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ye to do with me, 0 Tyre and Zidon, and all the us to spend the night at his house. He was precoasts of Palestine ?........ The children of Judah sent at the battle of Navarino, and gave us an and the children of Jerusalem, have ye sold unto account of it somewhat different to the received the Grecians, that ye might remove them, far from version. We visited a palace built by Addullah their border. Behold I will sell your sons and pacha, about a mile from the town. It is in iniiyour daughters into the hand of the children of tation of the Kiosks of Turkey. The gardens are Judah, and they shall sell them to the Sabeans, to laid out with some taste, and there are several a people far off; for the Lord hath spoken it.” Joel little summer-houses that approach towards beaui. 1–8. The recent abolition of slavery by the ty.. A tank is surrounded by a marble walk, upon parliament of England is the most glorious na- which are many vases of the same material from tional act ever yet registered upon the pages of Italy. The pacha is now a prisoner at Cairo, and history, and the most generous national sacrifice is almost a solitary instance, at least in modern that the angels of heaven ever yet witnessed among times, in which the life of an enemy has been the sons of men.
spared by a Turkish conqueror.
We visited Acre on the morning of April 3rd.
It is called Accho in Judges, and Ptolemais in the PTOLEMAIS, OR ACRE.
Acts of the Apostles, from one of the Ptolemies
by whom it was enlarged. The army of Titus We passed along the plain of Tyre, which ex- assembled here previous to its march upon Jerutends to the distance of a little more than an hour's salem. It is celebrated in the histories of the walk from the city, until we arrived at the ex- crusades for the number and length of its sieges, tremity of the bay, near which place continental and was the last fortified place yielded up by the Tyre is by some supposed to have stood. We Christian powers. Buonaparte received here his saw some columns and other memorials of depart- first reverses, from the valor of Sir Sydney Smith. ed greatness. From hence we had to pass over It stood a siege against Ibrahim pacha on his way the extremity of a range of hills, and from the towards Asia Minor, and was defended by Adhighest part of the road we had a fine view of the dullah pacha on the part of the sultan. It is a city, bay, and plain of Tyre, and in the extreme place of considerable extent, and its principal addistance could discern the snow-clad mountains vantages are derived from its situation, which is of Lebanon and Hermon. We were twice stop- comparatively good, though the vessels in the ped by soldiers stationed at khans to protect the harbor are much exposed. It still retained many road, but when we informed them that we were marks of the late siege, though the outer walls English travellers, they allowed us to pass on. I had been rebuilt with an expedition that appears never saw any place so rich in flowers. Within wonderful, when we consider the numerous other the distance of a few yards I counted more than calls upon the attention of Mahomet Ali.
The 20 different kinds, and such was their profusion in castle was the principal object of the besiegers' some places, that the hills had more the appear- vengeance. It had been almost one solid mass ance of a flower-garden than of a wild nook in the of masonry, but was then little better than a heap wilderness. The road continued at a considerable of ruins. The upper stories were entirely shot elevation above the sea for some hours, and there away, and there was none of the outer facing of are evidences, from fallen pillars and masses of the lower walls. The walls, minarets, and dome hewn stone, that the merchant princes had chosen of the mosque, formerly very magnificent, were these delightful spots as the places of their retreat riddled through and through; the trees were leaffrom the noise of the city. We passed another less and without branches; the roofs of some of khan, and the plain of Acre, bounded by the range the houses were gone, and the sides of others had of mount Carmel, burst at once upon our sight. - fallen in; and remains of gun carriages, balls, and I had been accustomed to consider the plains of shells, were scattered about the streets in every Palestine as little better than sheep-walks, but direction. In an open shed near the castle we was agreeably surprised to find them extensive observed the remnants of marble vases, similar to tracts of rich land, cultivated in some places, and those at the palace, not fewer than 30 of which capable of cultivation in all. We rested a little must have been thus destroyed. A few marble time near a stream of water. An old woman first pillars were all the remains we saw of an ancient came up riding on an ass, with most piteous moans; date, probably brought from the ruins of Cæsarea. her friends were taking her to receive medical The bazaars have had arched roofs of stone that advice, but I fear that no skill could avail for her extended the whole length of the street; a great recovery. Some Armenian pilgrims were there convenience, but they must have assisted decepbefore us, who offered us for sale an ancient Greek tion by making the places obscure. We visited coin : and a fine old Bedouin soon afterwards the bazaar to procure a few necessaries for our joined our party. About two hours from Acre we journey, and several persons were very importuobserved the commencement of an aqueduct, and nate to purchase a common French shawl I had before we had arrived at the city, I counted more round my waist. Few of the inhabitants had then than 400 arches in it, all built of stone, and some returned, and the streets were almost desolate.of them upwards of 30 feet high. Near the town The repairs of the fortifications were carried on the water is raised in pillars as at Sidon. It was by peasants from the villages, superintended by repaired by the late pacha, after its partial de- soldiers. We passed a number of them on the struction by the French during the siege of Acre. road, and from the exertion required by the guard We met an Italian physician in the service of the to keep them together, it was evident that they pacha not far from the gates, who kindly invited I came to the work with no good will.
