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stones of memorial written by Joshua are yet in ragged children. The erection is in a very elaboexistence, and that their discovery may one day rate style of architecture. Beneath it are several atford additional proof of the authenticity of the vaults, which probably opened into the sides of the ancient books of the Scriptures. “And he wrote hill. The eastern end is nearly perfect, which there, (in mount Ebal, or as the Samaritans read, confirms the remark made by Maundrell
, that if in mount Gerizim,), upon the stones a copy of the any portion of a church is left standing in these law of Moses, which he wrote in the presence of parts, it is certain to be the eastern end. It has the children of Israel." Joshua viii. 32.
a pentagonal projection, the windows of which There are still a few Samaritans resident in have arches above them, and are separated from Nabloos, who “ worship God upon this mountain," each other by small pillars with Corinthian capiand retain the faith of their fathers. They are tals. In the interior, the projection is spanned by strict in their attention to such parts of the law a pointed arch, the ribs of which have been workas they acknowledge, and expect a Messiah. ed into a variety of figures, with more labor than They read in their version of the Pentateuch that good taste. The southern wall is supported by the altar was erected by Joshua upon mount buttresses, and towards the eastern end is built Gerizim, and not upon Ebal, which reading is de- upon a mole. The walls are not all of the same fended by Kennicott, and they repair at stated date. In the area inside is the dome of a small times to the supposed site of the temple to per- mosque, with marble slabs before the entrance. form acts of worship. The synagogue is plain It is built over a small cave or dungeon, in which and clean, and among other ancient books they it is said that John the Baptist was beheaded. have a copy of the Pentateuch, which they regard The tomb of John was shown in the time of Julian with peculiar veneration, and affirm that it was the apostate, when the inhabitants of the city are written by the grandson of Aaron. They suppose said to have opened it, and burnt a portion of his that there are many Samaritans in England and bones, preserving the rest as relics. Higher up other parts of Europe. There are a few families the hill, stone columns are seen in every direction, of Jews who reside in a small court near the ba- but without capitals. We counted cighty in an zar. Justyn Martyr was born here.
upright position, besides many that are prostrate. We halted in an olive grove, about a mile from The summit of the hill appears to have been the town, near Bier Sheba, a spring that sends scarped, as there is a steep ascent nearly all forth a stream of water of sufficient volume to round, and in this place may have been the turn a mill. We were now in the tribe of Ephraim. citadel. This tribe may be considered as one of the most We have here another of those places near celebrated of the twelve. Joshua was an Ephraim- which we can stand as upon vantage ground, and ite, and was buried " in the border of his inherit- look back upon the men and deeds of other times ance which is in mount Ephraim.” It was with with an absolute certainty of the truth. It comin the borders of this tribe that the words of the mands an extensive view, and the Mediterranean law were solemnly read before the people, and that may probably be seen from it on a clearer day than Shiloh was situated, where the ark of God rested that with which we were favored.
Under prefrom the days of Joshua to the death of Eli. Je sent appearances, it would seem to be preferable roboam, the first monarch of Israel, was of this to Jerusalem as the site for a capital city, and tribe, and it contained the royal cities of Tirzah, capable of being more strongly fortified, but we where the first kings resided, and Samaria, where must remember the many changes that the posithey resided from the time of Omri to the destruction of Jerusalem has undergone: the beauty of tion of the state.
Zion is departed, the crown has fallen from her head, and woe is unto her, because she has sinned. It is seldom that we have an account so certain
of the origin of an ancient city as we have of this SAMARIA.
