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as it now exists, cursed as it is in all its products, the breath of its life is away. It was the opinion of its heaven shut up, and comparatively without the ancients, that all that the lightning touched was rain. Deut. xi. 17. The prophecies concerning sacred, and that they who were killed by its flash Canaan are numerous, and have been so literally were specially regarded by Heaven; and it is a fulfilled that they may now be used as actual his feeling arising from a similar source,
that causes tory. “ Your high-ways shall be desolate ....I the traveller to look upon the Holy Land with will make your cities waste, and bring your sanc- something of the same reverence.
We gazed tuaries into desolation.... And I will bring the upon it as the old prophet of Bethel gazed upon land into desolation, and your enemies which dwell the carcass of the man of God that had been slain therein shall be astonished at it.... Then shall by the lion, and which he took and laid in his own the land enjoy her Sabbaths, as long as it lieth grave, mourning over him, and saying, “Alas, my desolate, and ye shall be in your enemies' land: brother!” But if the thought partake too much even then shall the land rest, and enjoy her Sab- of superstition, we may call to our remembrance baths.”-Moses. “ The land shall be utterly the tenet of a purer faith, that enables us, by the emptied and utterly spoiled .... The new wine promise of a resurrection unto eternal life, to awamourneth, the vine languisheth, all the merry ken “ a joy in grief,” and to look upon the remains hearted do sigh: the mirth of tabrets ceaseth, the of our dearest kindred with chastened exultation, noise of them that rejoice endeth, the joy of the and speak of “ the lovely appearance of death.” harp ceaseth.... There is a crying for wine in The sure word of prophecy has promised unto the streets, all joy is darkened, the mirth of the Judea a glorious resurrection, and has described land is gone : in the city is desolation, and the it in "colors dipped in the rays of heaven;" and gate is smitten with destruction .... Upon the though its words may refer as well to a spiritual land of my people shall come up thorns and Israel, extended as the world, they are the better briers.”—Isaiah. “I beheld, and lo, the fruitful for all this, and we will utter them with a louder place was a wilderness, and all the cities thereof voice and a gladder heart. It is because of sin were broken down at the presence of the Lord, that the land is thus desolate; but amidst all the and by his fierce anger; for thus hath the Lord afflictive dispensations with which it is visited, God said, The whole land shall be desolate: they though it be now comparatively treeless and shall be ashamed of your revenues because of the streamless, a glory shines upon its rocks that gilds fierce anger of the Lord." -JEREMIAH. These not the towers of the noblest of earth's palaces. prophecies might be taken one by one, and many The inheritance of Israel is " at rest ;” in the ner. others might be added to them, and from the pre- vous language of inspiration, it is “the Sabbath" ceding statements there would be for each some of the land :-one woe is past, and a second and evidence of accomplishment. It has, indeed, been a third have been endured :—the clouds that now matter of dispute to what period some of them re- envelope the mountains of Lebanon and Hermon fer, and it is possible that they may have received shall soon be dispersed, and beams all-cheering as some inferior accomplishment before the coming the bow of the covenant shall play upon their sumof Christ, but the full weight of the woe that they mits, and shall descend lower and lower, as the denounce was reserved for these last days. Sun of Righteousness rises in the firmament, ga
There are prophecies of another description, thering richness as they descend, until they burst that present visions of hope to the now abject Jew, in a flood of glory upon the lowest of the valleys, and are too important to be passed by without no- and from limit to Limit fill the whole of the promised tice. “ I am with thee, saith the Lord, to save possession :—the breath of the Lord shall then thee; though I make a ful end of all nations breathe upon the mass, and every hill, and field, whither I have scattered thee, yet will I not make and stream, shall teem with a new existence, and a full end of thee, but I will correct thee in the breath as it breathes shall receive instant homeasure."-JEREMIAH. “The children of Israel mage from the lily bending in its loveliness, and shall abide many days without a king, and without the rose of Sharon shall give to it the fragrance a prince, and without a sacrifice, and without an of its leaves ;—the sky shall be like the heaven it image, and without an ephod, and without tera- but partially hides, the air all fragrance, the hills phim: afterwards shall the children of Israel re- shall put forth the sweetest of the fruits, and the turn, and seek the Lord their God, and David vales shall be covered with the corn, and the oil, their king; and shall fear the Lord and his good- and the wine ;—the waters of the stream shall ness in the latter days.”—HOSEA. These pre- murmur praises unto the Lord, the whispers of dictions also may be included among those that the winds shall be hymns to our Emmanuel, and have a double character, a first and a secondary fuld the sounds when they cease upon earth shall be filment; and though we cannot go the same length carried on by the angels of heaven. “The wil. that some good men would wish us, as touching derness and the solitary place shall be glad for the restoration of the Jews, we can have no doubt them: and the desert shall rejoice and blossom as that they will one day be restored to the favor of the rose : it shall blossom abundantly, and rejoice the Lord, and that their land wil again receive even with joy and singing: in the wilderness shall the blessing of the Most High.
