written in words that will never die. as well as in the opening volume of providence, The well-known letter of Servius Sulpicius to Cithat demand a continuance at the post of danger, cero, came with great force to my remembrance. and encourage the expectation of better and hap- Before us was Athens ; behind us, Corinth; on pier times. The inarch of the Mahomedan con our right, Ægina ; and on our left were Megara, querors was first arrested in France; they have Salamis, and Eleusis. The sun was setting as since been driven from Spain and Hungary; they we entered the Piræus, and when our little bark have been annihilated in Greece; they have been had glided into smooth water, we had leisure to weakened in Turkey and Persia ; the mightiest give ourselves up to thoughts of other years. We of their empires now tremble at the prospect of slept in the vessel, as several robberies had of late an approaching dissolution; and though the future been committed in an olive-grove, through which be dim, there may be discovered in the distant we must have passed before we could enter the horizon, by the eye of faith, the form of the cres- city. The Piræus now contains only a miserable cent wasted to an almost viewless streak, and it coffee-house and a small bazar, though it once riis setting in darkness behind a mighty pile of valled Athens in the splendor of its edifices. prostrate walls, ruinous domes, and fallen mina In the morning we rode forward to Athens, a rets; whilst, in the opposite sky, the sun of righte- distance of about four miles, upon mules that in ousness proclaims its approach by tints of light that the mean time had been procured for us from the play at intervals along the firmament, and a voice city. I was kindly entertained at the house of the breaks forth from the silence, as the sound of many Rev. Jonas King, of the American Board of Miswaters, “ There is no God besides Jehovah, and sions, to whom I had brought a letter of introducJesus of Nazareth is the Son of God and the Re- tion from his brethren in Beirout. deomer of the world."
The ancient city is said to have been founded
by Cecrops, a little before the time of Moses. The some relic of antiquity. The Pnyx, where the rock of the Acropolis was first occupied, and it assemblies of the people were held, may be traced was an admirable position, both for beauty and with ease, and the stage on which the orators security, as it is situated in the midst of a plain, stood, with many other places cut out of the rock, and commands an extensive view; but the city is nearly perfect, but the voice of Demosthenes is itself
, independent of the protection it may receive no longer heard. The wall of the present city from the citadel, possesses few advantages. It passes over the hill of Mars, which is a rock of no was connected with the Piræus by a road defend- great elevation, near the entrance to the Acropoed on each side by strong walls, and had two other lis. It was here that Paul stood before th harbors, Munychia and Phalerus. The Acropolis sembly of the Areopagus. Three caves, or dunis an insulated rock; the ascent to it is not difficult
, geons, are shown, in one of which it is said that and part of the propylæa, or ancient entrance, is Socrates drank the poison. The monument of still in existence. The remains of antiquity are Philopappus, stands upon the hill of the Museium. nearly all disfigured by the addition of more mo- There are now only sixteen columns of the temdern buildings. The Parthenon is still grand ple of Jupiter Olympus, though it could boast of amidst its ruin, though the columns of the front upwards of one hundred at the time it was finished and part of the lateral porticos are all that remain. by Adrian; and upon one of the entablatures are The interior was used as a mosque by the Turks, the remains of a narrow apartment, built by a and since their expulsion it has been occupied as monk, to which he ascended by a rope, and there a barrack by the Bavarian soldiers. Not far dis- lived in perfect solitude. The Illissus was dry at tant are the temples of inerva Poli and Nep- the time of my visit, but there are several springs tune Erectheus, both of exquisite workmanship, of excellent water in its bed, at a convenient disand near them are the celebrated female figures tance from the city. The form of the Stadium, called Caryatides. I ascended to the top of the 680 feet long, is preserved, but the marble benches Parthenon, and had from thence a fine view of on which the people sat during the spectacles have the city, mounts Anchesmus and Hymettus, the disappeared. three harbors, the islands of Ægina and Salamis, The present city is little better than a mass of the sites of the Academy of Plato and the Lyceum ruins, as it suffered most severely in the late war of Aristotle, and many other places of equal inter- with the Turks. It is intended that it shall be est. The richest relics have been taken away the capital of the new kingdom of Greece, and the from the Parthenon, but whether their removal arrival of the court will soon change its appearance. shall at length prove a benefit to the arts or a loss, The plan of the city has been decided upon by the time only can decide. I will not attempt to des. king, and it is so constructed that many of the cribe my feelings whilst looking at this perfec- principal remains of antiquity in the lower city will tion of beauty." I cannot analyse that which be brought out into view, in one long street that passed in my mind so far as to trace each feeling is to pass through the centre, and finish at the to its separate source; perhaps I am wanting in ancient entrance. The population is at present the vocabulary of taste, or the technicalities of small, but it is daily increasing, and will soon be science; but suffice it to say, for the purpose of considerable. The air is remarkably pure, and conveying some impression of my thoughts, that I the moon-light is well worthy of all the praises never derived equal pleasure from the contempla- that have been lavished upon it by the poets. tion of any object that was purely the invention There is an extensive olive-grove in the suburbs, and execution of man, as from the sight of this ex- which affords almost the only article of commerce quisite temple, considered in the abstract as a connected with the place. work of art. The marble retains its original pu The vacation prevented me from seeing the rity, and is yet clear and white after the lapse of mission schools. The Rev. Messrs. Robinson and twenty-three centuries.
