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cavities. In one place, pegs are fastened into the classes, may amount to 8000. The houses are wall at convenient distances, that are no doubt built upon the slopes of the hills, so that the streets used to ascend to the small caves we saw near above are, in many places, formed by the roofs of the roof. I could have wished to examine them, the lower tier of dwellings, and the passengers are but our force was not sufficiently strong. A more sometimes in danger of obtruding into the privacy convenient place for the resort of a banditti can of a family against their own wish. The gardens scarcely be conceived ; and I can never hear of are principally used for the growth of vines and a robber's cave, but my thoughts will immediate- olive-trees, and indigo-dying appears to be a comly fly to this solitary ravine in the mountains of mon occupation. I observed several females laGalilee.

menting over tombs recently constructed, some of In about two hours more, the road passed by whom were refusing to be comforted because their the foot of a very high precipice, near which we children were not; and there was scarcely one of counted a dozen eagles, and one of them had a these memorials of the dead beneath that was not nest in its mouth, the contents of which were pro- ornamented, either with flowers or some other bably intended as a morsel for its young. There token of grateful remembrance. The affection of is a tradition that the sacred vessels of the temple the mother for her child appears with peculiar were buried here by Jeremiah. The path along strength in these countries, where the love of the which we rode is steep and dangerous, and in one husband has to be received in portions divided place a considerable part of it had given way, and among many. rolled into the valley. In another hour we arriv There are numerous places in this neighborhood ed at Saphet, and took up our abode in an olive- that are venerated as having been in the possesgrove. An Arab came to us with a long com- sion of the patriarchs, such as the wells of Isaac plaint against a Jew, and showed us a portion of and the cave of Jacob; but no reliance can be his beard, that he said had been violently torn placed upon these traditions. Not far from the from his chin. The delinquent Jew is under the castle is an old bath, now in ruins, that has once protection of another Jew, who was born at Gi- had several apartments attached to it, and been braltar, and consequently enjoys the privileges of a a place of some splendor. There are a few ChrisBritish subject : presuming upon this, a Jew, the tian families resident here, but the Jews form the servant of a Jew, had dared to beard one of the greater proportion of the inhabitants, as they confaithful, in his own land ; and from this little cir- sider the place to be sacred. For this they have cumstance may be inferred the amazing extent of several reasons. Some of their most celebrated British influence.

rabbies were buried not far distant, and they expect that the Messiah will establish here the capi. tal of his kingdom. They have a printing esta

blishment, which I visited; but the master was SAPHET.

absent at the time. He has two presses at work,

and two others in the course of erection. His The town of Saphet is situated upon one of the type and furniture, I was told, were all made here highest eminences of Galilee, and is thought to under his own direction. The execution of his be the Kitron of Scripture, a city of Zebulon, works is respectable, and there are near thirty which the Israelites were unable to subdue. It persons employed in the different departments of may be seen from a great distance, and on this composing, press-work, and binding. account it may be that it is said to be “the city The roof of the castle, to which we were allowset on a hill,” that was pointed at by our Saviour ed to ascend, commands a most extensive progin his sermon on the mount. The apex of the pect. We saw the greater part of the sea of hill is occupied by a castle, a very formidable Galilee, with the mountains of Bashan, the range structure, and of great antiquity. It must have of Carmel, and the hills near Nazareth. We took been proof against assault under the old system the bearings of all these places, but I neglected to of warfare. The erection in the centre was for- preserve the account. On the north and west the merly capable of affording accommodation to a view is obstructed by mountains of higher elevalarge garrison, as appears from the mass of ruins tion than the hill of the castle. around it. The centre tower is still in existence, and looks like a gaunt old warrior mustering his best courage to bid defiance to the enemy, but a few balls from the eminence opposite would soon FROM SAPHET TO DAMASCUS. tumble it into ruin. It was once in possession of the knights-templars, and was taken by the renown- I HAD some difficulty in procuring horses to coned Saladin, after a protracted siege. Some pri- vey me to Damascus. There are three roads : soners were confined in one of the rooms, who in one was said to be obstructed by snow, another treated us to intercede for them with the governor. was distant, and the third was said to be infested A venerable old man, who was guarding them, by Bedouing. After some delay, the last route told us he had acted as guide to the French army was chosen. My companions departed for Beiduring their occupation of the country.

rout about day-break, and I was once more alone, The town is built upon the low hills that sur- with the most dangerous part of my journey yet round the castle, and is divided into separate quar- before me.