waters break out, and streams in the desert, and There are at present in Palestine all the mate- the parched ground shall become a pool, and the rials requisite for the forming of a prosperous peo- thirsty land springs of water: and the ransomed ple; it possesses the framework of a mighty of the Lord shall return, and come to Zion with nation, but the spirit of its existence is filed; and songs, and everlasting joy upon their heads : they though a form once powerful and features once shall obtain joy and gladness, and sorrow and beautiful be there, the form is now motionless, the sighing shall flee away." « THE MOUTH OF THE features are marred by a mortal convulsion, and LORD HATH SPOKEN IT."
It will perhaps be asked of me, what are my the first house, when they wept with a loud voice, thoughts as to the effect produced upon the mind and shouted aloud for joy, because the foundation of the Christian by visiting the sacred places; of this house was laid before their eyes. There whether it tends in any measure to quicken the are, in addition, many circumstances connected spiritual affections by seeing with the bodily eye with the history of Jesus Christ that may be classthe exact spots where the wonders of redemption ed among the same series, such as the greater were made manifest ?
part of his miracles, the delivery of the sermon on To this question it would be difficult to give an the mount, the riding in triumph into Jerusalem, answer that would be equally applicable to every and even the raising of Lazarus. No man can inquirer. The minds of men are differently con- visit the country where these several events ocstituted, and where one would receive pure and curred, without increasing his perception of their salutary instruction, another would receive equal interest. But when we come to the birth of Christ disgust, and would turn away as from an unclean in the stable, his temptation in the wilderness, his vessel or a poisoned chalice. There are indivi- prayers upon the lone mountain, his agony in the duals, more especially among men little acquaint- garden, his death upon the cross, and his resured with the Scriptures, who seem to require some rection from the grave; in a word, when we come, outward and visible sign by which to quicken their not to those things which were done for the exfaith, and when that sign is given them, they throw plaining and confirming of his mission, but to those into their faith the whole fervor of their souls, and that regard the great mystery of our redemption, einbrace it as a boon from Heaven. Such cha- and that can never be understood by us in the full racters may perhaps be profited by a sight of the immensity of their import, the mind shrinks from mountain village where our Lord was born, or of too near an approach towards the hallowed scene, the sudden turn in the road from Bethany, near and feels as if it were diving into secrets forbidwhich he wept over Jerusalem, or of the mount den to be contemplated by man. There was a upon which he triumphed over the grave and woman, in the house of Simon, permitted to wash snatched the victory from death. Indeed there is the feet of our Lord with her tears, and to wipe no believer in these things who will not find him- them with the hair of her head, but after his reself influenced more or less by a sight of these me- surrection, even to Mary Magdalene was this commorable places: but in the far greater number of mand given, “Touch me not.” It is not “after minds there will be no benefit at all adequate to the flesh" that we are now to know Christ : the the loss that will be sustained by an absence from mind may be affected by a recital of the death and the regular means of grace, by having of neces- passion, whilst the heart retains its uncleanness ; sity to mingle much with men of the world and it is that spiritual sight of the victim slain which heathen men, and by meeting continually with enables me, as an individual, so to look upon it, those disappointments and annoyances from the that it becomes the received atonement for my people of the country, that tend to bewilder the own transgression, that will alone be accepted by mind, and to deaden the best affections of the heart. God, and this may be better exercised in the re
I have now seen most of the places whose his- tirement of the closet than amidst the glare of the tory tells with the most thrilling sensations upon lamps and ornaments of the pretended Calvary. the soul; but at the time I visited them, I did not The pilgrim to the Holy Land would generally be feel that deep and awful interest in them that I better employed in visits to the throne of grace; previously expected. I had many inquiries to make and would derive more wisdom from searching before I could tell what to believe and what not: with sacred awe the oracles of the word, than in I was sometimes fatigued by the distance, or by gazing for a time upon the spot where these orathe intense heat of the sun, or by climbing of cles were delivered, or the events were transacted rocks; there was so little to see that at all comport- that they record. ed with the simplicity of the actual truth; there I do not, after all, regret that I have turned was among the bystanders so little manifestation aside for a little time to see these great sights. I of a feeling in unison with the grand transactions have witnessed the degradation into which the they were professing to reverence; that all these professed churches of Christ have fallen, a degrathings, single or united, tended to unfit me for dation more deep, more awful, and more distressthat "flow of soul” I might otherwise have sup- ing, than I could possibly have conceived without posed would spring up within me as a mighty being an eye-witness; and I am not without some food of the purest and most refined enjoyment, hope, that my imperfect representations of these when standing, for instance, upon the mount of things may tend to induce the inhabitants of a Olives or the mount of Zion.