Hill, of the American Episcopal Mission, appear. There are the remains of two theatres at the ed to be much respected, and to be deserving of foot of the Acropolis, one of which was dedicated the respect they receive. They have published to Bacchus, and the other was the Odeium of Re- from their press many tracts and elementary works gilla. The temple of the winds is an octagon, and in Romaic, as well as a few of the writings of the each side contains a colossal figure in relief, but philosophers in ancient Greek, such as the Memoby the accumulation of the ruins around, the spec- rabilia of Xenophon. The mission from the Ametator is brought too near the figures, by which rican Board had been recently reinforced by the they appear out of proportion to the building on arrival of the Rev. J. Rigg. All the American which they are placed. There is a small tower missionaries with whom I have come in contact about which the critics are not agreed whether it in India, Syria, and Greece, are men of great zeal be the lantern of Diogenes, or the monument of and extensive acquirements. I preached at the Lysicrates. The temple of Theseus is nearly per- house of the Rev. Jonas King, to a small congrefect, though the roof is modern, and it has been gation in English, and attended divine service in consecrated as a Greek church. The sculptures on Greek at the same place. The Episcopal missionthe frieze represent the combats of the hero with aries do not aim at the formation of a separate the centaur, and are executed with great spirit. church, but wish to revive the interests of pure The stones of some of the columns have been religion among those who continue to be members wrenched from their proper place by an earth of the present establishment. quake. The ancient measures, which were the There was a time when Athens was the city of standards of the time, still exist in stone, near the my soul, and its great men the idols of my imagiagora, or market-place. There is scarcely a house nation; and many an hour did I steal at school or garden within the city that does not contain from less pleasing occupations to read over on the
pages of history the thoughts, and words, and that was preferred against him, we are simply deeds, of its immortal citizens. A more extensive told, that “Paul departed from among them.” acquaintance with the teachings of a diviner re The topics chosen by the apostle were admiracord, takes much away of the admiration we once bly adapted to the circumstances of his situation. felt toward the characters of antiquity. We learn The thoughts of the Grecian sages, as they sat in to pierce the halo that was thrown around them silence, must almost involuntarily have essayed by our immature conceptions, and whilst in youth toward “a feeling after God," when the apostle we are too apt to look only at that which we sup- extended his hand towards the horizon, and pointpose is of the heavens, heavenly, in later age we ed at mountain, and island, and sea, and spake of are perhaps too much disposed to dwell upon that the “God that made the world and all things which is of “ the earth, earthy," in the character therein, that he is Lord of heaven and earth, and of man. The ancient Athenians may be less wise dwelleth not in temples made with hands :” and and less good than we once supposed them; but when he turned away from this magnificent scene the alteration in our sentiments never extends to of earth and ocean towards the Acropolis, studded that which belongs to the powerful in intellect or as it was in every part with images and temples, the beautiful in taste. The most lovely imagina- the contrast must have exhibited one of the most tions ever revealed by the pencil or struck from splendid triumphs ever gained by truth, as he prothe stone were once collected within the walls of ceeded in his argument, and cried out, fearlessly, the Parthenon, and its visiters were the master within the very precincts of the most sacred spot spirits of the universe. Nor are we in these re- ever consecrated to idolatry during the long sweep spects in danger of being deceived by those mists of its empire over men, “ Forasmuch then, as we with which time, and distance, and ignorance, so are the offspring of God, we ought not to think often lead us astray. We can yet listen to their that the Godhead is like unto gold, or silver, or magic numbers, their philosophy is the