Principles of Political Economy, Volumen1

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How Capital originates
45
Productive Coöperation of the Three Factors 47 The Three Great Periods of a Nations Economy
47
Critical History of the Idea of Productiveness
48
The Doctrine of the Physiocrates
49
The Same Subject continued
50
INTRODUCTION CHAPTER I
51
Idea of Productiveness
52
1 Goods Wants
53
Economic Goods
54
The Degree of Productiveness
55
Three Classes of Goods
56
Its Extent at Different Periods
57
Advantages of the Division of Labor
58
Economic Value Value in
59
Influence of the Extent of the Market on the Division of Labor
60
Means of Increasing the Division of Labor
61
Dark Side of the Division of Labor
62
Value in Exchange Free Goods 6 Alleged Contradiction between Value in Use and Value in Exchange
63
The Coöperation of Labor
64
Resources or Means
65
Valuation of Resources Y 9 Wealth
66
THEORY OF POPULATION
67
Signs of National Wealth
70
Economy Husbandry
73
Grades of Economy in Common
77
Socialism and Communism
78
Socialism and Communism continued
79
Socialism and Communism continued
80
Political Economy Idea of an Organism 14 Origin of a Nations Economy
84
Diseases of the Social Organism
85
POSITION OF POLITICAL ECONOMY IN THE CIRCLE OF RELATED
87
CHAPTER III
102
Demand Indispensable Goods
103
Influence of Purchasers Solvability on Prices
104
Supply
105
The Cost of Production
106
Equilibrium of Prices
107
Effect of a Rise in Price much above Cost
108
Effect of a Decline in Price below Cost Different Costs of Production of the same Goods The Same Subject continued
109
Exceptions
112
Exceptions continued
113
Prices Fixed by Government
114
Influence of Growing Civilization on Prices
115
CHAPTER III
116
Effect of the Introduction of Money
117
Different kinds of Money
118
Meaning of Production
119
Money The Precious Metals Value in Use and Value in Exchange of Money Value in Exchange of Money
120
Quantity of Money a Nation Needs
123
Same Subject continued
124
Uniformity of the Value in Exchange of the Precious Metals
125
The Same Subject continued
126
Measure of Prices
127
Value in Exchange estimated in Labor
128
The Precious Metals the Best Measure of Prices
129
History of the Prices of the Chief Wants of Life
130
Receipts Income Product
144
Influence of Advancing Civilization on Rent
156
Influence of Improvements in the Art of Agriculture on Rent
157
History of Rent in Periods of Decline
158
Rent and the General Good
159
CHAPTER III
160
Minimum of Wages
161
Cost of Production of Labor
162
Power of the Working Classes over the Rate of Wages
163
Cost of Production of Labor
164
The Demand for Labor
165
Price of Common Labor
166
Difference of Wages in different Branches of Labor
167
The Same Subject continued
168
Effect of the Disagreeableness of certain Classes of Labor on Wages
169
Influence of Custom on Wages
170
History of the Wages of Common Labor in the Lower Stages of Civilization
171
History of the Wages of Common Labor in Flourishing Tiines
172
History of the Wages of Common Labor in Flourishing Na tions
173
History of the Wages of Common Laber in Declining Coun tries and Times
174
WagesPolicy Set Price of Labor
175
WagesPolicy Strikes
176
Strikes and The State
177
Guaranty of Minimum of Wages
178
Rate of Interest in General
179
Level of the Rate of Interest
180
181 Causes of Different Rates of Interest
181
Aversion to Interest
190
InterestPolicy The Canon Law
191
Interest Policy Government Interference Fixed Rates
192
Efforts to avoid the Evil Effects of a Fixed Rate of Interest
193
Repeal of the Usury Laws
194
The Reward of Enterprise
195
Circumstances on which the Undertakers Profit Depends 196 a Having the Lead
196
CONCLUDING REMARKS ON THE THREE BRANCHES OF INCOME 197 Influence of the Branches of Income on the Price of Com modities
197
Remedy in Case One Factor of Production has become dearer
198
Influence of Foreign Trade Influence of the Branches of Income on the Price of Com modities
199
Harmony of the Three Branches of Income Individual Differences in them
201
Necessity of the Feeling of a Common Interest
202
Effect of an Equal Division of the National Income
203
Moneyed Aristocracies and Pauperism
204
Healthy Distribution of the National Income
205
FREEDOM AND SLAVERY 867 Origin of Slavery 68 Origin of Slavery continued
207
Notional Consumption
208
Consumption the Vork of Nature
209
Necessity of Considering what is really Consumed Production Impossible without Consumption
210
The Want of Freedom 70 Emancipation
212
Equilibrium between Production and Consumption
213
Causes of an Increase of Production
214
Necessity of the Proper Simultaneous Development of Pro duction and Consumption
215
Disadvantages of Slavery
216
The Same Subject continued
217
Prodigality and Frugality
218
Effect of an Advance in Civilization on Slavery
219
The Same Subject continued 74 The Same Subject continued 75 The Same Subject continued
220
Spendthrift Nations
222
The Most Detrimental Kind of Extravagance
223
Luxury in General
224
History of Luxury In the Middle Ages
225
Luxury of Barbarous Times
226
Influence of the Church and the City
227
Luxury in Flourishing Times
228
The Domestic Servant System
229
Condition Precedent of this Luxury
230
When the Effects of Luxury are Favorable
231
Character of Luxury in Declining Nations
232
LuxuryPolicy
233
History of Sumptuary Laws
234
Difficulty of Enforcing Sumptuary Laws 236 Expediency of Sumptuary Laws CHAPTER III
235
Insurance in General 237 a Mutual and Speculative Institutions 237 b Economic Advantages of Insurance 237 c Fire Insurance 237 d Requisites of a ...
237
VOL I
238
238 Increase of Population in General 239 Limits to the Increase of Population
239
Influence of an Increase of the Means of Subsistence
240
Effect of Wars on Population
241
Tendencies counter to the Increase of Population
242
Opponents of Malthus
243
History of the Value of the Precious Metals In Antiquity and the Middle Ages
244
Community of Wives Polygamy
245
History of Population in highly Civilized Times
246
The Same Subject continued
247
The Same Subject continued
248
History of Population in Periods of Decline
249
Influence of the Sacredness of Marriage on Population
250
Community of Goods 82 Organization of Labor
251
Positive Decrease of Population
252
Organization of Labor continued 84 Organization of Labor continued
253
The Ideal of Population
254
Means of Promoting Fopulation
255
Immigration
256
Influence of Hygienic Police
257
Means of Checking Population Placing Impediments in the way of Marriage
258
Right of Inheritance 1 86 Right of Inheritance continued
259
Landed Property
260
State aid to Emigration
261
Emigration and Pauperism 262 a Temporary Emigration
262
Landed Property continued
264
CHAPTER VI
268
Effects of Credit
270
DebtorLaws
274
History of Credit Laws
276
Means of Promoting Credit
279
Letters of Respite
283
BOOK II
287
CHAPTER I
289
Rapidity of Circulation
290
Freedom of Competition
293
How Goods are paid for 99 Freedom of Competition and International Trade 1
297
CHAPTER II
340
PRICES
381

