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as often as may be necessary. By means of these are further strengthened by uprights, connecting the shafts, other passages or "levels" may be driven corners, thus forming a continuous framework of upon the vein, both above and below the first, if the great strength within the shaft. Small boards or ore is found to extend in these directions, and when laths, are then driven in, nearly close together, thus laid open, may readily be taken away, or between the framing and the sides of the shaft, thus "worked out." This mode of opening mines will affording the necessary support all round. This kind easily be understood, by reference to the annexed of timbering is generally used only for the first sketch.
twenty or thirty feet, as shown in the drawing, as the When, hovever, the vein is not visible at the sur- solid rock is generally firm enough to stand without face, it is generally discovered by digging trenches a support. Sometimes, however, shafts must be timfew feet in depth, and crossing the direction in which bered nearly from top to bottom. it is probable veins may run, that direction being It is also necessary, even in this early stage of very generally, in this country, nearly east and west. operations, to provide for ventilation, as the burning These trenches are made of sufficient depth to pene of the candles, blasting, and respiration, all tend trate the loose soil, and lay open the firm rock in greatly to vitiate the air, and the gases thus formed, which the vein is as it were imbedded. By this pro- being heavier than the atmosphere, will of course cess, therefore, the miner is enabled to discover remain at the bottom of the excavation. whatever veins may be situated in the tract he This evil is remedied by the following simple conexplores.
trivance. A wooden pipe carefully rendered air-tight, As it very generally happens, that the face of the is fixed along one corner of the shaft, reaching to country is not so mountainous and abrupt, as con within a foot or two of the bottom, and rising to veniently to admit of driving an adit in the manner seven or eight feet above the surface of the ground. before noticed, so as to explore the vein at a proper At the top of this pipe a large square funnel is fixed, depth, mines are generally opened by sinking a shaft | in such a manner that it can always be turned round, from the surface, in the manner shown in the annexed facing the wind. The air entering this funnel, having sketch. The direction and dip of the vein, or “lode," no other outlet, is obliged to descend to the bottom of having first been ascertained, generally by sinking a the shaft, when rising again to the surface, it forces few small pits for a short distance upon it, a spot is out the foul air before it, and thus a perfect venti. chosen for a shaft, determined by some promising lation is effected. indication the vein may exhibit there, or any other In the annexed drawing, the shaft has just attained favourable circumstance. As mineral veins seldom, its first object, that of cutting the vein. Two men however, contain ore in any quantity, at a less depth are seen employed in sinking it, one is breaking the than ten or twenty fathoms, the shaft is generally so ground at the bottom with his pick, the other preplaced as not to intersect the vein, till it reaches this paring to fill the descending bucket or kibble, with or a greater depth. A rectangular space, usually the ore and other substances which have been deabout six feet by four, having been marked out on tached in forming the excavation.
F. B. the surface, the sinking of the shaft commences, much in the same manner as that of a common well, the pick-axe and shovel being generally the only tools at first required. At the depth of fifteen or twenty feet, however, the vegetable mould and loose rubble, which always lie immediately under the surface, generally terminate, and the hard solid rock makes its appearance.
Here then the work becomes much slower and more difficult, and the pick, and gad, the borer, and mallet, are put in requisition. If the rock is very hard indeed, the work is chiefly
(Cross view.) performed by the latter tools, the borer or jumper being driven into the rock, the hole charged with powder, and then blasted. When the ground is not so hard, the pick is often sufficient.
When the excavation has proceeded a very few feet below the surface, two very essential points must be provided for, the extraction of the stuff, and the support of the soil. A glance at the cut will show at once the manner in which this is accomplished. A very strong windlass, similar to that of a common well, is fixed over the shaft, and to each end of the
MODE OF WORKING THE VEIN. (Side view.) rope a large iron bucket, or kibble, is attached, so that while the one is ascending, the other is descending, and while the upper one is being emptied of its contents at the surface, the lower one is being filled It was not till the time of Elizabeth that the English learnt at the bottom of the shaft. In order to admit of the art of making needles, the manufacture of them had sufficient power being applied, the windlass is pro- of Henry the Eighth.