place. Omri, king of Israel,“ bought the hil) Sa
maria, of Shemer, for two talenis of silver, and We passed several mills, April 25, upon the stream built on the hill, and called the name of the city of water produced by the springs near Nabloos, which he built after the name of Shemer, owner and not far from a ruined aqueduct of twelve of the hill, Samaria.” 1 Kings xvi. 24. From arches, we turned off to the right, and began to this time it was the capital of the revolted tribes. ascend the hills. An hour's ride brought us with It had the winter house, and the summer house, in sight of Sebastie, the ancient Samaria. It and the houses of ivory. The wicked Ahab erectstands upon a rounded hill of moderate and gentle ed upon this hill an altar to Baal; in this plain ascent, in the centre of a valley, surrounded at a Benhadad, king of Assyria, was routed; in the few miles' distance by mountains of considerable gate of this city sat the king of Israel and the elevation. The whole of the valley is at present king of Judah, each in his robes and upon a throne, cultivated. In a south-east direction are the walls when the false prophets delivered their ambiguous of a castle built upon a steep hill, formed of layers prediction, and Micaiah, declared the word of the of rock with scarcely a particle of earth upon Lord: in that pool the dogs licked the blood of them. Between this castle and the town we Ahab as they had formerly licked the blood of passed under an aqueduct. Sebastie is situated Naboth his enemy: up that ascent have often on the eastern slope of the hill, and has an inte toiled the prophets Elijah and Elisha, bearing resting appearance from the remains of an old messages of wrath from the most High: within convent that rise up among the meaner buildings these walls there has been a great famine, so that by which they are surrounded, like a prim old | “an ass's head sold for fourscore pieces of silver, schoolmistress sitting in the midst of her rude and and a woman boiled her own son, and did eat him."
it was from hence that the host of the Syrians the help of the Lord against the mighty, was situfled, because the Lord made them to hear a noise ated in this direction. In this plain, Sisera and of chariots and a noise of horses, leaving the his host were overthrown by the prowess of a camp as it was, a prey to the famished Samari- woman; here “Saul died, and his three sons, and tans : it was here that Jehu slew the worshippers his armour-bearer, and all his men, that same day of Baal, and brake down their images: it was together;" here Josiah was slain by Necho, king after enduring a siege of three years in this capi- of Egypt; here Holofernes was slain by Judith, tal that Hoshea, the last of its kings, was carried the valiant widow; and here the three unclean away captive by the king of Assyria : it contain- spirits, coming out of the mouth of the dragon, ed the royal sepulchres of Israel ; the gospel was and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the here preached by Philip, and confirmed by Peter mouth of the false prophet,” shall gather together and John, to whom Simon, the sorcerer, offered “ the kings of the earth and of the whole world,” money that he might receive the Holy Ghost : to the battle of the great day of God Almighty. and it suffered in common with its more guilty The name of the plain appears to have been prorival, when Palestine was subdued by the Roman verbial as a place of mourning and destruction, power.
and perhaps few places in the world have been The present inhabitants of Sebastie appear to so often saturated with human gore : there have be miserably poor, but they showed us every at- been but few nations of consequence, the names of tention in their power, and retired without asking which do not appear in the pages of its history, for a present. After a slight breakfast, at which and Napoleon Buonaparte is associated with Dewe had no coffee as usual, because sufficient fuel borah, the prophetess who judged Israel. could not be procured in this once populous metro The soil is in some places more than six feet polis to boil our kettle, we descended into the plain, thick, and exceedingly rich, and were the plain and then mounted the northern range of hills. well cultivated, it would be one of the most proFrom one point we had a view of the sea, and on ductive in the world. There are a few small vilour left was a sheet of water of considerable ex- lages scattered over its surface, but not perhaps a tent. We passed over many hills, through passes hundreth part of the number it is well able to susat different elevations, and along plains gradually tain. One of my companions crossed the plain in increasing in extent as we proceeded, in one of the depth of last winter, when it was covered with which we counted forty ploughs at work at the snow. The sumpter mule of the party being desame time. The villages are numerous, and are layed by the difficulties of the road, was attacked situated on the brows of the hills. When we by robbers, and a rich booty carried away. A arrived at the plain of Esdraelon, as it was too late complaint was made to the pacha, who imme. to attempt to cross it, we turned off towards Jen- diately issued an order for full restitution to the nin, and spread our clothes for the night under the chief of the nearest village, on which nearly the leaves of one of the largest mulberry trees I ever whole of the stolen articles were returned, and
This place contains many ruins, but none the rest of the amount was made up by a general of them apparently of a very ancient date. It is levy upon the people. We passed at some dissupposed, with some plaisibility, to be the JEZREEL tance the village of Nain, where our Lord raised of Scripture, where the kings of Israel had a pa- the young man to life," the only son of his mother, lace, where Naboth was murdered, and Jezebel and she was a widow.” It was lately destroyed was precipitated from a window. The residence by the pacha, on account of the disaffection of its of the witch of ENDOR was in this neighborhood. inhabitants. We had now crossed the possessions of the half In four hours from leaving Jennin we began to tribe of Manasseh, which extended westward as ascend the hills of Galilee. This district, in the far as the sea, and entered upon those of Issachar. time of Josephus, was celebrated for its fruitful