tiful plain. We saw the village of Syra in a break
in the chain of mountains to the left. There is a The wind was high when we left Acre, and blew ridge of rocks between the road and the sea, and the sand about with such violence that we had in many places there are ruins. At one point the great difficulty in making our way. The bay to road is cut through them, and there are yet the the southward extends to mount Carmel, and we ruts in the stone made by the ancient wheeled were three hours in skirting its shore. We first carriages. It opens upon a magnificent ruin of forded the river Belus, the sand of which has been considerable extent, upon which the rays of the much used in the making of glass, and then came declining sun were falling from a dark cloud, to “ that ancient river, the river KISHON,” im- which added to the interest of its appearance.mortalised in the song of Deborah and Barak, It is called Athlek by the natives, a few of whom over which we were ferried by a Jewish boatman. find shelter near it. There are the remains of a The saddles are never taken off the horses in strong castle, an extensive church, and many these countries during a journey, either by day other buildings. The walls are some of them 15 or night. They were now taken from the animals feet thick. Its history is not known, but it is supthat they might not be wetted in crossing the posed to have been erected under the Greek emriver, and the backs of the poor creatures had perors. I have seldom been more powerfully been so chafed by them, that I felt unwilling to struck than I was by the first sight of this place, mount mine again. After passing some sepul- but much of the impression may have arisen from chres in the rocks we entered the town of Hypha, the peculiar character of the evening, as it threatand were detained some time by the guard, until ened a thunder-storm, the force for which was one of our party waited on the governor, and ob- gathering in dark masses round the tower, whilst tained our release. There were several brass the sun shed one last glorious ray upon the venecannon upon the walls, all ready for action. The rable pile that had braved the shocks of so many vessels have here better shelter than at Acre, but centuries, and now appeared as if devoted to sudthe water is shallow. This town is nearly at the den and complete destruction. The muleteers foot of mount Carmel, which extends about 30 were desirous to remain here for the benefit of miles, in a south-eastern direction from the sea, the fine grazing for their animals, but as there was in nearly an equal ridge, and at an elevation of yet a little time before sunset we were anxious to about 1600 feet. It is often referred to in Scrip- proceed. The rocks on our left were cut in many ture, and was once covered with trees, but it is places, and we saw many caves and remains of now nearly bare, and “the excellency of Carmel” towns. I amused myself as we rode slowly along has withered before the curse of heaven. It was with looking at the rocks, and in the light of the the usual residence of the prophets Elijah and moon with which we were favored, it was easy Elisha. The place where the false prophets of for fancy to form castles and towers, and people Baal were discomfited and slain was towards the them with the ideal beings of another age; at other extremity, nearer Jezreel, to which Ahab times the illusion was complete, and I almost beretired; and at some point near which it is ap- lieved in the phantoms I had myself conjured up. proached by the Kishon. We may stand at the We lodged at the sheikh's house at Tortura, but top of Carmel
, as did Gehazi, and look towards as my companions were unable to sleep from the the sea, but alas ! there is now no "little cloud incessant attacks of certain little blood-thirsty inlike a man's hand;" still there is the promise of a mates of the establishment, that assailed us under shower, and in due time the streams of divine every possible form, we resumed our journey at mercy will again fall upon this thirsty land, and an early hour, still assisted by the friendly moon. men shall again liken themselves in their pros. Soon after dawn we crossed the river Zirka, upon perity to “ the excellency of Carmel and Sharon." which was formerly an Egyptian colony, and it is Near the point that overlooks the sea there is a said by travellers that crocodiles of a small size are monastery of Carmelite friars. It was destroyed still found here, the descendants of those brought a few years ago by Addullah pacha, that he might over from Egypt as deities. Our progress was convert the materials to his own use, and though now slow, from the depth of the sand. The shore he was ordered to rebuild it at his own expense was covered with shells, in some places to a conby the sultan, when a proper representation of the siderable depth. circumstance had been made to his court, no atten The first notice of our approach towards Co tioa was ever paid to the mandate. The monks sarea, was at an hour's distance from the Zirka, are now rebuilding it themselves in a very splen- when we discovered a number of arched apartdid manner, and one of the fraternity is the archi- ments close to the shore. They were probably in tect. At a lower elevation on the same point, is former times used as store-houses. Six are open, a palace recently erected by the pacha. " There one is in ruins, and several others are buried under is a small building near the sea, said to cover the the sand. They appear to have extended a concave in which Elisha dwelt, but as the door was siderable distance, in the direction of the city.locked we could not gain admittance.