more favored land to make some attempts to resIt is necessary too that a distinction be made cue them from their errors, and impart unto them between the different kinds of events of which this a knowledge of “the truth as it is in Jesus.” I land has been equally the theatre. I can witness seldom open my Bible, more especially the histothe horrors of the road to Jericho, and the good- rical parts, without reading its pages. greater ness of the Samaritan appears to me greater than interest
, from the more vivid perception I have of I before could have conceived; I can wind along its scenes: I have been present at the first estathe valley of Elah, and the patriotism of the shep-blishment of a mission at Jerusalem, which I trust herd boy with the five smooth stones in his scrip, will never cease its operations till the city be a touches my soul with power; I can wander among praise in the whole earth: and in looking at some the ruins of Cæsarea, and listen with more intense of the barren hills of Judea, where the beast wandelight to the stirring oration of the apostle; I ders not, the bird flies noi, and the grass grows can stand near the site of the temple, and feel not, I have seen the impress of the curse of God, with the fathers, the ancient men who had seen in more dreadful characters than are to be seen
elsewhere on this side the grave; a sight render- numbers of locusts, and to tlic farmer they must be ed still more striking by die beautiful Howers, and a terrible scourge. the patches of fiourishing grain, that here and there After passing several villages, in about cight present themselves, as if to show what the land hours from Larnica we arrived at Nicosic, a fortiwas once, and what it again may be, when the fied town, and the present capital of the island. blessing of the Lord shall rest upon the city and The principal mosque was once thic Greck cathe. upon the field, and the labor of man's hand shall dral of St. Sophia. Cotton prints are extensively be refreshed by the former and latter rain. manufactured here, but the bazar is as dull as
Turkish indolence can desire. I had a letter of introduction from the British counsul to the patriarch of the Greck church. He is a stout heavy
man, destitute of all energy, and was placed in his THE ISLES OF THE MEDITER. I present office by the Turks, that they might re
ceive as little opposition as possible to their opRANEAN.