exhaust- stone, graven by art and man's device.” It is less quarry from which men of meaner intellect enough to say that the preacher was Paul, that continue to hew systems, we can walk among the the place was Athens, and that the auditors were columns of their matchless porticos, and the blood philosophers and the stern judges of the Areopayet creeps, and the life yet radiates, in the forms gus, and there is matter for deep thought; but that were thrown from their sculptors' hands. It the scene presents a still grander aspect, when was here too that the tree of liberty was first we look a little forward, and mark some of its implanted, which was afterwards carried to Rome, portant consequences. The young students from then disappeared from the sight of men during an Rome would join in the mockery with their old age in which, from century to century, there was and brow-furrowed preceptors at the earnestness but one cold and comfortless winter; and after of Paul, and at the strange doctrines he taught; various fruitless attempts to spring up in other but little did they think, as they turned from the places, it at last struck root in an island probably figure of the apostle towards the monuments of unknown to the wisest of the sons of Athens, their own greatness, to indulge in the smile of dewhere it flourishes in luxuriance, and offsets have rision without observance, that the time would already been carried from the parent stem that it come when the UNKNOWN GOD should be acis hoped will one day be familiar to every soil
, and knowledged as the only God throughout their exovershadow every land.
tended dominion, and when that Parthenon, and Were this the only world, and this the only life, their own still prouder Capitol, and all the deities, it might have been a duty incumbent upon every heroes, and devils, they contained, should not worshipper of the beautiful to make a pilgrimage, have upon the whole earth one single votary to once during his existence, to the Acropolis; but come even by stealth and do them homage or revelation takes away from its glory, and invests whisper their praise. It cannot be said, that in with far sublimer interest a little hill at its foot, the early ages Christianity shrank from a contest that would otherwise escape our notice, and is even with the most enlightened men of whom the hidden by its shadow at the rising of the sun. It heathen world could then boast: in the infancy was apparently by accident that the apostle Paul of its existence, when as yet it received no aid visited this city. “ The brethren at Berea sent whatever from name or numbers, it thus grappled away Paul, to go as it were to the sea .... and with the mightiest of its opponents in the centre they that conducted Paul brought him to Athens.” of their own citadel, and was triumphant. In all places he remembered the divine commission he had received as the apostle of the Gentiles, and as he waited for his companions that were expected, “ his spirit was stirred within him when
CORINTH. he saw the city wholly given to idolatry.” It would seem that for some time no official notice I LANDED at Kalamanchi from Athens, July 30, was taken of his proceedings, though he not only near the site of the ancient Cenchrea, at which disputed in the synagogue of the Jews, and with Paul embarked for Ephesus. I and my comdevout persons, but also in the public market. It panion had some difficulty in procuring animals, has been questioned whether Paul appeared before and we were furnished at last with an ass, a mule, the Areopagus as an accused person, or merely a pony, and a camel. We crossed the isthmus as a stranger with whom the philosophers wished in about three hours, where the Isthmian games to have some further converse; and it must be were formerly celebrated, to which frequent aliuconfessed that he was at first treated with great sion is made by the apostle Paul in his epistles to courtesy, and even afterwards, though the charge the Corinthian church. The situation is well might have been easily proved, if it was a charge adapted to the purpose for which it was appro
priated, presenting an extended plain, in a cen- be wise, had become fools, and he had now to adtral position between the capitals of all the more dress himself to the victims of sensuality, and celebrated states. In the evening we arrived at warn them that “the end of these things is death.” Corinth.