hitherto been carried on by foreigners. Life and Times vided with two handles, wbich are turned round by a couple of men, as shown in the drawing. The He that makes light of small faults, is in a ready way 10 requisite support for the sides of the shaft is obtained, fall into great ones. by placing within it, a timber framework, constructed in the following manner. At the mouth of the shaft, Sir Henry Sidney was the brave and virtuous father of and at successive intervals of four or five feet below the more renowned Sir Philip. To a friend of a fretful it, four pieces of strong timber are placed, framed weak man complains of others, an unfortunate man of
and quarrelsome temper, he said, " Take it from me, a together at the ends, and corresponding in form and himself: but a wise man complains neither of others nori size with the shaft itself. These horizontal timbers of himself,"
VINERAL VEIN SEEN IN A CLIFF
a, the Vein. b, the Adit. c, the Shaft.
- the " " the 501.
ON WILLS. No. IV
wine, plate, linen, china, and all other my property WILLS OF PERSONAL PROPERTY CONTINUED.
whatsoever.” This, however, is not advisable, as it
tends to raise a doubt whether, notwithstanding the § 6. On the Form and Language of Wills. general words at the end, the testator did not mean to HAVING shown, in former papers, who may make a confine his gift to property of the same nature only Will, and with what ceremonies a Will should be with the several articles mentioned. For instance, made, we now come to consider the form and lan- in the example we have given, it might be doubted guage of the instrument.
whether the testator's leasehold property passed by These are mere questions of convenience; for a
the bequest. Will may be drawn in any form the testator chooses : When the second course of disposition is adopted, he is not bound to any particular order of arrange- it is most natural to begin with bequeathing the ment, nor obliged to use any set form of words : he several legacies, or portions of property, intended to may express his wishes in any manner he pleases, be given, and to conclude with a bequest of the and the following hints are only suggestions of the residue. This will lead us to consider the nature of best method of doing so.
Legacies. A Will should begin with some such clause as the following;
§ 7. On Legacies, and the Difference between specific -“ This is the last Will and Testament of
and general Legacies. me, A. B., of Chancery-lane, in the City of London, Grocer.” Such an introduction is useful in remov Any gift by Will is properly a Legacy, but the word ing all doubt about the nature of the instrument, or is usually confined to gifts by Will of a portion of the identity of the testator.
the testator's property. Now all bequests by a If any directions are to be given about the place testator of a portion of his property, are either or mode of burial, these generally follow immediately specific bequests or general bequests. A specific beafter the introduction. No legal advice seems neces quest, or legacy, is a gift of a specified portion of the sary on this topic.
property, distinguished from the rest.
A general The subject which usually comes next in order, is bequest, or legacy, is a gift of something which is to one which had better be omitted altogether. We be paid, or satisfied, out of the general property of mean the direction for payment of debts, and of the the testator, but which does not apply to one part of expenses of the Will and Funeral. This is a very the property more than to another. superfluous clause ; for the law will take good care For example, if I bequeath “my gold watch," that these debts and expenses shall be paid, and no “ the diamond ring, which was my mother's," executor is so ignorant as to need being reminded of 10001. Consols now standing in my name,' his duty on this head. But it is worse than super now owing to me from X. Y.;" these are specific fluous, as it sometimes raises doubts whether the i bequests. On the contrary, if I bequeath a watch testator did not intend his debts to be paid in a par- worth 101.,' “a mourning ring," a sum of 10001, ticular manner, and out of particular property; the Consols," or a legacy of 501. sterling,” these are Courts not conceiving that he would give directions general bequests. In the former cases, the legatec, about what was a matter of course, unless he had (that is, the person to whom the bequest is made,) some special object in view. We recommend our has a claim on a particular and specified portion of readers, therefore, unless they have any special object my property ; in the latter cases, he has only a claim in view, to make no mention of their debts, but leave to have the gift made good in some manner out of them to be discharged in due course of law. Indeed, my general property. a Will is properly the disposition of a testator's clear A specific legatee has an advantage over a generai property, after payment of his debts.