pressive schemes. He signs his name with pur
ple ink, and as no law can be legally promulgated This sea is called in Scripture the Great Sea, and in the island without his consent, he has it in his the Sea of the Philistines. It is not much noticed power greatly to protect his people, were he not in the Old Testament, except as the western too subservient to the masters who have placed boundary of the Holy Land, and the cedars used him in his present situation. He did me the honor in the building of the temple were floated upon it to say that the convent should be mine during my from the foot of Lebanon to the port of Joppa. It stay, however much it might be prolonged. It was upon this sea that Paul was shipwrecked, and has been said that 10,000 people were massacred several of the other apostles sailed upon it in their here by the Turks at the commencement of the voyages of mercy. It extends from the coast of Greek revolution, but the statement is greatly exSyria to the Straits of Gibraltar, a distance of more aggerated. The patriarchi, bishops, and about than 2000 miles. It is one of the most celebrated 150 of the more respectable ecclesiastics and other collections of water in the world. It has been inhabitants were summoned to the house of the looked upon by nearly all the patriarchs, prophets, governor, under pretence of having to hear read and apostles, and by Jesus Christ. It has carried to them a document from the Sultan, and were all upon its breast almost every warrior, philosopher, massacred. About 300 persons perished in other and poet, both of ancient and modern times; and places. The houses of the sufferers are yet in could the spirit of its winds collect together at one ruins, and the melancholy aspect of the town seems place all the characters they have wafted along its to say that there is a curse upon it for the treachsurface, there is scarcely a single name of note ery of its masters. written upon the pages of history that would not In the evening we again mounted our horses, be included in the assemblage. Upon its waters and in three hours arrived at the convent of St. were fought the battles of Salamis, Actium, Le- Chrysostom. On the way we met the harem of panto, and the Nile. Upon its shores, or at a little a respectable Turk. A black attendant rode fordistance from them, stood the cities of Jerusalem, ward, and ordered us to leave the path until the Tyre, Troy, Athens, Alexandria, Rome, and Car- ladies had passed. The convent is situated on thage; and among the mighty empires of the an- the side of a steep hill
, and has the appearance of cient world, whose wings were dipped in its wa- a strong fortress. The monks waited on us at ters, were Egypt, Assyria, Persia, Greece, and table as servants. The visiters had music and Rome. It includes within its limits several minor dancing, and were as riotous as if they had been seas, and many islands of celebrity both in sacred at an inn, but the monks did not join in their history and profane.
sports. An archimandrite, who had been in England, was playing at cards, but he was reproved by one of his brethren. I returned to Larnica on the 25th, as I was afraid that I might be absent
during some opportunity that might present itself CYPRUS.
for me to leave the island.
Larnica is the principal sea-port of Cyprus, and I EMBArked in a Sardinian brig for Larnica, in is well frequented by ships of all nations that put Cyprus, May 14, and on the 18th we were off the in for provisions, as they are plentiful and cheap. port of Famagousta, the ancient Salamis, men- There are two towns, and that near the sea is tioned by Homer, where Paul and Barnabas called the Marino. The space between them is “ preached the word of God in the synagogues of said to have been once occupied by houses, the the Jews.” We were not able to make Larnica inhabitants of which fled to other places to escape before the 19th, though the same voyage i some- oppression. There is a small castle, but not of times performed in a few hours.
any strength. A mound of fragments and stones There being no immediate opportunity of em- is said to have been formerly surmounted by an barking for Greece as I had expected, I made a acropolis. About a mile to the southwest of the uttle tour into the interior, in company with a town is a small lake, whence salt is procured : an friend. The plains were cultivated to some ex- aqueduct and tomb are seen on the opposite side, tent with barley and wheat. In some places the and the view of it at sunset was almost the only barley was reaped, and the crops were expected sight of interest I met with in my rambles. There to be large, from the plentiful supply of rain that was one day a feast to commemorate, as I was had fallen during the winter. We saw great told, the deluge. The roadstead was gay with
streamers and music, and the beach was lined gravity of the Turks; in the constancy with which with crowds of people, all dressed in their holyday they offered up their prayers at the canonical apparel. Citium, the birth-place of Zeno, is at hours, with their faces towards Mecca, no matter a few miles distance, and retains its ancient name. what other scenes were presented around them;
Cyprus is the largest island connected with and in the studied importance which they always Greece, except Candia, or Crete, and was cele- assumed, even in such common acts as the washbrated in ancient times for its attachment to the ing of their hands and the cooking of their viclicentious worship of Venus, who was fabled to tuals; and all this was the more striking when have here arisen from the froth of the sea. It contrasted with the laughter and recklessness of was visited by Paul and Barnabas, who landed at the Greeks, who were all day long trolling some Salamis, and went through the isle unto Pa- catch, or playing at games of chance, or showing phos.” Barnabas is thought to have been the first themselves adepts at all kinds of silly tricks and bishop of Cyprus, and there is a church dedicated buffoonery. The poor Jew moved among them to him at Larnica, which is said to be built over without fellowship, and on his countenance was his tomb. The island contains at present about written too clearly the mark of dejection and care. 60,000 inhabitants, 10,000 of whom are Turks, and One of them came to me as I was standing near the rest are Greeks. It pays 3,000,000 piastres the carpet of a Turk, which he happened to touch annually as tribute to the Sultan. The principal with his toe, for which the old Moslem, seeing exports are wine, cotton, and silk. The govern- the pollution to which his carpet was exposed, ment is as oppressive as that which is exercised railed at the son of Abraham with a bitterness that in other Turkish provinces, and some think even made me feel keenly for him in his degradation. worse. A new governor was daily expected from Constantinople, who was in office some years ago, and is remembered as having been extremely cruel in the exercise of his functions.