ness, and abounded with all descriptions of trees, a strange contrast to its present nakedness and
sterility. It contained many towns, the least of THE PLAIN OF ESDRAELON. which had above 15,000 inhabitants. We had to
pass over a steep and difficult road, in the bed of The rising sun, April 26, found us already upon a mountain torrent. This brought us to Ain Emir, the plain of Esdraelon, the most extensive in Pa- whence we again began to descend, and soon enlestine. It is about fifty miles long, and twenty tered the valley of Nazareth, where we halted a broad, and is also called the Great Plain and the few hours during the heat of the day. valley of Jezreel. Before us were the mountains of Galilee ; on our right, mount Tabor, upon which, as is generally supposed, our Lord was transfigured, and mount Gilboa, where the beauty of Israel
NAZARETH. was slain upon the high places, and the daughters of the uncircumcised triumphed; and on our left, NAZARETH may at present contain about 3,000 mount Carmel, visible through the whole extent of inhabitants, a great number of whom are Chrisits chain as far as the extremity that overlooks tians of the Greek church. The shops are well the sea. Tabor differs in its appearance from supplied, especially with articles of clothing, though the general character of the mountains, being in- they are scattered in different places, and there sulated, and conical in its form. It is about 1200 does not appear to be any regular bazar. The feet high. We again crossed the bed of the Ki- houses stand upon the declivity of a hill, and overshon. The city of Meroz, the inhabitants of look a small valley the beauties of which have which were cursed because they came not up to been much exaggerated. We all agreed in one
opinion, that the females were the best looking, done to take off the mind from truths that would both in figure and face, that we had seen in the amply repay its attention, Nazareth is still a place country, and we several times expressed to each of great interest to the true Christian pilgrim. We other our admiration of the grace and dignity with know little of the early life of our Saviour, but that which they moved, as they passed us on their way little brings to us sources of profitable reflection ; to the well of water.
and as we look upon the hills where he walked, The Latin convent, a massy structure, is built and meditated, and prayed, and held communion over the reputed dwelling of Joseph and Mary, with the Father, the wish to examine these things which is of course a cave. The present edifice is more closely than is possible with our present about a century old, but remains of a building means of information may perhaps be pardoned. much more ancient may be observed. The church The district of Galilee was favored above all others is highly ornamented, and contains an organ, and with the presence of the Saviour during his resi. the walls are hidden by hangings of silk presented dence among men. It might be that there was by some of the monarchs of Europe. It has the something in the disposition of the people, or in appearance of one vast altar, divided into three the political state of the country at that period, compartments, the middle one even with the more congenial with the interests of his divine ground. The cave of the Annunciation contains mission. In Jerusalem there were fierce contenthe very spot where the foot of the Virgin rested, tions between the parties in the state, and it was when the * Ave Maria" was first pronounced, that there that the pride of the Pharisee, the infidelity has since been so often repeated by other than of the Sadducee, the rapacity of the lawyer, and angel lips. From hence we were led to the kitchen the wickedness of the priest, were manifested with and bed-room of Mary, both caves, and without the most open effrontery: in Gallilee there was any apertures for the admission of light. The comparative tranquillity, and the virtues of the monks, who are generally from Spain, were per- lowly Jesus, seen only by the simple people of a forming service at the time we visited the place ; country village, excited not the envy of those who their voices were good, particularly that of the might otherwise have sought to take away his life bass, and the effect would have been delightful to before his ministry was commenced. It was in our minds, could we have hoped that the truth re- Galilee that the angel of the annunciation appearvealed to a woman of Sarnaria by Jesus Christ ed to Mary, and afterwards to Joseph; the holy was remembered. The house of the Virgin, or family abode here after their return from Egypt, santa casa, is said to have been miraculously trans- and Jesus continued with them until he began to ported through the air, in the 13th century, from be about thirty years of age; here he first preach. Nazareth to Dalmatia, and thence to the forest in ed, and though from this time to his death he itithe neighborhood of the position it now occupies, nerated among the principal cities of the land, his in which it several times changed its place, and more constant residence was in Galilee, and it was at last fixed at Loretto, in Italy. I afterwards was here that he first appeared to the apostles after visited the church at Loretto. The venerated his resurrection. Nearly all the apostles were chamber appeared to me to be much larger than “men of Galilee.” In more ancient times, the the place whence it is said to have been taken at same country belonged to the tribes of Issachar, Nazareth, though there are tablets hung up in dif- Zebulon, and Naphtali
. Upon the death of Herod ferent languages, which attest that persons were the Great, the tetrarchy of Galilee fell to the possent into Palestine on purpose to make admea- session of Herod Antipas, who was the same Hesurements, and that they found the size of the two rod that beheaded John the Baptist, and ridiculed places to be exactly the same.
our blessed Saviour when sent unto him by Pilate. In other parts of Nazareth are shown Jo On retiring from the city, and looking back seph's work-shop; the synagogue in which Jesus upon the valley from an eminence, it appeared preached; and a large round stone, upon which more beautiful than we had thought it froin the our Lord was accustomed to dine with his disci- town. We passed the village of Rane, and afterples, both before and after his resurrection, "ac- wards Cana, where one of the water-pots is still cording to regular tradition, never interrupted, and shown in which Christ is said to have converted known to all the nations of the east." There are the water into wine at the marriage feast. We many other places shown to the pilgrims, but my saw some water-pots upon the heads of the women faith was already taxed far beyond its capacity. – near the well
, and there are others of a larger The Greeks have built a church over the spring, description that they keep in their houses, but whence the village is supplied, as they say that they are all of too brittle a material for one of the Virgin was drawing water at the time of the them to have survived without injury near 2000 annunciation. It is not improbable that this well years. This was the birth-place of Nathanael, was frequented by Mary, as the distance is conve- afterwards called Bartholomew, the disciple, and nient, and our Saviour and his disciples may have our Lord was at this place when the nobleman refreshed themselves from its stream. The hill from Capernaum besought him in behalf of his shown as that whence the people vainly endea- son, and heard from him the cheering words, “Thy vored to cast Jesus down headlong, is too far from son liveth.” We soon afterwards entered upon the city, and there are brows of the hill whereon another plain, and travelled until the sun had set, the houses now stand that would be equally eligi- when we arrived at the village of Lubia, and slept ble for their wicked purpose, one of which was no under a fig-tree, after receiving a plentiful supply doubt the identical spot, but which of them cannot of excellent milk from the inhabitants. In the now be ascertained with exactness.
centre of the plain is a cistern of wrought stones, After all that the old empress Helena, and the and near it are many remains of wells and exacequally credulous but more crafty monks, have vations in the rock, that deserve a more parti
cular examination than they appear to have yet re- We had a long conversation with the priest, and ceived.
there appeared to be something good about him, though alloyed with much ignorance.
The city was built by Herod Antipas, in honor TIBERIAS.--THE SEA OF GALILEE. of Tiberius the Roman emperor. It submitted to
Vespasian on his approach, and he altered his inTHE plain continued some distance further, April tention of putting all the inhabitants to the sword, 27, when we passed upon our left the mount upon at the request of Agrippa. On the south of the which it is said that Jesus Christ delivered his town the mountains are very abrupt, and approach sermon, when he perhaps disappointed the ex- near to the shore of the lake. In the sides are pectations of some of his auditors, who were de- excavations, some of which we examined, but siring to hear inculcated a system of obligation found nothing of interest. The shore, to some the very reverse of peace, and meekness, and po- distance from the town, has been occupied by verty of spirit. It has been said that the hill is buildings, as we found the usual traces of a Rotoo high, but we are not told that Christ ascend- man city. We passed the ruins of a church, a ed to the summit, and its gently sloping sides sheikh's tomb with an inscription in ancient Arawould be admirably adapted to the convenience bic, and several prostrate columns and detached of an assembly listening to an address. The ob- capitals ; and after a walk of about an hour, arjection is more plausible, that it is further from rived at the hot wells of Emmaus. the city than we should suppose our Lord would The baths are in ruins, especially the division have brought his disciples.