legatee in this; that, if the testator's property falls We now come then to this disposition of the pro- short of paying all the legacies in full, he, nevertheless, perty; and it is a point on which hardly any two keeps the whole of his specific legacy, while all the wills can be alike; the modes in which property may general legacies are reduced in proportion. To combe distributed being as numerous and various as the pensate for this, he has a disadvantage; which is, characters and circumstances of mankind. However, that, if the specified portion of property bequeathed all possible modes may be reduced to one of these to him is lost or fails, he loses his legacy. altogether, two classes :-Firstly, a Bequest of all the property having no claim upon the general fund. to one or more persons as a whole.-Secondly, Be These results scem natural enough, and must quests of portions of the property to several persons, generally agree pretty well with a testator's intention, followed by a bequest of the residue to one or more when the subject of the specific bequest is a trinket, individuals.
an article of furniture, a leasehold house, &c. But When the first course is adopted, the disposition when the bequest is of money or stock, the law may be made in such terms as the following :-“I must often disappoint the wishes of testators, who, give and bequeath all my personal estate and effects, probably, neither intend their specific legatee to have whatsoever and wheresoever, to C. D. for his own a benefit at the expense of their general legatees, nor absolute use and benefit ;” or “ to C. D., E. F., and desire that he should suffer from an accidental failure G. H., equally to be divided between them for their of the specified fund. In bequeathing, therefore, own absolute use and benefit respectively.” The money or stock, care should be taken not to make words “ for his own absolute use and benefit" are the bequest specific, unless the testator expressly not necessary, but may be useful to remove any sus wishes it to be so. picion that you intended C. D. to enjoy the property In bequests of money, it is not very easy to run for his life only, or to hold it upon any trust. We into any error. A bequest of money is always a shall speak hereafter of the mode of bequeathing general bequest, unless expressed in terms which no property, so as to effect either of these intentions. man would be likely to adopt, who was not anxious
It is not uncommon for a testator, when disposing that it should be specific; as a bequest of “the of all his property, to begin by naming certain par debt due to me from X. Y.," "the money in
iron ticulars, and end the catalogue by words of a general chest,'' &c. description :-As, for instance, “ I bequeath to A. B. But, in bequests of stock, there is more chance of all my stock in the funds, ready money, furniture, making a blunder; for the law-reports abound in
fine distinctions as to what shall be considered a likewise, through a large portion of my later life, a general, and what a specific legacy of stock. Ordi- sufferer, sorely afflicted with bodily pains, languors, narily, a bequest of “ my stock," or of “ 10001. and manifold infirmities; and, for the last three or consols, part of my stock in that fund,” is specific; four years, have, with few and brief intervals, been while a mere bequest of “ 10001. consois" is a general confined to a sick-room, and, at this moment, in great legacy. But this cannot be always relied on; and, weakness and heaviness, write from a sick-bed, hopeperhaps, the safest plan is one we have seen adopted less of a recovery, yet without prospect of a speedy in some Wills, by which a testator bequeaths to A. B. removal; and I, thus on the very brink of the grave, “ 1000. three per cent consolidated Bank Annuities solemnly bear witness to you, that the Almighty as a general, and not a specific legacy."
W. Redeemer, most gracious in his promises to them [To be continued.]
that truly seek him, is faithful to perform what he
hath promised, and has preserved, under all my pains ADDRESS TO A GODCHILD.
and infirmities, the inward peace that passeth all un
derstanding, with the supporting assurance of a We this week present to our readers an original reconciled God, who will not withdraw his spirit from paper, written by the late Mr. COLERIDGE about
me in the conflict, and in his own time will deliver eleven days before his death, and addressed to a
me from the Evil One! little child to whom he stood godfather a year or O, my dear Godchild ! eminently blessed are two ago. We do not remember ever to have perused those who begin early to seek, fear, and love their a more affecting document. But our motive in re
God, trusting wholly in the righteousness and mediaquesting permission to publish this Address in the tion of their Lord, Redeemer, Saviour, and everlastSaturday Magazine was connected with higher consi-ing High Priest, Jesus Christ ! derations. Mr. Coleridge had in the course of an O preserve this as a legacy and bequest from your eventful life, tried, and rejected, many of the pre- unseen godfather and friend, vailing errors of our religious sects.