RHODES. The more respectable Greeks are anxious to have a missionary stationed among them, princi- We anchored about noon, June 20, in the harbor pally to establish and superintend schools. They of Rhodes. The city has a good appearance offer to raise 8,000 piastres a-year towards their from the sea, with its towers and castles, and rises support, but I fear that their wishes cannot at pre- gradually from the shore. I counted at one time sent be complied with, as there are many other upwards of thirty windmills. I had a walk through places of much greater population that are desti- the principal streets, attended by the dragoman of tute of instruction. A number of youths have the consulate, who had informed me that he had formed themselves into a class for the purpose of been interpreter to Sir Sydney Smith during the studying ancient Greek. An intelligent young late war. I was now in the land of chivalry, and Greek, who was educated in England at the in the town is so little altered in appearance since it stance of Mr. Wolf, has commenced a school at was delivered into the hands of the Turks by the Larnica, but he does not meet with the encour- knights of St. John, that I might almost have exagement his ability and good intentions deserve.
pected to jostle with some steel clad warrior on I embarked in a Greek brig, June 11, for Sinys- turning a corner of the streets, or to see the jolly na. We passed Paphos on the 13th, formerly face of some ancient warder on passing under the celebrated for the most ancient temple in the entrances to the venerable castles. world dedicated to Venus, and now for its hun Rhodes was taken from the Greeks by the dreds of churches. Sergius Paulus, the Roman knights of St. John in 1310, and they kept possesproconsul, whose name was assumed by the apos- sion of it until 1523, when it was besieged by Solitle of the Gentiles, resided here, and it was here man with 200,000 men, and yielded after a brave that Elymas, the sorceror, was struck with blind- defence of six months. The moats, walls, and ness. « Now when Paul and his company loosed towers are still formidable. The street of the from Paphos, they came to Perga, in Pamphylia ; Cavaliers is the most perfect and the worn paveand John departing from them, returned to Jeru- ment at the sides bears evidence that it has been salern.” Acts xiu. 13. On the 17th we passed trodden by the feet of many generations. It is in sight of Myra, in Lycia, whence the apostle narrow, and built upon an ascent. The arms of embarked in the ship in which he was wrecked the knights are emblazoned upon shields over the at Melita, and on the 19th we passed in sight of entrances to the wards, together with the arms of PATARA, a maratime city of the same province, the nation to which the ward belonged, and some where the apostle, on his way from Philippi to of these heraldic emblems are still entire. The Jerusalem, found a ship bound for Phænicia, in arms of England are opposite the entrance into which he sailed. Acts xxi. 1.
the castle of the Grand Master, in which the During this little voyage, I was presented with massy door is yet upon its hinges, and the arch a fine opportunity of studying character. We by which it is surmounted is formed of many ribs had about fifty souls on board, Turks, Greeks, and of elaborate sculpture. The entrance from the Jews, one Egyptian, and several female slaves street to each ward opens upon a passage that from Africa. I occupied a little box on deck, leads to a court, planted with trees, and round the over the helm. The Turks took possession of the court are galleries or cloisters, from which the larboard side of the deck, and the Greeks of the apartments are severally entered. At the higher starboard: the Jews were in the forecastle, and end of this street are the remains of a church, now the negresses in the long boat, where, in spite of roofless. Nearly all the old castles and houses are their situation, they were the merriest group in inhabited. The streets are paved with small pebthe party. There was something imposing in the bles, and have a neat appearance. There are
many stone balls, of different sizes, scattered in all tunity of examining its appearance, so far as is directions, said to have been used during the siege. possible from the sea. It is about 20 miles in cirThe quarter of the Jews contains about 150 houses. cumference, and its aspect is forbidding and cheerThe city was supposed to be the finest in the world less. The shores are in most places steep and in the time of Alexander. There are two har- precipitate, and from our vessel it appeared as if bors, across one of which the celebrated colossus the inhabitants would be in constant danger of probably stood, but its exact situation is not rolling down into the sea. The highest part of known.