Josephus speaks of "several arched vaults, that served for seamen's cabins," near the harbor, but these must be of more modern construction. The
city was founded by Herod, and every building in CÆSAREA.
it, whether public or private, was of marble. The
haven, which appears to have been almost entireIt was with difficulty we could keep on our horses ly an artificial formation, was larger than the at the time we left Carmel, the wind blew with so Piræus at Athens, and was defended by a breakmuch violence. We then entered upon a beau- water. No remains of it are now to be discover
ed, though some of the stuues used in its erection woes of the prisoner and the triumphs of the perwere 50 feet in length. In the time of the apos- secutor had alike passed away; and where the tles it was the principal city of Syria, and the re- simple eloquence of an apostle was once heard, sidence of the Roman governor. It was a dis- and its power was acknowledged by an unjust pute respecting the possession of this city that judge and an ambitious monarch, no sound could gave rise to the war with the Romans; the Jews then be distinguished but the gentle murmur of claiming it because it had been built in their own the sea. There was a single boat passing at the land, and the Greeks, because it had been dedi- time, with its small white sail, to remind us of the cated to the heathen gods. Vespasian was here thousands that once bore themselves proudly upon first proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, after the same waters, laden with the produce of all which he hastened to Alexandria, and from thence climes. This spot is particularly dear to the misto Rome, and Titus took the command of the army sionary, as it was consecrated by the baptism of which was destined to carry into effect the awful the first Gentile convert, at that time a wonder predictions that had been uttered against Jeru- without a precedent. Now the children of the salem.
adoption are living under the wrath of God, and The city of which these are the remains was the despised “barbarians," from almost every nabuilt in the time of the crusaders. The walls can tion among men, are admitted into the favor of he easily traced, in an oblong form, the extended the Lord, and have the promise that they shall sit side towards the sea. There are many apart. down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the ments, pillars, and parts of arches, in the area of kingdom of heaven. At such a place, the solemn the city; there is an arched vault near the sea ; caution of the apostle comes home to the mind and in another direction, the remains of two oval with additional force ;—“Be not high-minded, but recesses may have belonged to the eastern end fear, for if God spared not the natural branches, of the cathedral. The ruins of a castle stand take heed lest he spare not thee.” Rom. xi. 20, 21. upon a small peninsula, and granite columns are The road along the sea-shore continued to be scattered along the sea shore in great profusion. tedious until we turned into the vale of SHARON, Without the city, on the southern side, are several which appeared as if covered with a rich carpet mounds of ruins, overgrown with grass and brush of many colors, from the numerous flowers that wood. The amphitheatre stood in this direction, flourish in its fertile soil. There are other valleys where Herod Antipas was smitten by an angel of the same name, and it is not known which of of God, and eaten of worms. Whilst I was occu- them was celebrated for the production of the pied in taking a sketch of the place, my compa- rose. Our animals being tired, we remained for nions picked up several pieces of marble, upon one the night near a brook, and spreading our clothes of which was a flower, well executed, and upon upon the ground, slept in the open field. I thought another a Greek inscription. There are many of Him, who in the same country “had not where hoies in the ground, made by the pachas of Acre in to lay his head." digging for the marbles by which their mosques and palaces are decorated. The aqueduct is nearly buried in the sand. There is not a single inhabitant near the place,
