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On the south-eastern side the ravine is continued, consulting the holy oracle, or of presenting before and is deeper and broader. On the west side the Lord the different sacrifices required by the there is another ravine, which at its deepest part law. On the three great festivals of the year, its joins the valley of the Kedron, at the foot of mount streets were crowded with people from the most Sion, and from thence rising by a gradual ascent, distant parts of the land, and during the periods at last loses itself in the plain on the north side in which these festivals were celebrated in their of the city. The summits of “the mountains purity, they must have tended in an eminent deround about Jerusalem” are not more than a good gree to promote harmony and good fellowship arrow-shot from the walls, and are not much higher among the tribes, and have filled their hearts with than some parts of the hill on which it stands.- gladness and gratitude. The great number of The appearance of the hills is rugged: they have priests, Levites, and teachers of the law, who cona few olive trees upon them, but little cultivation : stantly resided here, or attended in their regular their sides in many places present the bare rock, courses, would confer upon the city a sacred and and the soil is covered with loose stones. The religious character. The prophets added much mount of Olives has a more pleasing aspect, and to the solemnity of its aspect, as they mirgled its sides are sown with grain, but it partakes in with the crowds in their austere garb, and lifted some degree of the general character. Between up their voice to reveal the will of heaven. When this mount and that of Evil Counsel there is an the fulness of time was come, Jesus Christ was open valley, and the view in this direction is more born in Bethlehem, and within a few miles of the extensive than from any other part of Jerusalem. city the voice of the angels was heard praising
The circumference of the ancient city was a God, and saying, “Glory to God in the highest, little more than four miles, and must have extend- and on earth peace, good will towards men. ed more towards the north than the present Jeru In the time of our Saviour, Jerusalem must have salem. From the account of it given by Josephus, presented one of the most magnificent sights ever it would appear that the site of the city was seen upon earth. The most favorable situation much more uneven than it is now. He speaks for viewing this prospect with effect would be of a valley between the city and temple, and of from the mount of Olives, and at the very place another valley that seems to have run nearly where Jesus, on beholding the city, wept over it along the centre of the city, and particularises the At one sudden turn in the
road from Bethany, the hills Sion, Moriah, Acre, and Bezetha. The city comes at once into sight. Between this ground is still uneven, but there is no part within mountain and the city was a deep and contracted the walls that could with propriety be called a ravine, then as now used as the place of burial, valley.
studded with the whited walls of the sepulchres It has been supposed, though it would seem erected to the prophets, and referred to by Christ upon insufficient authority, that after the expulsion as emblems of the Scribes and Pharisees, hypoof Adam from Paradise, there was always in an- crites, which did indeed appear beautiful outward, cient times a visible appearance of the shekinah, but were within “full of dead men's bones and all or symbol of the divine presence, that it was pre uncleanness." The city was defended in the served by Noah in the ark, and afterwards by the weaker parts by a triple wall
, and towers, monupatriarchs. The place appointed as the perma- ments, and palaces, proudly presented themselves nent abode of the presence was by divine com- in every direction. On the opposite side of the mand. We learn from the book of Chronicles, valley, the hill of the city rose perpendicularly that when God appeared unto Solomon, and gave near 500 feet, and was built up with immense him permission to erect a house “for the name stones, some of which measured 23 yards square. of the Lord God of Israel,” he said, “I have The temple stood upon the summit of this precichosen Jerusalem, that my name might be there." pice, and our Saviour being raised a little above The mount of Moriah had already been conse- it, would be able to look over its walls into the crated, the mount of Sion was the residence of courts by which it was surrounded. We are told the king, and Jerusalem was in a convenient di- that Herod had employed 10,000 men during the rection for the approach of the different tribes, space of eight years to strengthen, restore, and