Aquila and Priscilla, who had come from Rome, The city of Corinth lays claim to an origin received him into their house, and he wrought at nearly as ancient as that of Athens. It appears their occupation, for they were of the same craft, as if intended by nature to be the seat of an ex- being tent-makers. The Jews, to whom he testensive commerce, as it could communicate with tified that “ Jesus was Christ,” having opposed the Ægean sea by the port of Cenchrea, and with themselves, and blasphemed, he shook his raiment, the Ionian sea by the port of Lechæum. It was and saying unto them, “ Your blood be upon your at one time the most extensive city of Greece, own heads,” he turned unto the Gentiles, and and in palaces, temples, and statues, could chal. dwelt in the house of Justus, "one that worshiplenge the world. Its licentiousness has passed ped God.” The chief ruler of the synagogue havinto a proverb. In the time of the apostles it was ing been converted, as well as many of the Cothe residence of Gallio, brother of the celebrated rinthians, the Jews made insurrection and brought Seneca, and deputy of Achaia, which included Paul before Gallio, the deputy, but he refused to ncarly the whole of the Peloponnesus. The listen to their dispute, and drove them from the Acro-corinthus is a steep rock, at a little distance judgment-seat.” The two epistles that were from the city, that rises upwards of 2,000 feet..afterwards written to the Corinthians, bear strong There may be seen from it the provinces of internal evidence of authenticity, as the corrupThebes, Attica, Achaia, Argolis, and Arcadia, tions for which they are reproved, are precisely the acropolis of Athens, the mounts Helicon and such as we might suppose would arise from the Parnassus, and the view includes the birth-places peculiar temptations of the people. The city has of many of the principal warriors, sages, painters, been many times destroyed since the Acts of the architects, and sculptors, whose names are re- Apostles were penned; but amidst all its changes, nowned in Grecian history. Independent of all it has ever retained a profession of the faith of these associations, had the country around it never Christ ; and although “ the church of God, which been inhabited by man, it would still be thought is at Corinth,” is at present of smaller extent than to stand almost without a rival, in the clearness of it has been in any previous period of its history, its atmosphere, the soft azure of its sky, the ma- the thought is at least gratifying, that the only jesty of its hills, and the many sinuosities of the place of worship now attended by its inhabitants many waters that encompass its islands and roll is dedicated to the service of the same Lord who upon its shores.
appeared by night unto the apostle, and said, “I The present city is more ruinous than Athens, have much people in this place." without the ancient edifices to relieve the character of its desolation. There are a few Bavarian soldiers, who have nothing to protect but ruins ; there is a market, but scarcely any thing in it ex The evening on which I first approached the posed for sale; and the miserable inhabitants have shores of Greece was one of the loveliest I re. no visible means of present support or future sub- , member to have ever seen. The sun was setting sistence. Eight columns standing together, not behind the mountains of Arcadia, as I sailed up of the Corinthian order, are all the remains of an- the gulf of Argolis, and before its final departure. tiquity I observed, with the exception of a few the sea, and the sky, and the hills upon which so capitals and pillars, scen in detached fragments many great men have walked, appeared as if all among the ruins of modern houses and mosques. converted into gold. I have witnessed scenes It is said to be the intention of the king, when his more splendid, but none more beautiful, as I could minority shall expire, to make Corinth the capital look on the whole without pain, though every obof his dominions, in opposition to the regency, who ject was glowing with tints of the deepest richhave fixed upon Athens. There needs not a mo- ness. It afforded a striking contrast to the gorment's thought to discover which is the most eli- geous sunsets that are exhibited in the tropics. gible position for the capital of the Greeks, whose The scenery of Greece presents almost every shipping must for some time continue to be their variety of character. The valleys sometimes flow principal interest.
in gentle undulations, and are capable of the Upon the opposite side of the gulf of Corinth, I highest cultivation, whilst the hills above them could distinctly see the mountains of Helicon and rise in majesty towards the clouds, and are broken Parnassus, but was not tempted from my course at intervals into precipitate ridges, covered with to drink of the classic spring, or consult the Del. firs and other similar trees. Some of the ravines phian oracle. I was more interested by objects through which I passed were thickly set with nearer the city, which must have been looked oleanders, which contributed much to the animaupon by the apostle Paul, as he resided here “a tion of the scene, as they were then in full bloom. year and six months,” being encouraged by a The harvest was just concluded, and in many vision from the Lord; and even after this time, places the horses were treading out the corn.“ he tarried here a good while.” It was upwards On one floor I counted seventeen horses in one of 200 years after the destruction of the city by line engaged in this service. On the northern the consul Mummius, and during the existence of coast of the Morea vineyards are numerous, and the Corinth of Julius Cæsar, that the apostle “de- the low vine is cultivated from which our dry curparted from Athens, and came to Corinth.” In rants are produced. The peasants often presentAthens he had contended with the worshippers of ed me, without solicitation, with bunches of grapes intellect, with men who, professing themselves to when I passed through their villages.