S. T. COLERIDGE. convictions were not inherited, but obtained by
July 13, 1831. patient thought, incessant labour, and fervent prayer
He died on the 25th day of the same month. for illumination. We here see the form of Christianity to which, on his death-bed, he set his seal. We believe there is not a sceptic in England who THE TORTOISE, THE FROG, AND THE DUCK. will venture to question the unique greatness of Mr. Along the fields one rainy day, Coleridge's intellectual powers; and we are sure that An aged Tortoise took luis way: there is no one who can, with a shadow of pretence,
His shell, like armour, on him leant
So heavily where'er he went, impeach his sincerity and entire disinterestedness.
That those who slightly looked at him
Had said he did not stir a limb;
But though his steps were short and few,
He had his walk, and liked it too. I offer up the same fervent prayer for you now,
Hop, skip, and jump! Now who goes there? as I did kneeling before the altar, when you were A speckled Frog, as light as air, baptized into Christ, and solemnly received as a living Deriding, as a piteous case, member of his spiritual body, the Church.
The quiet creature's humble pace: Years must pass before you will be able to read, And lo, with empty folly tossed,
Full many a time lis path he crossed; with an understanding heart, what I now write. But
Then stopping, panting, staring, said, I trust that the all-gracious God, the Father of our
“ You've got a house upon your head ! Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of Mercies, who, by
For if you were but fresh and free, his only-begotten Son, (all mercies in one sovereign I'd bid you try a leap with me!” mercy!) has redeemed you from the evil ground, and Then head o'er heels the coxcomb rose, willed you to be born out of darkness, but into light
Descending near his neighbour's nose. -out of death, but into life-out of sin, but into
“ Boast not,” the gentle Tortoise cried,
“ The gifts that Goodness has supplied; righteousness, even into the “ Lord our Righteous
Nor seek, by conduct light and vain, ness;" I trust that He will graciously hear the
To causé less gifted creatures pain; prayers of your dear parents, and be with you as the
I, too, have blessings kindly lent, spirit of health and growth in body and mind!
And trust me, brother, I'm content; My dear Godchild !-You received from Christ's My shell, for instance, like a roof, minister at the baptismal font, as your Christian
Makes my old body weather-proof,
And guards me wheresoe'er I go, name, the name of a most dear friend of your
From strong attack and secret foe.” father's, and who was to me even as a son, the late
“Why, as to weather," said the Frog, Adam Steinmetz whose fervent aspiration, and ever
I live in all, rain, sunshine, fog, paramount aim, eren from early youth, was to be You've seen me dance along your path, a Christian in thought, word, and deed-in will, mind, Now you shall see me take a bath!” and affections.
With that uprose the heartless fool,
Next moment splashing in the pool; I too, your Godfather, have known what the enjoy
Quick moved his legs and arms; I ween ments and advantages of this life are, and what the
A better swimmer ne'er was seen: more refined pleasures which learning and intellectual Then on the bank the boaster sat; power can bestow; and with all the experience that “Now Tortoise! What d'ye think of that?” more than threescore years can give, I now, on the
A hungry Duck, who wished to sup,
Just at that moment waddled up, eve of my departure, declare to you, (and earnestly
And ere his sentence had its fill, pray that you may hereafter live and act on the con
The Frog was quiv'ring in her bill! viction,) that health is a great blessing,-competence obtained by honourable industry a great blessing,–
O may I still contented be
With what kind heaven hath given me: and a great blessing it is to have kind, faithful, and
And though I do not seem so blest loving friends and relatives ; but that the greatest of
As others, think my lot the best. all blessings, as it is the most ennobling of all privi
But more than all, I will refrain, leges, is to be indeed a Christian. But I have been
My lips from mockery and disdain. M.
HEAD OF THE ETHIOPIAN DOAR.