when they came up three times a year to present enlarge it. It was at this time of greater extent, themselves before the Lord. It was also in a po- though perhaps of less exquisite workmanship; sition of great strength, which in those lawless than it had presented at any earlier period. It times was a matter of the highest consequence. had a portico of white marble, the columns of We have here another of those coincidences so which were each of one stone, and 44 feet long. often presented in Scripture, which were to the It had nine gates covered over with silver and Jews, and must be to us, strong and satisfactory gold, and another that was still more precious, proofs that the attention of the divine mind had made of Corinthian brass. The parts that were from the earliest ages been directed towards their not gilded were beautifully white, so that it apstate, and been preparing the thoughts of men for peared at a distance like a mountain of snow. It the coming of the Messiah. Upon that same was covered in front with plates of gold, and when mountain, upwards of 800 years previous to the the sun shone upon it, and lighted it up into glory, erection of the temple, God had commanded Abra- it was impossible to look at it from its brightness, ham to sacrifice his son Isaac, a type of the daily and it then shadowed forth the Deity that was sacrifice that was to be offered upon the altar, and worshipped within, “whom no man hath seen, or of that greater sacrifice that was to be offered in can see.” due time ncar the same spot, “ once for all." The Jerusalem of modern times is not the city
From the time of David, Jerusalem was the of the Scriptures, any more than that it is built constant resort of all those who were desirous of pon the same spot. The walls are of sewn stone,
about 40 feet high, and without any mole or but that are not without interest, though connected tresses. They have battlements, and have long with much of melancholy and sorrow. I am not and narrow embrasures, with projecting towers at so uncharitable as to suppose that some of them irregular distances of the same form and height. may not have had the love of God in their hearts, There are several Arabic inscriptions upon them, and have obeyed in sincerity the Saviour whom the purport of which was not explained to me. they ignorantly worshipped. They have suffered Some of the stones are very large, and were pro much from the oppressions of the Turks, but bably used in the ancient city. The gates through though persecuted and exposed to death, they which there is admittance are four in number: have been firm in their post; and when one has the Damascus gate, that opens towards the plain perished, another has always been found ready to on the north ; St. Stephen's gate, that opens to stand up and supply his place. Their principal wards the eastern ravine; Zion gate, upon the employment is the chaunting of the appointed serhill of the same name; and the gate that leads vices, the song of which is heard without ceasing towards Bethlehem and Jaffa. The other gates in the church of the Sepulchre, at all hours of the are now walled up. They are all formed of point- day and night, and a more unfavorable situation ed arches, with an entrance-tower, but have little can scarcely be conceived for the keeping alive sculptural decoration. On the outside it is possi- of the spiritual affections. It is affecting to witble to walk all round the city, close to the walls. ness the rude zeal of the deluded pilgrims; but I
have felt far more, when I have seen the priests and monks, in some of whose countenances a
beam of intelligence seemed to shine, bowing In the INTERIOR of the city there are few va- down before a picture or stone, and appearing to cant spaces. The houses are built of large rough pay it adoration. stones, close to each other, and are two stories The pilgrims usually arrive about Christmas, high. Little more is seen towards the street than and continue here until Easter. There is now a a plain wall and a mean entrance. Every house much smaller number than were present in forhas one dome or more, the roofs being universally mer times. The pilgrimage is little calculated to built of this form, as no timber can be procured benefit their souls. They have a long season of except from a great distance. Most of the build- leisure, which might be brought to some advanings, the convents excluded, are falling into decay, i tage, but they employ it too often in smoking, but there are not many that are so far in ruin as drinking, gambling, and other occupations equally to be entirely deserted. The streets are narrow, adverse to spiritual improvement. We appointed pared with flat stones, and many of them on a a time to wait on the patriarch of the Greek declivity.
church, but on that day a messenger had arrived The public buildings are not numerous, nor are from the pacha, to claim the usual share of the any of them, except the mosque of Omar, very offerings, and he could not receive us. The pil. magnificent. Near the Jaffa gate is a castle, grims are now subject to much fewer exactions formed of two strong towers, called the castle of than they formerly were, though even their preDavid, or the tower of the Pisans. A few cannon sent annoye.nces are sufficiently great. They are here mounted, and it is surrounded by a dry have to purchase tuskaras, or passports, and are moat. There are not many mosques in propor- continually required to show them to the officers tion to the celebrity of the place even in Mussul- of government ; and if they have them not at man estimation. They are all falling into ruin, hand, they are detained until another can be proand no efforts are made to repair them. cured, for which they are required to advance an
The convents are for the most part situated in additional sum. The principal source of their the north-west quarter of the city. The Greeks vexation arises from the natives of the country, have thirteen, and the Roman Catholics, or, as as they are cheated in every bargain they make, they are here called, Latins, the Armenians, Sy- and they have no redress, without submitting to rians, Copts, and Abyssinians, have each of them still greater insults. Some camel-drivers having one. They each contain a chapel, and a number brought a number of women to the beginning of a of small rooms for the use of the pilgrims. They dangerous descent, in the road to Jericho, refused are supported by contributions from all parts of to proceed without an immediate present, but I Christendom. The pilgrims are allowed the free interfered in their behalf, and was for the time use of them, and in some they are provided with successful. When the pilgrims had bathed in the support for a certain number of days or weeks.- Jordan, many of them were not allowed to remount The Armenian convent is situated near the hill of their animals until another sum had been extorted Zion. It is by far the most extensive, the most from them. Besides visiting the sacred places, splendid, and the most liberally endowed. It is they have their arms marked with a cross and usual with English travellers to remain at the other devices. It appears to be considered as a Latin convent. The accommodations are more religious ceremony, to receive the indellible mark, comfortable, but some of our countrymen have as a kind of hymn is constantly sung during the died here, and others have been taken ill, which operation, though no priest is present. On their has excited suspicion against the monks. I had departure from Jerusalem they receive a printed no intercourse with them, as they are declared paper, certifying that they have acted as good enemies to us and our cause.
pilgrims, and granting them absolution in conseThe different orders of monks, for many centu- quence. With this paper, a candle lighted at the ries the only representatives of the Christian holy fire, and a dress dipped in the Jordan, they church near the spot where the divine Victim was fondly imagine that no harm can come near them sacrificed for the sins of the world, awaken feelings I for ever. Those who have visited the stations
are dignified by the name of hadgi, after the man- the green grass in its open courts; but even for ner of the Mussulmans. There are now few this, the Turks grumbled at me, and warned me Greeks from the Morea, the greater part being to proceed no further. An air of beauty still rests from Russia and Asia Minor, where the march upon the place, that is presented by no other part of intellect has not yet extended. As knowledge of Jerusalem. The Sakhara is the principal buildincreases, the number of pilgrims will lessen in ing. It is an octagon, each side of which conproportion, the convents will have no occupants, tains seven windows, and is said to be about 60 and one scandal will be wiped away from the feet long. It has four entrances, ascended by Christian church.
spacious steps, over which are lofty arches, and is Not far from the Jaffa gate is a pool of water surrounded by an elevated platform of marble.-which dries up in summer. There is always to The dome has been much admired. It is said to be seen a number of Jews, particularly females, be 93 feet high, and 47 feet in diameter. The seated near it. I inquired the reason from a Jew, next building in importance is the mosque El but he would give me no definite answer. I was Aksa. The windows in the dome are of painted told by others that they expect the Messiah to glass. The four orthodox sects of Mahomedans appear near that spot. Near St. Stephen's gate have each their appointed places of prayer.there is another pool, said by some to be that of There are many other buildings within the incloBethesda, and by others to be the dungeon into sure, some of which are inhabited by dervishes.which Jeremiah was let down by cords : perhaps Next to the temple at Mecca, this is considered both accounts are equally correct, and it may be as the most sacred place in the world. It is the neither the one nor the other. There are three gate of Paradise, and the spot where Mahomet arches in it, now walled up. Not far from the alighted when he came from heaven in a single same gate I visited the ruins of an extensive con- night. At an early period of his career, he directvent. The church has been subsequently used as ed his followers to turn their faces towards Jerua mosque. It is still so perfect, that with a little salem in prayer, as they now do towards Mecca, repair it might again be used as a place of wor- and the city is called by them, “ El Koodes,” or ship. The palace of the governor is entered from the Holy. It contains, among other curiosities, the same street. The front looks towards the the throne and judgment-seat of Solomon, marks site of the temple, and it is said to occupy the made by the Angers of the angel Gabriel, the sasame spot as the palace of Pilate. Near it are cred stone that Mahomet carried upon his arm several mosques and large buildings in ruins.
in battle, a print of his foot, and the stone upon The via doloroso leads from the judgment-hall which he is to sit at the judgment. There is also of Pilate to the place of our Saviour's death. Con- a series of nails in a block of marble, one of which nected with it are the houses of Pilate and Herod; is said to be miraculously withdrawn at the conthe window from whence the governor presented clusion of every grand event in the universe: they Jesus Christ to the people, when he said, “ Be- were at first eighteen in number, but they are now hold the man !” the place where the cross was reduced to three and a half. It was upon the stone taken from the shoulder of Jesus and laid upon containing the print of the foot, that the ancient Simon,
the Cyrenian; a hole in the wall, made by prophets sat when they delivered their predictions: the fingers of Christ when he rested for a moment it made an attempt to ascend to heaven when the by the way; the place where the cock crew at spirit of inspiration departed from man, but was the denial of Peter; and many other places of a detained by the angel Gabriel, from whence the siinilar description. But the greatest of all won marks of his fingers, until Mahomet came, and ders, and from whence some idea may be formed fixed it for ever upon this spot. of the credit that is due to these traditions, is a stone in the wall of a convent, with an opening miraculously formed, by which it received power to speak when our Saviour replied to the insinua The church of the Sepulchre, which is the only tions of his enemies against the disciples: "If these remaining object within the city that deserves atshould hold their peace, the stones would imme- tention, has of late years produced a great differdiately cry out!"
ence of opinion among the travellers by whom it The mosque of Omar is by far the most magni- has been visited. It is maintained by many that ficent edifice in Jerusalem. It is built upon the it does not occupy the site of the places by which site of the temple, and probably with some of its it professes to be rendered sacred. I have exancient materials. It was commenced by Omar, amined the question with some care, but after the caliph who took Jerusalem, and was finished all find it difficult to decide either one way or by his successors. The inclosure in which it is the other. I cannot learn at what period the situated, called the Haram Schereff, is said to be chain of tradition can have been broken. It has 1489 feet long, and 995 feet broad, and includes a been said that the early Christians were not so large proportion of the whole city. No Christian superstitious as to encourage the fooleries by or Jew is allowed to enter it upon pain of death; which the church in later times has been unhapbut Dr. Richardson, a recent traveller so far in- pily distinguished; but they were perhaps less gratiated himself with an Effendi, upon whom he pure in this respect than some individuals would guccessfully performed a surgical operation, that be disposed to allow. The churches of Smyrna he was permitted to visit and examine it four suc- have this passage in their account of the martyrcesgive times. He is the only Christian who has dom of Polycarp, which took place in the year entered it as such since the crusades. It may be 167 :—“The centurion, perceiving the malevoseen from mount Olivet, and from several situa- lence of the Jews, placed the body in the midst of tions in the city I looked through the entrances at the fire, and burnt it: then we gathered up his
bones—more precious than gold and jewels—and form of a grove or orchard, than a place for Lowdeposited them in a proper place, where, if it be ers and pleasure, and there are yet in the same possible, we shall meet, and the Lord will grant spot many sepulchres“ hewn out in the rock.”: us, in gladness and joy, to celebrate the birth-day It would be a work of no mean service to Chrisof his martyrdom.” At the end of the same cen- tianity, could it be proved that the monks and piltury it was a common practice among the believ- grims are utterly in error; and it is well the saers to go up to Jerusalem expressly « to visit the credness of the places can be called in question sacred places," and the Christians were never pre- by arguments so powerful as those within our vented from living within the city, even when the reach. severest edicts were issued against the Jews. On They have ministered to folly, superstition, and the other hand, we know that the city was entire- actual crime; whilst they have promised a plenaly destroyed by Titus; and it would appear that ry forgiveness of sin, they have added to that sin, the exact site of the sepulchre at least was not rendered its stain deeper, and its punishment more known in the reign of Constantine. “When He- severe; and whilst they have professed to maglone, the emperour's mother,” says an old_trans. nify the death and passion of our Lord Jesus Christ, lation of Eusebius, “ founde the auncient Jerusa- they have taken from them all their power, by lem, lying all wast, in a heape of stones, as it is substituting a personal visit to the supposed Calin the prophet, she searched diligently for the se- vary in place of an application by faith to the Son puchre of Christ, in the which he was layd, and of God in heaven. It was in mercy that the tomb out of the which he rose againe, and at length, al of Moses was hid from the knowledge of the Jews, though WITH MUCH ADOE, through the helpe of and it has been in equal mercy that the exact siGod, she found it. And why it was so HARD a tuation of the tomb of Jesus has been hid from the matter to finde, I will declare in fewe words ; even knowledge of the church, as it has thus been saved as they which embraced the faith of Christ highly from the desecration of the thousand sins that have esteemed of that sepulchre, and monument of his been committed under the sanctity of its name. passion, so of the contrary, such as abhorred Chris. The church of the Sepulchre is approached by in religion, heaped in that place much earth, and a narrow entrance, that leads from a small street raised great hilloks, and buylded there the temple into an open court nearly surrounded by convents, of Venus, and having suppressed the remembrance and used as a bazar. There are money-changers of the place, they sette up her idole. This have and venders of curiosities from Bethlehem, such we learned of olde to be true.”
as rosaries, crosses, and pictures worked in moThat which follows appears to have arisen from ther-of-pearl; persons beating brazen cups to anthe craftiness of the priests, such as the finding of nounce that they have sherbet for sale ; the blind a sepulchre and three crosses, and future ages and maimed crying out in mournful accents to exhave been willing to be duped by the credulity of cite the compassion of the pilgrims; and on the the old empress. The place of the crucifixion ground are exposed to view, clothes, spices, fruits, cannot have been far from the palace of the go- wax tapers, and cutlery. The exterior of the vernor; it was “nigh unto the city;" it could be church is not imposing. The entrance is formed seen “afar off;" it was " without the camp," or of two pointed arches, one of them walled up.city; it was probably on an elevation, though of The stone over the open door-way has a well-exthis we have no certain evidence, unless the name ecuted sculpture, partly broken, which appears to Golgotha, “ the place of a skull,” be understood be ancient, and to represent some historical event, is referring to its shape and appearance; it was in separate compartments. near a public road, as “they that passed by re On entering the church, a party of Turks are viled him;" it was near a garden, as, “in the seated near the large door, smoking and chatting, place where he was crucified, there was a gar- and laughing at the follies of the people. They den; and in the garden a new sepulchre, where are always present when the church is open for in never man was laid—there laid they Jesus.” public worship, to preserve order; but it can be It appears to me impossible the present sepulchre, opened at any other time by an application from or pretended sepulchre, can be made to agree with the superior of a convent. The first open space these plain statements of Scripture, more espe- is a large hall or chapel, for the building is very cially with that which places Golgotha without irregular in its form. Opposite the entrance is a the city. I repeatedly examined the site, and marble slab, said to mark the spot where the body from every possible direction, but the result of all of our Lord was laid to be anointed for the burial. my observations was the same, that it must of The people were kneeling down to it continually, necessity have been included within the walls of to kiss it, and wipe the dust from its surface. It the ancient Jerusalem. All the other arguments has three immense wax tapers at each end, and that have been brought against it, and which it eight lamps suspended over it. In the wall at would be to no purpose to repeat here, may per- the right hand are three doors. The third leads haps be set aside ; but this appears to me unan- to a recess, where a fissure is shown in the stone, swerable, and must throw the strongest suspicion said to have been made when the rocks were rent upon every other kind of proof that may be at- at the crucifixion. It is defended by a grating, so tempted in its favor. Were we to take Scripture that I could not examine it very closely; but it is for our only guide, the scene of the crucifixion supposed by those competent to judge, that it is a would be placed near the gate of St. Stephen, and natural fissure, made by a convulsion of the earth. would overlook the valley of Hinnom, from the op- It is immediately under the place where the cross posite side of which it might have been witnessed stood, say the monks, and the skull and some bones by the women, whilst the high priest saw it om of old Adam were found in it by the empress the walls. The garden was probably more in the Helena.
Near the wall opposite the entrance, on the The Greek church is opposite the entrance inright hand, there is a narrow passage. At its to the sepulchre. It does not differ from the other commencement, a flight of steps, about twenty in churches of the Greeks, except in being more number, leads to the chapel of Calvary. It is di- splendid. When lighted up by the numerous vided into two compartments, separated from each candles and lamps, it presents one blaze of magniother by arches. At the end of the first division ficence. Some of the pictures are in better taste is an altar, near which is shown the very hole in than those usually seen. In the middle of the which the cross of our Saviour was placed, and floor, is a short marble pillar, said to be placed also the holes of the crosses of the malefactors, not exactly in the centre of the world. Even to this a yard distant from each other. There are many the people were offering lights, and bowing down, lights, pictures, and ornaments, and the pulpit from and kissing it. whence the Latins preach on Good Friday. The The churches of the Latins and Armenians are floor is of variegated marble. At the end of the smaller, and have less of ornament. The ancient other division is also an altar, intended to mark the church of the sepulchre was destroyed by fire in place where Jesus was nailed to the tree. 1808, and the present structure having been prin.
On descending again into the passage, and pro- cipally built at the expense of the Greeks, they ceeding along its course, there are altars in it appropriated to themselves the largest and most erected to commemorate the places where Christ convenient part of the edifice. was scourged, where the soldiers divided his gar is principally at Easter, when the services of ments, where they arrayed him in a mock robe, the church particularly allude to places within and so on, for almost every circumstance narrated compass of the sacred enclosure, that the full by the evangelists relative to the death and burial splendor of the priesthood is brought to bear upon of our Lord. At the end of this passage, a few the religious ceremonies connected with the time. steps lead down to the chapel of St. Helena, where Pilgrims from very distant parts now assemble to the true cross was found by the empress, the wood offer up their prayers at the sepulchre of the of which has been so miraculously multiplied, that Saviour, on the anniversaries of his death, burial, from it another ark might be built of equal dimen- and resurrection. Were there any thing of real sions with the ark of Noah. It is more plain and devotion apparent in the minds of the people, were more ancient than any other part of the church. the influence that might be supposed to rest upon When the Easter of the Latins and Greeks falls these hallowed spots, more manifest, I might be at the same time, there is sometimes a battle ec- tempted to record at length the different procesclesiastical to gain possession of this place. sions, prayers, masses, and sermons, but under
From the entrance hall, a wide opening to the present circumstances I should deem all this a left leads into a larger chapel, surmounted by a waste of time both to him who writes, and those dome, and surrounded by 16 pillars, square and who read. In one of the Greek processions I plain. There are galleries nearly all round, and counted upwards of eighty priests, all clothed in under them are different chapels and apartments. magnificent garments of crimson and gold. The The sepulchre stands under the centre of the Turks made way for them through the crowd, and dome, in shape like a church, with a small cupola laid on most unmercifully with their whips and for the steeple. It is built of coarse marble, has clubs. They had many banners, with parts of an inscription in Greek round the top, and is orna. Scripture and of foolish legends painted upon them. mented with pictures and artificial flowers. At The bishops had rich mitres, sparkling with jewthe outside of the western end, there is an open els; their robes were held on each side by an chapel for the Copts, Syrians, and other Chris- i attendant; and incense was burnt before them. tians who have no separate place of worship. The They held in their hands a cross, which they entrance to the sepulchre is from the eastern end, moved to and fro, and the people bowed themand is defended by a railing. We were here re- selves as they passed. Some of the priests carried quired to take off our shoes. The interior is di- books in rich bindings, others had large crosses, vided into two apartments. The floor is of mar- others had silver shrines of the chapel of Calvary, ble, and small marble pillars are let into the walls. and others were employed in chaunting the apIn the centre of the first division is a marble pillar, propriate service. said to mark the place where the angel stood to On the Sunday before Easter the pilgrims carannounce the resurrection to Mary Magdalen and ry palm-branches in their hands, many of them the other women. The place was crowded with cut or platted into various devices. These are people, and after much crushing and confusion, we the real palms, such as were actually used at the at last effected an entrance into the sanctum. It triumphal entrance of Christ into the city, so difis lighted by forty lamps, and the crowd within ferent from the palms used in England on the rendered the heat so insupportable that I remain- same occasion, that I cannot account for their ed in it only a few moments. The tomb is of white choice, unless the palm be the only tree that blosmarble, without ornament, and about six feet long. soms at this early period of the year. The stone which was rolled to the mouth of the On the Saturday before Easter, the farce of sepulchre was many years ago carried off by the the fire is exhibited to the pilgrims. I went early Armenians, and is now shown in their chapel upon that I might secure a good place for seeing the mount Zion. The sepulchre, it will be said, was exhibition. The church was crowded in every * hewn out in the rock,” and to this the monks part, the women standing near the wall, and the will reply, that there was here a large rock, but men in the body of the building. I attempted to that it has been cut away, leaving only the shell take my station near the females, as the men were of the scpulchre, which is cased over by the mar- beginning to be a little noisy; but they stoutly ble walls of the present building.
opposed me, until a good old lady spoke a few