JOPPA. nor any modern building, a circumstance which gives it a purity of character seldom presented to We were up long before day-break, April 5th, and the traveller. A few birds and lizards are the only continued our course along the vale of Sharon, at living possessors we saw of this once crowded city, a greater distance from the sea. The whole of and these are not often disturbed in their abode, this region belonged to the tribe of Manasseh.as the road usually pursued passes at a little dis- We passed two small villages of mean appeartance. Philip, the deacon, resided here some ance. As we approached Jaffa, we entered into years, with his four virgin daughters. It was here the tribe of Ephraim, and the ground became more that Cornelius, the centurion, beheld the vision of uneven, with many mounds of unequal size. We an angel, and that Peter declared to him and his were overtaken by a sharp shower of rain near a house this cheering truth, that “God is no re- bridge we had to cross, but it soon subsided. We specter of persons, but in every nation he that fear- saw a village of some extent on an elevation near eth him, and worketh righteousness, is accepted the sea. We left our animals near the gate to with him." Acts x. 34, 35. Paul was imprisoned graze, and one of the mules died soon after our here two whole years; and at other times visited arrival. the place on his way to and from Jerusalem; and Jaffa, the ancient Joppa, is situated upon a hill it was here that Felix trembled before him, and of a conical form, with a castle on the summit. It that Agrippa was almost persuaded to be a Chris- presents fewer ruins than are usually found in the tian. As it was the usual residence of the Roman Syrian towns. We took breakfast with the Enggovernor, it was the scene of more numerous cru- / lish consul, an Armenian. His house was forelties than any other part of Palestine during the merly a convent, and is upon the same spot, acheathen persecutions. The ecclesiastical histo- cording to tradition, as the residence of Simon, rian Eusebius was bishop of this place. The the tanner. There fell a heavy shower of rain famous Origen resided here some time, and whilst during our stay, attended with high wind. The yet a layman, was permitted to preach before bi- vessels in the harbor rocked about as if they had shops. A walk through ruins where scenes so been in the open sea, though they were moored memorable have been witnessed, could not but very near the shore, in a narrow channel formed rouse the dullest soul into excitement, and awaken by a ledge of rocks. When Vespasian approachmany trains of most profitable reflection. The ed the city, the inhabitants, who were all pirates,
Aed to their ships, but a storm coming on, upon grims, and whilst a discussion was going forward, I
their faces veiled, trotted along as boldly as the
mule. We were joined too at times by Turks and
Bedouins, who reined their fine horses for a
moment to have a passing salutation. There Uron leaving Jaffa, we passed through numerous might be about a hundred of us in all. There was gardens presenting a rich appearance from the re- plenty of shouting, singing, and laughter, and mirth cent showers, after which we entered upon an ex- seemed the order of the day, until the clouds darktensive plain, with slight undulations, and well cul. ened, and soon silenced the noise, by pouring down tivated. We saw the village of Loud, on our left, upon us a plentiful shower of rain. at the distance of a few miles, the Lynda of Scrip We had by this time begun to ascend the hills. ture, and called by Josephus, “ not less than a city The road is one of the worst I ever travelled, in largeness."
.” In a little more than three hours though I had passed over some rough ones since from Jaffa, we observed a tower, which was once my departure from England. There were loose attached to a monastery, dedicated to the forty stones, masses of rock rendered slippery by the martyrs who perished in Armenia. We then en- rain, mud, and puddles of water, and my old horse tered Ramla, the Rama of Ephraim, and the Ari- had great difficulty to keep his feet. Some better mathea of the New Testament. The crusaders mounted cavalier would try to pass me, but the found here one of the principal cities of the country, narrowness of the path would not allow it without and under their rule it continued to rise in impor- an unpleasant concussion. The hills are not high, tance from its convenient situation, at the base of and are rounded off at the summit, as if a number the hills along which winds the principal road to of immense cupolas had been thrown in confusion Jerusalem. Robert, the reckless count of Nor- upon each other. At times we wound along their mandy, was appointed bishop of this place, and St. sides, and then rode along the pass formed at the George, the patron saint of merry England, is by base by their junction. They are composed of some said to have died here. There is a Latin rocks partially covered with earth, with a few convent, in the possession of Spaniards, and olive trees and a little brush-wood growing in many ruins of strength and extent. There is a favored spots. At every hill we came to, it apgreater appearance of comfort, and more trees, peared as if the next would be the summit of the than are usually found in the interior towns of range; but we passed one defile after another, Syria.
and were still disappointed. We crossed the Our muleteers were longer than usual in load- brook from which David is said to have taken the ing the animals, on the morning of the day we ex- pebbles, with one of which he slew the giant. pected to see Jerusalem, which made our depar- We passed Karia Abougosh, the castle of a chief ture rather later than we had intended. We were of that name; who was once the Robin Hood of stopped in one of the streets of Ramla by an old the Holy Land, and the terror of all pilgriins and sheikh, who demanded a small tribute. I replied travellers, but is now a powerless prisoner at Dathat I was an Englishman, and that we were not pil- | mascus. The village occupies a commanding si
tuation at the head of an extended valley, upon with confused impetuosity into my mind, preventthe opposite side of which there is a castle upon ed my attention to localities. the peak of a high hill, in which the robber some It was about three in the afternoon of the 6th times shut himself, and bade defiance to the world. April
, 1833, that we entered the gates of Jerusalem. It is said by some to be Modin, the burial-place We had a letter of introduction, but found that it of the Maccabees; but from the Apocrypha it was to a member of the Latin convent, with which would appear that the sepulchres of these brave we did not desire to have any connection. Whilst men must have been much nearer the sea. At the servants were making inquiries, we remained the village is a substantial church, erected by the with our animals in an open space near the castle, crusaders, still in such repair that it might be fitted but soon resolved to proceed to the Greek convent up with little difficulty as a place of Christian wor- of Mar Michael, the usual resort of missionaries. ship; and though it be now used only as a shelter We were told that the superior was at the church for cattle, and is filthy in the extreme, I am not of the Sepulchre, to which we immediately repairwithout hope that it will again resound with an- ed, and saw some of the imposing ceremonies of thems of praise unto the Lord. It has a centre their worship. We were taken into the sacred nave, separated from the side aisles by arches, and place near the altar, set aside for the bishops and much resembles some of the parish churches in priests, and I was much ashamed, as we were still England. The style is simple, and almost with in our travelling dress. We obtained permission out ornament. We passed the foundations of to lodge at the convent, and were shown into a another building, apparently on a similar plan, not low room, damp and dirty, along with a number of far from Jerusalem. The only annoyance we met pilgrims, but on remonstrating with the superior, with was from some shepherd boys, who threw he vacated his own room for our use, after he had stones at us, and called us names that I did not tried in vain to turn some other pilgrims out of a understand; but my servant was so irritated by good apartment they occupied. The weather was them, that he drew his pistol, and matters might many degrees cooler than upon the coast, from our have been serious if we had not interfered. more elevated situation.
The road became more and more rugged and dreary as we approached Jerusalem. The rocks had gained the mastery, and refused to cherish the little earth that at a lower range still maintained
JERUSALEM. its disputed possession, and tried to cheer the eye with a flower, or refresh the traveller by a fragrant It has been said by an eloquent writer, when shrub. An eminence was before us, and as I was speaking of Jerusalem, “Never was subject less told that when this was gained we should see the known to modern readers, never was subject more holy place, I hastened on to the head of the party, completely exhausted." I feel the full force of but was disappointed. There were yet other this remark. It had been the wish of many years rocks to be scaled, and the road was all but im- that I might visit the holy city: when I first offerpassable to our jaded animals. The moments ed myself as a missionary, it was with a desire to seemed to be hours, and brought with them almost be sent to this place: I had read much about its a feverish excitement. To effect an entrance into localities, and tried as far as possible to realise Jerusalem, more tears have flowed, and more them in my mind; yet after all that I had read, hearts have throbbed, and more hardships have and thought, and dreamed on the subject, the city been endured, and more blood has been shed, than that I pictured in my imagination was entirely for any other spot in the world. I felt that the different to Jerusalem as it really exists ; and most interesting period of my travels was now ar- though I shall now attempt to give some idea of rived. Still, all my former ideas had been so much what I saw, I do not expect to be more successful at variance with the reality of the scene, that when than my predecessors, and fear, that with all these I did catch the first sight of the actual walls of warnings before me, I shall still produce many the city, I felt little of that emotion that might be erroneous impressions. supposed to arise at such a moment. There was The walls of Jerusalem are not traced upon any nothing in keeping with the solemnity of the time. uniform plan, this not being permitted by the deThe pilgrims were discharging their fire-arms, clivities of the hill along which they are carried : that had happily never been called into more seri- their extent, on a rough calculation, may be set ous play, and the only persons we saw consisted down at a little less than three miles. When of a group of dancing girls, who assailed us with coming from any distant place, the phrase of rude and unseemly gestures. As we came nearer Scripture would be used, “to ascend,” but it all appeared to be wrapped in silence and soli- must not on that account be understood as comtude, there not being a single thing in sight that manding an extensive prospect, or that the ground had life. Of Jerusalem we could see little more upon which it stands is high, when compared with than a high wall built of light-colored stone, and the hills in its immediate vicinity. It is built the deep stillness seemed to say that it was protect- upon one of the elevated surfaces of a range of ed by other powers than the common defences of mountains presenting all sizes and shapes. On man. By these thoughts the mind was calmed, the north side it is bounded by a plain, which exand I had time to dwell for a moment upon the tends upwards of a mile before the higher ground wonderful events that had here taken place, some commences. On the eastern side the walls are of which are without a parallel, and had the whole built close to a ravine, at the bottom of which is hierarchy of heaven to behold them. I did not in the bed of Kedron, which gradually deepens as it quire which was Calvary, or which was the site approaches and passes the city; and on the oppoof the temple, the crowd of thoughts that rushed site side of the valley is the range of mount Olivet.