the island is surmounted by a monastery, dedicated The island was visited by St. Paul, on his way to St. John, round which are built the houses of a to Jerusalem. Acts xxi. 1. It is 40 miles long, respectable town. We could discover very few and 15 broad, very healthy, and might be exten- trees. The sailors were lavish in their praises sively cultivated, were the government of a dif- of the inhabitants. ferent character. It does not contain more than
It was with unutterable feelings I gazed upon 30,000 inhabitants. The principal exports are this dreary rock. The situation of the weeping honey and wax, and last year there was a consi- exiles was before me, who were banished from derable trade in oranges, as the crops in other the pleasures and applauses of imperial Rome, parts had failed.
and were sent to inhabit this dull and distant reA Greek brig entered the roads, June 20, bound gion, with none to converse with but sufferers in for Syra, and as this port was more convenient the same calamities, whose very attempts at confor me than Smyrna, I made an agreement with solation would only add still deeper sorrow.the captain, and took 'eave of my old friends from What must they have felt, and how must they Cyprus. I thus lost the opportunity of seeing have wept, when they beheld from the horizon the Smyrna, and perhaps some other of the Asiatic little speck that was to constitute their world ?churches, but my voyage to Greece was much There was one among these exiles that I seemed sliortened. The passage between Rhodes and to know, whose brow was calm, whose eye was the continent of Asia is about 20 miles in width. bedimmed by no tear, and from whose counteIn the evening we could distinguish a great num nance seemed to beam the serenity of a spirit in ber of islands, nearly all of which are celebrated bliss. It was the beloved disciple of the Lord. in the mythology of the Greeks. They rise bold. The banishment of the venerable apostle was ly out of the sea, but are destitute of trees, and from a cause perhaps different to that of any of greatly disappointed me in their appearance.
the exiles who had preceded him, as it was
« for We were off Cnidus on the 25:h, and the heat the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus was most oppressive, as we had a dead calm Christ." Standing upon one of the eminences of nearly the whole of the day. St. Paul was in the island, and turning towards the continent, St. similar circumstances near the same place.- John would be able to distinguish mountains that " When we had sailed slowly many days, and might also be seen from the whole of the seven scarce were come over against Cnidus.” Acts churches of Asia; and as he had planted some xxvii. 7. I followed the course of the apostle in of them with his own hand, and probably visited his voyages and travels, and often prayed that I all of them, can we doubt he often would stand might follow hin more closely in his holy ardor in thus, and looking towards these interesting spots, the cause of Christ. I seemed to be able to real-lift up his hands to heaven, and pour out his soul ise the appearance of the apostle more power- in prayer, that he who walked among the golden fully on board ship than in any other place: we candiesticks would continue to visit them in mercy, were sailing upon the same seas, looked abroad and save them from the power of the antichrist upon the same islands and mountains, and our that was to come. It is one of those thoughts mariners spoke nearly the same language. upon which the mind so much delights to dwell
, We sailed by Cos on the 26th, visited by St. that from this rock, surrounded only by other Paul, and celebrated as the birth-place of many similar rocks, and looking out upon distant mouneminent men. On the 27th we were within a tains, there should have been an insight given short distance of Crete, mentioned in the Apo- into futurity, further and clearer than in any other crypha and by St. Paul. Titus is said to have place was ever afforded unto mere man. been bishop of this place, and to have resided here when the apostle wrote his epistle, in which he says, “ the Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, slow bellies," quoting as his authority one of their own authors. Titus i. 12. That “this testimony I remained in quarantine fifteen days at Syra, was true," we have ample evidence in the writ- visited Hydra and Ægina, and saw many other ings of the ancients. The next day we saw islands of inferior interest, but shall not here atSamos, also visited by St. Paul, and the birth- tempt to describe them, as they are not in any place of Pythagoras. It is separated by a narrow way connected with sacred history. The island channel from the Ionian coast, and EPHESUS is of Rhodes was the last spot upon which my foot only a few miles distant.
touched Mahomedan ground, and I am called upon to take some farewell notice of the remarkable people whose territories I had now forsaken,
for the most recently constituted of the kingdoms PATMOS.
The followers of Mahomet, in their manners and We were close in with “ the isle that is called customs, long resembled the laws of the Medes and · Patmos" several hours, and I had a good oppor- Persians, they altered not; and the Turk sitting