Some smart showers fell in the mornters by the little valleys between them. There is ing, against which my only defence was the trunk another castle, of less extent, and apparently not of an old tree. occupied The governor's house has a respecta At noon, April 30, the horses being ready, I and ble appearance. The inhabitants, including all I my servant, accompanied only by a guide, began

to ascend the hill to the northeast of Saphet, and inspired account of the wild ass has been thought in little more than an hour we found ourselves in to be descriptive of the habits of the Bedouins, the plain of the sea of Galilee. There were no á Who hath sent out the wild ass free? or who houses in sight from the hills, but in different hath loosed the bands of the wild ass? Whose places we could see the shepherds keeping watch house I have made the wilderness, and the bar. over their flocks. Wesoon came upon an encamp- ren land his dwelling. He scorneth the multitude ment of Bedouins. I counted about fifty tents. of the city ; neither regardeth he the crying of the As we approached the place, ten or twelve girls exactor. The range of the mountains is his pascame towards us, dancing and singing. Two of ture, and he searcheth after every green thing. the stoutest of them seized hold of the bridle of Job xxxix. 5-8. We were passed by a long the guide's mule, and he had some difficulty in string of camels, on their way from Damascus to rescuing it from their grasp. Two others came Egypt, laden with the treasures of the east. toward me for the same purpose, but as they ap On the opposite bank of the river is an extenproached, they seemed unable to tell what to sive khan, or caravanserai, in ruins, an account make of me, and gave back. I was a little afraid of which may serve as a general description for lest we should be under the necessity of treating buildings of this kind. It is square, and about them roughly before they would allow us to pass, thirty feet high. There is a large open area, or in which case the men would have interfered, and court yard, in the centre, for the animals, in the the consequences might have been serious ; but I middle of which formerly stood a building upon was soon informed that it was one of their festival pillars, used as a place of recreation by the more days, and all they wanted was a present. I never respectable travellers. Around the area, and saw a more merry group, and their rosy cheeks open towards it, are arched rooms, in which the and open countenances reminded me strongly of goods were deposited for the night, and the anithe country girls of England. I gave them no mals might be admitted into it in inclement present, as I knew that it would be only the sig- weather. At the corners are closed apartments, nal for fresh importunities. There was a poor used as eating and sleeping-rooms. The enfellow close behind us, who appeared to come off trance-gate is still perfect, and is lined with iron. less easily than ourselves : he took up stones to Near the top of the wall are loop-holes for dedefend himself

, but they held him by their united fence, and in cases of necessity it might stand a force, and he was still in confinement when we good siege. It is probable that it was in some left the camp. The tents are all of a dark color, similar place our Saviour was born, and there beand from a distance may be called "black, but ing no room for Joseph and Mary in the inn, or comely,” like the tents of Kedar. There is a private apartments, they were compelled, on ac. division formed by a hanging of coarse mat, on count of the influx of strangers into the city, to one side of which is a private apartment, and the occupy an open court with the animals and goods. other side is open to the breeze, but they probably Between the bridge and the sea of Galilee, admit of some alteration in more severe weather. which may be about four miles distant, there is The camp is guarded by large dogs that ran to- an old fortress, for what purpose built I cannot wards us with great fury, but were calied away by tell, unless the Jordan be sometimes fordable at the men. In two hours from the foot of the hill

, that place. About two miles to the northward is during which our animals were sorely annoyed Bahr-el-Houl, or "waters of Merom," four miles by gnats and flies, we arrived at a bridge over broad and six miles long. The banks are low, the Jordan, called Djiser Beni Yakoub, or bridge and the whole presents the appearance of a marsh. of the sons of Jacob. We slept at night upon A few miles from this lake stands CÆSAREA the banks of the stream.

PHILIPPI, now called Baneas, and long supposed There were several persons assembled near the to be the source of the Jordan. It is the Dan of bridge, and five camels, but as they had none of the Old Testament, in which Jeroboam placed one them fire-arms, it was agreed that we should all of his golden calves, and was at the northern exwait here one day, in the hope that by additional tremity of the land of Israel, from whence the exarrivals a more respectable caravan might be pression “from Dan to Beersheba.” formed. I was not sorry for the detention, as it No additions having been made to our party, gave me an opportunity of copying out the notes May 2, we proceeded on by ourselves. The road of my journey from Jerusalem, and my ser- was over an extensive plain, diversified by low vant was able to wash me a few clothes. The hills, with many single trees scattered over it, bridge has three arches, the stream is very rapid, principally of thörn; but though abounding in exand nearly the same breadth as in its more dis- cellent pasturage it is forsaken by man. The tant course. A tax of three piastres is imposed stones are collected together in some places, and upon every loaded camel, two upon every mule, there are many signs that it was once under and one upon every ass. The tax was last year cultivation. There are the remains of a paved farmed for 20,000 piastres.

way, which we crossed and recrossed several I was much interested by watching the move- times, but it is not now used by travellers. The ments of the Bedouins, great numbers of whom land on the eastward of this part of the Jordan crossed the bridge during the day in their gayest belonged to one of the half-tribes of Manasseh, and apparel, on their way to escort a bride to the tent in the time of our Saviour included Decapolis and of her intended lord. They scour along the plains Iturea. at full spead, their flowing garments floating in We had not travelled above five hours when the breeze ; the rattle of their horses' hoofs is an alarm was given that a party of Bedouins had heard upon the ground, and in another moment appeared in the distance. We endeavored to they are away and away, like the wind. The hide our animals behind a mound of earth that was

ruins.

near, hut camels have necks so long that it is a that all eyes were directed towards me as I passmatter of no small difficulty to conceal them. ed through the crowds, but no one said any thing We placed ourselves in the best posture of de- to me, good or bad, before I arrived at the house fence we could, and scouts were sent forward, of a gentleman from Scotland, to whom I had a letwho crept along by the trees, and came at inter- ter of introduction from his brother in Alexandria. vals to report on appearances. There were eight Bedouins, all on horseback, and they came in the direction in which we were standing, but when at a little distance they turned off towards the south,

DAMASCUS. probably without having observed any of our party. A merchant from Saphet had been murdered here DAMASCUS is one of the most ancient cities in the a few days previously, because he had dared to world, being the same place that is mentioned in shoot one of the horses of the Bedouins, in de- the history of Abraham. In has been called “one fending himself from an attack. The pacha of of the four paradises of the east," and "the right Damascus had ordered reprisals to be made upon hand of the cities of Syria." The emperor Julian, them, for which purpose there was then a con- in one of his letters, mentions it as being “ the siderable force in the field, and we were thus in true city of Jupiter, the eye of the whole east, the midst of a mortal feud.

pre-eminent in every thing—in the elegance of We soon afterwards passed a Turcoman en- her sacred rites, the happy temperature of her campment. The men and women are more re- climate, the beauty of her fountains, the number spectably dressed than the Bedouins, the tents are of her rivers, and the fertility of her soil.” more comfortable, and the flocks more numerous. It is said to contain 180,000 people, and even They are said to be peaceable, and we passed 300,000, with the villages in its immediate neighamong them without fear. We remained for the borhood. It was for many centuries the capital night in the open air, near an extensive khan in of the kings of Syria. The city is long, but of

On our north was Hermon, covered with inconsiderable breadth. On entering it I passed snow; on the west, a lower hill

, with the tomb of through a street upwards of a mile long, and Ali Abou Nuda on the summit, and on the south- broad in proportion. In the principal streets east the plain extended as far as the eye could there is scarcely a single building that does not reach. This plain is mentioned by Ezekiel as display some taste in the manner of its erection, “the coast of Hauran," and even in times com- and the mosques and public edifices are without paratively recent it was considered from its fer- number. There is nothing very splendid in the tility as the granary of the Turkish empire. appearance of any one particular place, but there

I felt the cold severely during the night. is a charm produced by the purely oriental chaTherm. at sunrise, 42. There was now less racter of the whole, that tells powerfully of the luxuriance in the pasturage of the plain, May 3d, days of the caliphs, and gives something like reas we passed along within sight of the snows of ality to the fictions connected with their history. Hermon, at a distance of about 20 miles frorn its The houses are built of bricks burnt in the sun, base. The road was for a mile over one continued and are composed of light-colored clay. In the rock. We saw several extensive flocks of sheep, narrower streets they have a mean exterior, but attended by their shepherds, some of whom were within they display all the magnificence of the trying to beguile the solitude by playing upon a east. A narrow passage opens into a court, surreed. I rested about two hours under the shade rounded by buildings, the walls of which are paintof a tree, near a respectable khan that was the ed with alternate lines of blue, white, and red.first public building I had seen in the country in In the centre is a marble fountain, and the air is a tolerable state of repair. It contains a mosque, scented with flowers, or shaded with trees of cua fine stream of water runs nearly round it, and rious or beautiful foliage. At one side is a recess several families reside within its walls. From this that reaches to the roof of the building, entirely place cultivation is more general. We crossed open towards the court, and spanned by a broad the same stream several times, and the road was arch: and round it are splendid cushions, upon often on its banks. A woman and child, and five which visiters are received and the members of camels, perished here last winter from the snow the family assemble during the hours of recreaand cold, in attempting to cross the plain. We tion. The rooms are finished with great care, slept on the bank of a stream, near a small village. having paintings upon the wall, and illuminated

We were roused by our guide at midnight, sentences from the Koran, and in some instances May 4, and pursued our journey, though with there is no part to be seen that is not wrought some difficulty, by the light of the moon. I coula in Arabesque. The streets are nearly all prodistinguish a strong castle on our left towards the tected at their entrances by strong doors. The dawn, when we passed two villages. I entered mosque of St. John is the principal resort of the Damascus with some fear, as the inhabitants have Moslem worshippers. It was built by the caliph a rooted antipathy to all Christians, and especially Walid, in 717, and seven years' revenue of the to Europeans, and are only prevented from injur- whole caliphate is said to have been consumed in ing them by the strong arm of the law: and as its erection. the political circumstances of the country were The bazars are exact representations of all then very precarious, I did not know whether the that we are accustomed at home to attribute to individuals actually in power would be able to places of this description. Among the multitudes protect me in case of insult. I had to traverse who throng them are persons in almost every the whole length of the town before I arrived at possible variety of dress. The rich turbans and the quarter allotted to the Christians. I fancied flowing robes of the respectable merchants are

N

finely contrasted with the rude sheep-skin cover-into seven streams, which are carried through ing of the mountaineer and the dark abba of the the city. Numberless rills pass through the garwandering Arab. The ladies dress in plain white dens, and to these they are indebted for their ferwhen they walk out in the streets, and it is only tility. They are adorned with walks, summerwhen making purchases in the bazars that their houses, and fountains, and the ladies spend in faces can be seen. I was taken into a large them a great proportion of their time. They are building on horseback, and I became somewhat here in some measure free from the restraints of alarmed, as I at first supposed that it was a the harem, and they appear to have great merrimosque, and knew that I must pay dearly for in making their remarks upon passing obsuch a presumption. The roof was composed of jects, and perhaps in attempting in their way some a large dome, the windows of which were formed little witticism or severe irony. An incredible of glass cut in different shapes, and protected by quantity of fruit is annually preserved, and exa trellis work of iron, and under the centre was a ported to the city of Constantinople and other marble fountain. I soon found out that it was parts of the Turkish empire. nothing more than a khan, a place somewhat si The place is still shown where Saul was armilar to the exchanges or halls of commerce in rested by the voice of Jesus, as well as the house Europe. The Damascus blades are no longer of of Ananias, the house of Judas with whom Saul superior value. The principal manufacture is lodged, and the wall whence the apostle was let silk. An immense number of persons is employed down in a basket. The rivers of Abana and in making up dresses, as it is from this place Pharphar cannot now be traced. nearly the whole of Syria is supplied. The city The pachalic of Damascus at present includes has given name to the Damson plum, the Damask the whole of Syria. It was expected that Ibrahim rose, and the Damask silk, as they were all origi- Pacha would make it the seat of government. nally brought from this place.

The law is administered with the utmost strictDamascus is situated at the foot of one of the ness, and in the most summary manner. The ranges of Hermon. Upon an eminence that over- criminal is sometimes arrested, tried, condemned, looks the city there is the tomb of a sheikh. The and executed, within a very few hours of the perold man was approaching the place from the di- petration of his offence. The head is struck off rection of the sea, and the road by which he in the presence of the governor, at a given signal, came was one continued scene of desolation, with often unknown to any but the executioner, and the exception of a few trees in the hollows, where the bleeding corpse is allowed to remain some the melting of the mountain snows had swollen time exposed in the vestibule of the palace, as a the water into streams. In a moment, without terror to all similar offenders. I crossed a bridge, any token whatever of what was to follow, he whence the females who are unfaithful to their came to the verge of the precipice, and beheld at lords are precipitated into the water, sewed up in his feet the pure white edifices of Syria's magni- sacks. This barbarous practice is said to be by ficent capital. He started back, as if struck by no means uncommon. I visited the ruins of the the sight of an angel, and exclaimed, “I will die palace of the late governor. The people rose up here; I will proceed no further lest I be unable to against him, being irritated by his extortions, enjoy Paradise.” Tradition assures us that he overpowered his guard, levelled his palace with kept his word, and never entered the city. From the ground, and massacred him and the whole of this situation the view of the city is one of the his family and dependants. most interesting that can be conceived. The clay The people were disaffected towards Ibrahim of the houses seems transformed into marble

When under the nominal government rity by the illusion of the distance, and the whole of the Sultan, they could act according to their appears like ore congregated mass of minarets, own wishes, as they were so far removed from turrets, and domes. Surrounding these, to the the seat of power, but they are now ruled with extent of many miles, are gardens presenting a a sceptre of iron. Ten days before my visit to mantle of the most gorgeous green, the uniformity the city there was a report that the pacha had of which is relieved by the dark cypress trees that met with some reverses, and though the men had rise from among them in all directions. There been forbidden to carry arms under pain of death are few objects upon earth that come nearer to for the second offence, they now carry them conthe ideal form that the mind gives to the New cealed under their clothes. Had the intelligence Jerusalem. The plain extends as far as the eye proved to be true, they would probably have made can reach, and at the time I mounted this eleva- an attack upon the governor and his guard, and tion, and looked upon the enchanting sight it they swore that the Europeans should be the first commands, the sky and the clouds were exhibit to fall. The force of Ibrahim amounted to 2,000 ing those varied tints that make any prospect Egyptian soldiers, encamped near the city, but beautiful, and rendered this almost divine. I could the inhabitants are noted cowards, though they just distinguish the waters of the Bahr-el-Margi brag at so brave a rate. in the extreme distance, by the reflection of the The people of Damascus have long been celesun's rays from their surface, which added all brated for their bigotted attachment to Islamism, that was wanting to the perfection of the scene. and for their hatred and persecution of the proIn the Canticles, the nose of the bride is compar- fessors of all other religions. Their principal ed to "the tower of Lebanon, that looketh towards source of revenue has been from the pilgrims, who Damascus," and may not this expression refer to assembled here from the interior provinces of the prospect from this place, and mean, surround- Asia to form the caravan for Mecca, and remained ed by beauty ?

here some months. The number has sometimes The waters of the river dy are divided amounted to 70,000. Last year and the present

pu- | Pacha.

no caravan was formed, in part owing to the dis- / spirit of this people will also be changed, and that tracted state of the country, and the commerce of each one will ask in humility, “ Lord, what wilt the city suffered much in consequence. No Eu- thou have me to do ?” ropean was allowed, even within a few months of sny visit, to wear a white turban in public, or ride on horseback, and I am told that a brother mis

LEBANON.BAALBEC. sionary of my own society, the Rev. J. Cooke, was compelled to enter in disguise, and in the I LEFT Damascus a little before noon, May 7, and darkness of the night, during the early part of the was taken by our guide some distance on the Beiyear 1824. I wore the prohibited badge, and rout road, until we came to his own village, which rode several times through the principal streets was probably done for his own convenience. The and bazars, and though there might be a few friend I employed to hire our animals, made an murmurings in an under-tone, I received no open agreement for them by the day, and not for the insult. The change has arisen from the greater whole journey, which is generally the cause of protection and encouragement that Europeans endless disputes. I was accompanied by the broderive from the new government, which I trust ther of my late host, who was desirous to visit the will lead to nobler results than the mere setting ruins of Baalbec. We ascended mount Hermon, aside of a few sumptuary regulations.

not far from the town, and as the sun was shining The kind friend whose hospitality it was my in its full strength, we saw the extensive prospect privilege to experience, is connected with a mer- it commands to the greatest advantage. Hermon cantile house in Manchester, He, his brother, formed part of Anti-libanus, and in ancient times and a friend, had retained the European dress, it was inhabited by the Hivites. which afforded no small amusement to the natives, The road was over hills and through valleys, particularly the hat, as they compared it to one and in some places was very steep. The mounof their cooking utensils. Mr. T. is one of the tains are barren, but the banks of the streams in excellent of the earth. He is supplied with bibles the defiles are covered with gardens and fields, from the British and Foreign Bible Society, and which afford by their rich green a fine contrast to at his khan has sign-boards to announce the sale the bare rocks above them. I had usually looked of this inestimable treasure in at least a dozen upward to see the villages we passed, but here different languages. When he walks out he they were beneath us, and the flat roofs of the carries a bible under his arm, which being differ- houses being covered with grass, they had very ent in its form to their own books, attracts atten- little of the appearance of human dwellings. In tion, and affords him an opportunity to introduce about two hours from leaving Damascus we had it to the notice of the people. Some time since a shower of hail, which continued near forty mi. a sheikh read a few sentences in it in the bazar, nutes: the stones were by far the largest I ever and then publicly expressed his high admiration saw, and my horse was alarmed by their pelting of its contents. The governor of Syria bought a upon his skin so fast and so thick. Hail-stones copy, and other great men of the city accepted are a common allusion among the inspired writers, the Scriptures as presents. The people have al- but the only instance recorded of an actual shower ready begun to make a distinction between real within the borders of the Holy Land, was at the and nominal Christians: the latter they call Na- defeat of the Canaanites under Joshua. zarines, and the former are designated by a word We slept at the village of Firazeit, and were that signifies “ followers of the Messiah.” There accommodated in the house of an Arab, as the are about 4,000 Christians in the city, who live in ground was too wet to allow of sleeping in the a quarter by themselves. By some of the early open air. The female part of the family consisted missionaries a great number of Bibles and Testa- of a young wife, and the daughter of a former ments were distributed among them: these were wife. The good lady kept her old man in comafterwards collected by the principal of the Ro- plete subjection ; for though he was willing to asman Catholic convent, and all committed to the sist us as far as he was able, the frowns from his flames, and it is said that three whole days were better half soon taught us that we could expect employed in that infamous occupation. When an from him but little, and must receive that little by English traveller arrives at the convent, he is stealth. In the room in which they slept one part first asked if he be a missionary, and then if he be of the floor was raised into a kind of platform, and concerned in the distribution of Bibles, and if he in the lower division the horses were accommoanswer in the affirmative, he is refused admit- dated. There was a fire-place in the corner, and tance. All persons connected with this good some sheep-skins spread before it, on which sat work are excommunicated. Notwithstanding the the master and mistress of the house, and the efforts of Satan thus to hinder the spread of divine other members of the family sat at a little distance. knowledge, some seeds have been sown, both The men ate their food by themselves, and I paramong Mahomedans and eastern Christians, that took with them. The principal ingredient was it is hoped will, before many days, bring forth lebn, or sour milk, and the taste was not disagreegood fruit unto the Lord. There was a man of able. Each had a small wooden spoon, and we Tarsus who came towards this city, “ breathing all dipped into one common bowl. From an inout threatenings and slaughter against the disci- spection of the corn and other provisions in their ples of the Lord,” and a similar spirit appears yet store, it appears that their circumstances are comto work among the people; but as we know that fortable; they have also changes of raiment for the same individual soon afterwards“ preached inclement weather and for holyday occasions, and Christ in the synagogues, that he is the Son of seem to have all the necessaries of life that would God,” we have encouragement to believe that the be possessed by small farmers in England.

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