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Página 379 - Gold and silver having been chosen for the general medium of circulation, they are, by the competition of commerce, distributed in such proportions amongst the different countries of the world, as to accommodate themselves to the natural traffic which would take place if no such metals existed, and the trade between countries were purely a trade of barter.
Página 154 - He unroofs the houses, and ships the population to America. The nation is accustomed to the instantaneous creation of wealth. It is the maxim of their economists, "that the greater part in value of the wealth now existing in England, has been produced by human hands within the last twelve months.
Página 168 - Labour is the Father and active principle of Wealth, as Lands are the Mother...
Página 164 - Nor is there much satisfaction in contemplating the world with nothing left to the spontaneous activity of nature; with every rood of land brought into cultivation, which is capable of growing food for human beings; every flowery waste or natural pasture ploughed up, all quadrupeds or birds which are not domesticated for man's use exterminated as his rivals for food, every hedgerow or superfluous tree rooted out, and scarcely a place left where a wild shrub or flower could grow without being eradicated...
Página 129 - ... is not like the obstacle opposed by a wall, which stands immovable in one particular spot, and offers no hindrance to motion short of stopping it entirely. We may rather compare it to a highly elastic and extensible band, which is hardly ever so violently stretched that it could not possibly be stretched any more, yet the pressure of which is felt long before the final limit is reached, and felt more severely the nearer that limit is approached.
Página 236 - Freedom, according to my conception of it, consists in the safe and sacred possession of a man's property, governed by laws defined and certain, with many personal privileges, natural, civil, and religious, which he cannot surrender without ruin to himself, and of which to be deprived by any other power is despotism.
Página 155 - England has been produced by human hands within the last twelve months. A very small proportion indeed of that large aggregate was in existence ten years ago; of the present productive capital of the country scarcely any part, except farmhouses and...
Página 212 - I have had some opportunities of making comparison between the condition of the free negroes of the north and the slaves of the south, and the comparison has left not only an indelible impression of the superior advantages of the latter, but has gone far to reconcile me to slavery itself.
Página 202 - But to separate the arts which form the citizen and the statesman, the arts of policy and war, is an attempt to dismember the human character, and to destroy those very arts we mean to improve.
Página 436 - Chronicon Preciosum: or, an Account of English Gold and Silver Money; the Price of Corn and other Commodities; and of Stipends, Salaries, Wages, Jointures, Portions, Day-labour etc.

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