alloted to the females. Several ews and Jew. We soon afterwards had a sight of the northern esses were bathing, as is their custom every Fripart of the sea of Galilee, and after passing down day, to prepare themselves for the Sabbath. There à deep descent, arrived at the city of Tiberias. It is a magnificent bath in the course of erection for stands close to the lake, in a bad situation for de- Ibrahim Pacha, at a little distance from the forfence, and is walled, with round towers at certain mer building, surrounded by an open colonade, distances, but the walls in some places are falling which is supported by marble pillars taken from down. There are two gates, one only of which ancient ruins. The springs are numerous, and is at present in use, and the other is partly walled some of them send forth a plentiful stream. The up. The castle is the only building of any consi- mercury in my thermometer, when dipped into derable appearance, but there is also a mosque, the water, immediately rose to the top of the tube, with a minaret and several clean white domes, 135° of Fahrenheit, but this is said to be about and a few date-trees flourishing near, which in the highest temperature. I could not bear to vite the followers of the false prophet to stillness keep my hand in the water above a moment. and devotion. Only a small part of the space The taste is that of salt, and the smell that of sulwithin the walls is occupied by houses. The best phur. The stones in the streams are dyed yellow of the buildings are but wretched, and the greater and green. Vespasion pitched his tent near this number are in ruins. The city may contain about village. 3000 inhabitants, of whom the Jews are by far the We bathed in the lake, and found the water to more numerous body. It is one of the four sacred be exceedingly cold, from the melting of the places of the Talmud. The last session of the mountain snow. In little less than two hours' Sanhedrim is said to have been held here: the journey from the baths, we passed the village of Mishna, or text of the Talmud, was here reduced Karak, situated upon a plain that in the rainy to writing; and here the noted Massorites carried season is formed into an island, and soon afterforward their minute investigations. There was wards arrived at the place where the Jordan is formerly at this place a rabbinical college, and sues from the lake, and begins its course towards even some of the present inhabitants are deeply the Dead Sea. It is a very rapid stream, and at engaged in the study of the law and of Hebrew that place is about 14 yards across. There are literature. They are supported principally by the remains of a bridge, but the stream is now contributions from Europe, as there is no com- passed by a crazy ferry-boat. Some horses were merce connected with the place.
taken over as we were looking on, and there were We remained at a Roman Catholic church, ap- several head of cattle on the other side. We did parently very ancient, dedicated to St. Peter, for not venture over, as we were afraid that, if the which various reasons are assigned, some of them people got us to the other side, they would be uncontradictory. Its walls are four and a half feet willing to bring us back again without extorting thick, the roof is vaulted, and it has much the ap- something as a present. At a little distance is pearance of a modern powder-magazine, not hav- the village of Semakh. The island, which aping a single ornament in its construction. There pears to have been once covered with buildings, are four windows on each side, those on the south commands an extensive view. The valley of the closed up. On one of the stones in the front there Jordan extends to the horizon, and bears the is an inscription, but I could not approach near marks of having been many times overflowed. It enough to it to see in what character. The en- is cultivated, and appears to be extremely fertile. trance is modern. There are several pictures at The lake can be seen from this place through the eastern end, all except one very rude; but its whole extent. It may be about 18 miles long, what is somewhat remarkable in a Latin church, and in its widest part about 6 miles broad. The there is not a single image. The service-books shape is irregular, something resembling a boy's are all in Arabic. I counted fifty people at ma- klie or a bird flying. It is called in the Old Testins, which speaks well for them, and may give tament the sea of Chinnereth, and in the New, some idea of the number of Christians in the place. the sea of Tiberias, the sea of Galilee, and the
lake of Gennesareth. Its appearance is striking, I promised myself a delicious draught, but on tastbut rather disappoints the traveller, as it differs ing it, I found that it was strongly impregnated entirely in its character from the beautiful imagi- with salt. Near it are three round buildings, that nations with which it is always associated. I we supposed from the distance were towers of could have wished to see more wood upon its defence, but on mounting to the top they proved shores, less ruggedness in the aspect of its moun- to be baths, with water in them, deep and clear. tains, and a greater softness and warmth in its We had some difficulty in crossing the next plain, general features. The mountains in some places on account of the great number of streams by come close to the water, and towards the north which it is intersected. The towns of Capernaum, we could discern a far higher chain, their dark Bethsaida, and Chorazin, must have been in this sides, and still darker bases, presenting a fine con- direction, but travellers are not agreed as to their trast to the robe of snow in which their lofty sum- exact site. They were once exalted to heaven, mits were enveloped. The waters are clear, and but they heeded not the day of their visitation, were then perfectly still ; but from their situation and they are now desolate. It is a solemn fact, between hills and ravines, they must be liable to the voice of which ought to be listened to with sudden squalls, and to great agitation during vio- attention, that there is no place mentioned lent gales. The expanse that unfolds itself from in the New Testament, as having rejected the this place is perhaps little changed since the time mission of the Saviour, or refused the offers of of our Lord. The works of man are imposing to- mercy made to it by himself and his disciples, or day, but in a little time they are deserted, and in as having afterwards become corrupt in life or ruin: temples, palaces, and even cities are des- doct but bears evidence, in a degree beyond troyed, and no investigation can discover the spots all others, either in its history or present condiwhere they onced flourished, though the detail of tion, of the wrath of God: and as surely as the the events that took place within them may be denunciations of old were fulfilled against the familiar to our minds : but mountains and seas guilty cities that put out from their dwellings the have been named "everlasting," and as they look- candle of the Lord, so surely, we must remember, ed a thousand years gone by, so look they now. will still more awful threatenings be fulfilled It was upon this sea that our Lord sat in a boat, against us, if we neglect to profit by the light and the ice taught the people standing upon the that shines at present so brightly upon the world. shore: and what a sight it must have presented, We had intended to visit some extensive ruins to have seen the boat in the water, and the Prince northward of the plain, but our time would not of Life, and the listening multitude lining in rows allow of so long a digression as this would have the slopes of the ascent, as if in an immense am- required. Before we began to mount the hills, phitheatre, all so still that the little birds would not we passed a stream of water, broad but not deep, be frightened from their course in approaching on the banks of which were many curious specithe solemn audience, and the whole reflected up- mens of petrifaction. Branches of trees, reeds, on the clear waters at their feet. On the opposite grasses, and other substances, were firmly bound coast “the herd of swine ran violently down a together, and in all, the change from the original steep place into the sea, and perished in the character was complete, though the grain and waters." It was upon this sea that Jesus walked, fibres of the wood were perfectly retained. like a spirit, in the fourth watch of the night, when Soon after our commencement of the ascent, the wind was boisterous and the waves were high; my companions, who were some distance behind and it was to these waters he spake, when he me, saw on their left a large cave, and descended said in majesty, Peace, be still," and the rebuk- from their horses to explore it. I crossed over to ed wind ceased, and there was a great calm. Not meet them, when I heard a rustling in the grass, a single boat is ever seen upon its surface in our and they called out to me, but I was too distant day, and the fish that do not approach the land to hear what they said. On coming up to them, are never molested by any of the devices of man. I found that they had started a lion, when within Josephus tells us that the water of this lake was a few feet of its lair, which sprang down the ra. 50 cold, that it could not be warmed by setting in vine, and plunged along the waters of the stream the sun, even in the hottest part of the year ; but at the bottom, until they lost sight of it in the disit has now lost this virtue, and in summer becomes tance by the projection of a rock. They had so warm and offensive. This lake was the scene of near a view of it, and saw it for so great a length an engagement under Vespasian, in which some of time, that they could not be mistaken, and the thousands were slain.
eye of Mr. T. is particularly keen. There were We returned to Tiberias much pleased with several places in the grass where a large animal our excursion, and remained all night in the had evidently rested, and near one of them the church; but as I had only an oil-cloth under me, remains of some creature, about the size of a cat, the cold from the stones would not allow me to which appeared to me to be more like a lion's cub enjoy my usual sound sleep. I was disappointed than any other animal with which I am acquaintin not being able to procure animals to take me ed. We pursued our course towards the cave, to Damascus, as I had intended to skirt the east- but took the precaution to call first for our fire. ern coast of the sea, and examine some parts of arms. We descended to the bottom of the ravine, the ancient Bashan.
and had presented to us a scene of surpassing To the northward of Tiberias, on the shore of wildness. The principal cave is near a hundred the lake, there are remains of buildings, but none feet high at the entrance, and is carried a conof them worthy of description. At a little less siderable distance into the mountain, gradually than an hour from leaving the town, April 28, we decreasing in size as it proceeds. Near it, and crossed a stream of very clear water, from which I within it, in all parts of the sides, are many other