SKELETON OF THE WILD BOAR OF GERMANY. The changes which we see in the forms of different tusk defends the eye in rushing through the underanimals, are referrible to one principle, the adaptation wood; and the formation of the spine, the remarkof the parts to their proper uses. We may, in some able ridge in which the back part of the scull rises, measure, consider the head in animals as performing for the attachment of powerful muscles, all show the the office of hands. The spine and the head, while intention, that he shall drive onward with his whole they retain their offices of protecting the brain and weight and strength, so that he may rend with his the spinal marrow, and are permanent in regard to tusks *. We now understand the reason of the shortthem, vary in their processes or shapes, and in their ness and inflexibility of the neck : because the power relations. Pursuing this idea, we shall be able to of the shoulders is directed to the head, and, we account for the characteristic forms of the larger may say, to these large tusks. A long and flexible quadrupeds.
neck would have rendered these provisions useless. The principle which will guide us here, as it will, What a complete contrast, then, there is between indeed, in a more universal survey of animal nature, this animal, and any of the feline tribe; a contrast is that the organization varies with the condition or of form and motion at once referrible to their spine. the circumstances in which the animals are placed, In the tiger or leopard, we see the perfect flexibility that they may feed and multiply. If we take into of the body, and a motion of the spine almost verconsideration any of the great functions on which micular, corresponding with the teeth and jaws, and life depends, we shall perceive that the apparatus, or the free motion of the paws. the mode of action of the parts, is altered and
• The sketch is from a dried head of the Sus Ethiopicus, with adapted to every changing circumstance. Digestion, part of the scull exposed. The tusks show what a formidable for example, is the same in all animals; but there is animal it has been. That which rises out of the upper jaw is of
the great size, and we must admire the manner in which the tusk of the an interesting variety in the organization; and the
| lower jaw closes upon that of the upper one, so as to strengthen it stomach will vary in its form, and in the number of near its roots. The great size and sharpness of their tusks illustrate its cavities, according to the food received by the what is offered in the text, that the main strength of the animal must
be directed towards them. The ring of the back of the head will quadruped, or bird, or fish, or insect; a variation
be seen to correspond with the great height and strength of the not depending upon the size or form of the animal, spinous processes of the back, exhibited in the figure of the wild · but'adapted purely to the conversion of its particular
boar of Germany. food into nourishment. We shall find the gizzard in
[Abridged from Bell's Bridgewater Treatise.] a fish, or in an insect, as perfect as in a fowl. So the decarbonization of the blood, is the same process
RARE qualities may sometimes be prerogatives without in all living animals; but the mode in which respi- being advantages; and though a needless ostentation of ration is performed, varies according to circum one's excellencies may be more glorious, a modest concealstances, and the apparatus is especially modified and ment of them is usually more safe; and an unseasonable adjusted to the atmosphere or to the water.
disclosure of flashes of wit, may sometimes do a man no
other service, than to direct his adversaries how they may But although the organs subservient to the grand
do him a mischief.-- BOYLE. functions, the heart and blood-vessels, the lungs, the stomach, be variously adapted to the different Ambition breaks the ties of blood, and forgets the obligaclasses of animals, they change much less than the tions of gratitude. —Sir W. Scott. parts by which animals are enabled to pursue their prey, or to obtain their food.
Mrs. CHAPONE was asked how it was she was always so Their extremities, by which they walk, or run, or.
early at church, “ Because" said she, “it is part of my creep, or cling, must vary infinitely. And so their
religion not to disturb the religion of others." teeth and horns, and the position of their head and SiR WILIAM Gooch, governor of Williamsburg, walking the strength of their neck, exhibit nearly as much along the street with a friend, returned the salute of a variety as their extremities; because they, likewise, negro servant who was passing by; “ I see," said his friend, must be adapted to their different modes of obtaining “you condescend to take notice of a slave." “ Yes" replied food, or of combating their enemies.
Sir William, “ for I cannot allow even a slave to excel me When we look upon the boar's head, we compre
in good manners." hend something of his habits; and see what must
LONDON: be the direction of his strength. He feeds by digging JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. up roots, and the instruments by which he does this, PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTALY Parte
PRICE SIXPINCE, AND are also, those of his defence. The position of the Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom.