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chief persons throughout Wales, to Rhuddilan, there for the landscape with all its enchantmentmust yield
and obey, him whom When the lake and the meadow, the cot and the hill,
Caernarvon Castle, the place designed for her ac
THE OCEAN. couchement. When the time of her delivery was On! tell me no more of the forest and field, , all
Old Ocean has breathed a new spirit in me: to consult about the public good, and safety of their
To the nobler expanse of the dark-heaving sea! country. And being informed that his queen was Yet think not, my feelings are dead to the scene delivered of a son, he told the Welsh nobility, that
Of a country all smiling in summer array, whereas they had oftentimes entreated him to appoint When the meadows are clad in their brightest of green,
And distance envelops the mountains in grey. them a prince, he, having then occasion to depart out of the country, would comply with their request, on
Not mine the cold pulse, or the heart's leaden chill, condition they would allow of,
Unmoved to contemplate the mountain or plain, he should name. The Welsh readily agreed with this
Enamelled in beauty before me have lain. proposition, only, with the same reserve, that he appoint
Ye hills and ye shades of sweet Devon, declare them a prince of their own nation.
Where so oft I have strayed with increasing delight, King Edward assured them he would name such a And have thought that no scenery on earth might compare, one as was born in Wales, could speak no English, With the rich varied views that have greeted my sight. and whose life and conversation nobody could stain; | Yet not upon nature's mild features alone, he then named his own son, Edward, but little before Has my young vivid fancy delighted to dwell, born in Caernarvon Castle.' The conqueror, having But such scenes as in craggy magnificence strown, by this bold manæuvre succeeded in obtaining what
Salvator's rude pencil depicted so well. might be deemed the unqualified submission of the I have seen the rude torrent rush madly along, country, began, without any regard to justice, to Till plashing and thund'ring it rolled from the steep; reward his English followers with the property of But what torrent so fierce, and what rushing so strong, the Welsh.
his son had
As the billow and roar of the marvellous Deep? It was not, however, until attained his sixteenth year, that the wily monarch Though merry it is in the thick spicy grove, deemed it advisable to invest him with the delegated
When the soft gale is breathing leis siglis in the tree, sovereignty year, (1300,) we are told the Though the voice of the zephyr is music and love,
+ Yet the gush of the waves hath more music for me. Prince of Wales came down to Chester, and received homage of all the freeholders in Wales." On this How oft where the proud cliff frowns over the deep, occasion, he was invested, as a mark of imperial Have I been in thought, while the world was asleep,
On some dark rugged brow which no footstep has known; dignity, with a chaplet of gold round his head, a
For I love to hold commune with Ocean alone. golden ring on his finger, and a silver sceptre in his Then, beautiful Moon! throned Empress of night, hand.” It is very remarkable, that long after this
I have gazed on thy visage so meek and so fair, event, neither the title of Prince of Wales, nor the While the little waves danced in the pale liquid light, sovereignty of that country, was apparently consi That lingered so softly and meltingly there. dered absolutely hereditary in the heirs apparent of In that pale liquid beam, as it brightened the seas, the British throne. The Black Prince, and many of I have marked a small vessel skim rapidly o'er, the eldest sons of our kings, were elevated to the While the sail that it bore, lightly flapped to the breeze, dignity, by letters patent; and it was not until the In a moment it passed--and 'twas dark as before. reign of Henry the Seventh, that the title was looked 'Tis an emblem of Man! For so brief and so vain, upon as descendible by birthright. In the following Ilis little life sparkles awhile in the ray, reign, Wales at last became tranquil, after a long But turn to the spot where it sparkled, again,
Like a dream of the morn it has melted away. series of intestine commotions, and was finally incorporated with England,
'Tis an emblem of Man! For that bark re-appears,
When the morning-star beckons the darkness away,
So the Christian, released from his prison of years, We say of a false man, Trust him not, he will deceive you;
Hails the Star of th' Eternal, and lives in his way. we say concerning a weak and broken staff, Lean not on it, Thy way, mighty Ocean, no changing doth know, for it will deceive you. The man deceives because he is
Thy footsteps are trackless, thy billows are free, false, the staff because it' is weak, yet our own heart is The vale may be raised and the mountain made low, both. The heart of man hath not strength to think one
But who shall prescribe any order to thee ? good thought of itself; it cannot command its own attention to a prayer ten lines long, and no wonder then that Ah! Who, save His voice, whose inscrutable will, 'in secret it should grow weary of a holy religion, which
Has the power to destroy, but the mercy to save ? consists of so many parts as to make the business of a
Who said to the wind, and the tempest, “ BE STILL," whole life.---JEREMY TAYLOR.
And calmed the blind wrath of the perilous wave.
Then let our warm tribute of praise and of prayer, NATURE passeth nurture, said the Abbot of Crosraquet to From nature's best works as an incense ascend, Knox.
To the throne of that Being who makes us his care,
Whose pow'r has no limit, whose mercy no end. To feel is amiable; but to feel too keenly is injurious both
M. to mind and body; and a habit of giving way to sensibility, which we should endeavour to regulate, though not to eradicate, may end in a morbid weakness of mind, which DURING the tremendous hurricane at the mouth of the may appear, to romantic persons, very gentle and very Ganges, in May, 1833, an unusual occurrence took place at interesting ; but will undoubtedly render the victims of it Mud Point. A number of the natives had taken shelter very useless in society. Our feelings were given us to from the pitiless storm, in Mr. Campbell's bungalow, while excite to action, and when they end in themselves, they there, a full-grown tiger, quite overpowered by the storm, are impressed to no one good purpose that I know of entered, and going past them, too much fatigued to attempt This is the chief reason why novels are so dangerous to to do any injury, lay down in a corner, and fell fast asleep. young persons. My dear daughter will be persuaded that He was not considered, however, a welcome guest, and as I say this from motives of the tenderest affection to her, it was uncertain in what humour he might awake, Mr. and because I would have her not stitle the good and Campbell thought it prudent to shoot him with his rifle amiable emotions of her heart, but direct them rightly. I through the head. The skin, we believe, is in Mr. would not have my child become one of those, of whom Campbell's possession, in remembrance of this remarkable it may be said, that they feel, and only feel. It is the event. - Narrative of the Loss of the Hon. East India most absurd and useless of all characters.--Bishop Company's Ship, the Duke of York, in the Bay of Bengal, SANDFORD.
May 21st, 1833.
THE CULTIVATION AND MANUFACTURE OF COTTON.
CULTIVATION OF THE COTTON PIANT., Having already introduced a brief general account | largest, is left at each corner of the square. If the of the Cotton Plant*, and of its cultivation, we now seeds have been sown early in the year, that is, in proceed to give, more in detail, some particulars January or February, the plant will in June require respecting its practical uses in commerce and the pruning, to within about three feet of the ground, and domestic arts.
at the same time all the lateral shoots which. surThe Cotton-wool of commerce is the delicately- round the root are removed. Sometimes the earlysoft down which surrounds the seeds of a tree, or sown seeds, under favourable circumstances, yield rather shrub, found in most of the warmer latitudes cotton about Christmas in the same year ; but, in of the earth, both in the Old and New World. Of general, the tree produces no cotton until the second the genus to which this tree belongs there are at least year; after which it continues productive for four or nine or ten different species, nearly resembling each five seasons. When the shrub decays, it is pulled up, other; the most common is the Gossypium herbaceum, and fresh seed sown, not, however, over the whole represented in our former article. The chief distinc- field, but merely where the old plant has failed, tion between the different species consists in some this is called supplying a field of cotton. being annual and others perennial.
The cotton-tree generally throws out an abundance The greatest part of the cotton brought into this of blossom about the end of July or the beginning country comes from the West India islands and of August, and the picking takes place from October Guiana ; but before the discovery of America, our to December. The pods of cotton, when gathered, whole supply was drawn from the Mediterranean are dried in the sun, until the seeds become perports, and was the produce principally of the East fectly hard; these are then separated by passing the Indies.
pods between two grooved rollers, about a quarter In Guiana, in South America, the land is pre- of an inch thick. These rollers are fitted into the pared for the reception of the seed by forming machine, as seen in the Engraving, and turned round it into beds, about thirty-six feet in width, mode- by means of a. crank and treddle; this operation rately raised in the centre, and surrounded by is performed by negroes, and is considered extremely trenches to carry off the superfluous moisture, laborious. which, if allowed to remain, would materially injure the plants. The large beds are again divided into smaller, about five feet square, and, at the intersection of the lines which form these squares, small holes are dug with a hoe, about four or five inches deep, and seven or eight in width ; a quantity of light earth is thrown into each of these openings, and a small handful of seed laid upon it, which is afterwards slightly covered with mould. If the weather is favourable, the seed springs up in three or four days, and when the plants have attained the height of six or seven inches, all but four or five
MACHINE FOR SEPARATING THE COTTON PODS. of the most vigorous are removed from each hole. The crop requires weeding, about once a month, and
Another method of cleaning the cotton from the at the third weeding only one plant, of course the seed is practised in some parts of Georgia by means
of the bow-string, which, being raised and suddenly • See Saturday Magazine, Vol. I., p. 228.
let go, strikes upon the cotton with great force, bursts
the pods, and loosens the seeds. The cotton, after consequence of these great improvements in the ma. being cleaned, is carefully freed from the loose seeds nufacture, English cottons are preferred in almost by women, packed in bales, and forwarded to Europe. every quarter of the globe; they have even been
met with, as forming some of the principal articles of dress amongst the most distant tribes in the wilds of Tartary.
In order to explain the benefits arising from the well-directed application of machinery, we have but to contrast the effects of British mechanism with the simple labour of India, and to explain the relative productive power of each, and the cost of cottonyarns produced by each, comprehending that range of fineness chiefly required for the eastern fabrics.
“The number of mule-spindles in Great Britain appears, by actual survey, to be 4,200,000, producing a quantity of cotton-yarn, at least equal to that which can be spun in the same time by 4,200,000 persons in India, the wages of whom are supposed to be two-pence a day. In Britain 70,000 persons
would produce the same effect by machinery at THE GEORGIAN MODE OP CLEANING COTTOX.
twenty-pence a day, consequently, one person in Having described the growth of this valuable pro Britain is equal to twenty in India ; but, in conseduct, we shall in another number follow its course i quence of a more expensive apparatus, and various across the Atlantic, and trace it from the hands of the contingencies, it may be stated that one person is merchant through those of the manufacturer, until it equal to forty in India ; forty times two-pence is reaches the consumer, in the shape of fabrics of a | equal to 6s. 8d., which is the value of labour for variety of kinds. In the mean time, we shall con- spinning in India to correspond with that of one clude the present article by a short account of the person in Britain, or as 6s, 8d. to ls. 8d. progress of this useful manufacture in this country, " It is, therefore, evident, that one spinner by maas it affords a most instructive lesson of the advan- chinery in Britain, will produce yarn at one-fourth tages that accrue from the exertion of industry and the price it costs for the same quantity of workmantalent to conquer difficulties, when applied to attain a ship in India, supposing the wages of the former to certain end.
be ls. 8d., and the latter 2d. a day; and reckoning The earliest notice of cotton being brought into the mean price of cotton wool in Britain at 2s. 6d., England appears about the year 1430, and the whole and in India at 5d., the cost of labour and materials quantity imported, which was extremely small, evi- | united would be less, upon an average, than onedently reached us by the Mediterranean traders. It half; we are, consequently, able to meet competition was not before the beginning of the seventeenth cen in the eastern markets, either in yarn or cloth." tury that any progress seems to have been made in the manufacture of this useful article. The first accredited account we have is in the year
POPULAR SUPERSTITIONS. 1641, when it is said “ the townsmen of Manchester
II. REFLECTIONS IN MIRRORS. VENTRILOQUISM. RE buy cotton-wool in London, that comes from Cyprus
FLECTIONS IN THE CLOUDS. INVERTED SHIP. Sounds and Smyrna, and work the same into fustians, ver
AT SEA. DELUSIONS OF THE IMAGINATION. OCULAR
DECEPTIONS. SLEEP-WALKING. millions, and dimities, which they return to London,
The writer knew a young man, who, one sultry summer where they are sold, and from thence, not seldom,
night, as he rose from his bed to walk his chamber, disare sent into such foreign parts where the first mate tinctly saw a man on the opposite side of the room. He rials may be more easily had for that manufacture." was much alarmed, and stood still for a moment, looking at But even as late as 1765, cotton was but little known the man, and then softly slipped down behind the bed to in England as an article of commerce ; by 1788,
watch his movements. As he stooped, the figure stooped; however, the manufacture had materially increased,
and he then discovered that he was watching his own and “ although there were only 114 water-mills in
reflection in the looking-glass. A person of feebler courage,
or of nervous excitability, might have screamed 'a ghost,' England, and 19 in Scotland, yet the gross return
and have declared that he could not doubt the evidence of from the raw material and labour exceeded 7,000,0001. his own senses. It was estimated that these establishments gave em Another circumstance may be mentioned, to show how ployment to 110,000 persons.
easily a person may be deceived, by an occurrence which In the subsequent stages of the manufacture, the
is susceptible of a very easy explanation. An aged lady number employed was 240,000, making an aggregate
had long been indisposed, and one afternoon, as she was
| sitting in her room with a young friend, who was her con of 350,000, and the quantity of raw material applied
stant attendant, the whole room seemed suddenly illu to the different branches of the manufacture was | minated. What is that?' said the aged lady. They computed at 22,600,000 pounds; but since that time | both looked, and beheld the strange light glittering upon the cotton manufacture has increased in a three or the wall. On some one of the family entering, the lady four fold ratio, the quantity of cotton cmployed
said, 'I have just had a warning, which tells me that being probably 80,000,000 pounds a year. The
I am very near my end. Had she seen the vision alone,
there would have been no difficulty in attributing it to number of persons engaged in all its branches
a disordered imagination, but the young lady had seen 000, and_the gross value of the goods above it also; there was no way in which it could be explained, 20,000,0001. From being, perhaps, the smallest and there the matter rested. The lady felt perfectly satismanufacturers on the face of the globe, we are now fied that she had been warned to prepare for death, and in decidedly the largest, and thus, by the aid of ma. a week or two she died. Soon after her death, it was dischinery we shall presently describe, not only are we
covered that some sbool-boys had amused themselves, by
casting reflections with a large looking-glass into the houses enabled to supply our home-consumption with fabrics
of the village. The whole mystery of the apparition was of every degree of fineness, and that too at so low a thus explained. rate as to place them within the reach of all, but, in Any one who is acquainted with the wonderful powers of
ventrioquism, knows that a person may abuse that power, to distinguished individual, who was now no more. As the the very serious annoyance of those who are easily alarmed. reader had enjoyed the intimacy of the deceased to a conA ventriloquist can, without difficulty, cause strange siderable degree, he was deeply interested in the publication, sounds, groanings, knockings, &c., to be heard in different which contained some particulars relating to himself and parts of the house, and he can be all the time moving other friends. A visiter was sitting in the apartment, who about with the family, an unsuspected spectator. Many a was also engaged in reading. Their sitting-room opened house has been thus haunted, to the extreme terror of its into an entrance-hall rather fantastically fitted up with occupants,and to the great mirth of the mischievous joker. articles of armour, skins of wild animals and the like. It
There is upon record an account of a ship which was was when laying down his book, and passing into this hall, lying becalmed, one warm summer afternoon, in the middle. through which the moon was beginning to shine, that the of the Atlantic; the atmosphere was clear, and the sky individual of whom I speak, saw right before him, in a serene, with the exception of a few clouds floating in their standing posture, the exact representation of his departed ticecy whiteness. As the officers of the ship were reclining friend, whose recollection had been so strongly brought to upon the quarter-deck, and the sailors lolling in the listless- his imagination. He stopped for a single moment, so as to ness of a calm at sea, all were surprised by seeing, far off notice the wonderful accuracy with which fancy had imin the horizon, where the sky and the water seemed to meet, pressed upon the bodily eye, the peculiarities of dress, and a ship under full canvass, sailing along in the sky; the ship position of the illustrious poet. Sensible, however, of the was upside down, and the masts pointing towards the water. delusion," he felt no sentiment, save that of wonder, at the The sailors with their customary superstition, were exceed- extraordinary accuracy of the resemblance, and stepped ingly alarmed, and they deemed it the certain foreboding onward towards the figure, which resolved itself, as he of their own destruction, but the officers, better informed approached, into the various materials of which it was with regard to the laws of nature, saw in the occurrence, composed. These were merely a screen occupied by great a very surprising, and very interesting natural phenomenon. coats, shawls, plaids, and such other articles as are usually By the peculiar state of the air and the situation of the found in a country entrance-hall. The spectator returned clouds, a sort of mirror* was formed, in which, by the to the spot from which he had seen the illusion, and endeanatural operation of reflected light, they saw the image of youred, with all his power, to recall the image which had a ship, which had not yet ascended the horizon. In a few been so singularly vivid. But this was beyond his power, hours after the appearance of the vision, the ship was and the person who had witnessed the apparition, or more distinctly seen, rising over the convex waters. This tale properly, whose excited state had been the means of raising has probably been narrated, with exaggerations of terror, to it, had only to return into the apartment, and tell his young thousands of seamen.
friend, under what a striking hallucination, he had for a Another case, somewhat similar, further shows how inci- moment laboured." dents, at first apparently supernatural, may be explained by Many persons, under such circumstances, would have known principles. On a calm day, the sailors on board a declared unhesitatingly, that the ghost of the departed ship, many miles from land, and with no other sail in sight, had appeared to them, and they would have found great had their attention arrested by the sound of a bell. They multitules who would have believed it. When the ascended the top-mast, but far as the eye could stretch imagination has such power to recall the images of the along the unobstructed horizon, nothing could be seen, and absent, is it at all wonderful that many persons should the mournful monotony of those mysterious tones, sent attribute such appearances to supernatural visitations ? paleness into the cheek of many a hardy tar. Scientific Had the poet himself been in the place of the screen, he men on board, however, accounted for it at once, upon the probably would not have been more vividly present. well-understood principle of an acoustic tube. As the How many then of the causes of vulgar fear are to be report of a gun discharged upon rocks is thrown in thun- attributed to the effect of imagination. dering echoes from cliff to cliff, so in the present case, the When a man is terrified, he becomes disposed to exagclouds had reflected the sounds from the bell of a distant gerate; and, if he has been frightened by a tritie, to save ship into the focus in which they were placed. The next himself from exposure to ridicule, he magnifies the trifle day they met the ship whose bell had been heard, and into something truly appalling. One of the best authenfound by inquiry, that at the hour they heard the sound, ticated ghost-stories that ever was told, and which, for a the crew had been violently ringing for their amusement. long time, remained perfectly inexplicable, was thus acciHow many unusual sounds are capable of an equally simple dentally explained. “In the town of Plymouth," (we quote explanation.
from Sir Walter Scott,) "A club was formed of persons We hear of many extraordinary appearances, which connected with science and literature. During the summer cannot be accounted for from any known laws of matter, months the society met in a cave by the sea-shore ; during but which may be easily explained from the known prin- those of the autumn and winter, within the premises of a ciples of the mind. The power of the imagination to tavern, but, for the sake of privacy, had their meetings in transform ordinary things, and to call into existence a summer-house, situated in the garden, at a distance from things which are not, is fully known. A man thoroughly the main building. Some of the members to whom the frightened, can imagine almost any thing. The whistling position of their own dwellings rendered it convenient, of the wind sounds in his ears like dying groans; in the had a pass-key to the garden-door, by which they could dark, a friendly guide-post becomes a giant, and a tree enter the garden and reach the summer-house, without the waving in the wind, a fearful apparition. Who is there publicity or trouble of passing through the open tavern. that cannot testify from experience, of some such freaks On one occasion, in the winter, the president of the of the imagination. How often may a nervous person evening chanced to be very ill, indeed, was reported to wake up in the night and find the clothes upon a chair, be on his death-bed. The club met as usual, and from or some article of furniture in the room, assuming a a sentiment of respect, left vacant the chair, which ought distinctly defined form, altogether different from that to have been occupied by him, if in his usual health. The which it in reality possesses.
conversation turned upon the absent gentleman's talents, There is in the imagination, a potency far exceeding the and the loss expected to the society by his death. While fabled power of Aladdin's lamp. How often does one sit in they were upon this melancholy theme, the door suddenly wintry evening musings, and trace in the glowing embers, opened, and the appearance of the president entered the the features of an absent friend. Imagination with its He wore a white wrapper, and a night-cap round magic wand, will there build the city with its countless his brow, which had the appearance of death itself. He spires—or marshal contending armies—or drive the tempest- stalked into the room with unusual gravity ;-took the shattered ship upon the ocean. The following story, related vacant place of ceremony-lifted the empty glass which by Scott, affords a good illustration of this principle. stood before him-bowed around-put it to his lips,—then
“ Not long after the death of a late poet, a literary replaced it on the table, and stalked out of the room, as friend, to whom the deceased had been well known, silent as he had entered it. The company remained deeply was engaged during the darkening twilight of an appalled. At length, after many observations upon the autumn evening, in perusing one of the publications strangeness of what they had seen, they resolved to which professed to detail the habits and opinions of the despatch two of their number to the house of the presideni,
who had thus strangely appeared among them. They There are various kinds of mirrors. Sometimes they are made of glass, sometimes of burnished steel The water is a mirror, in
returned with the frightful intelligence, that their friend which you see the trees, which wave luxuriantly upon the river's
had died that evening. The astonished party resolved banks; and from the vapours which float in the heavens, as from a to remain silent respecting the wonderful sight wbich looking-glass, images are often reflected.
they had seen; their habits were tou philosophical to
permit them to believe that they had actually seen the
CONSCIENCE. ghost of their departed brother, and they were too wise to wish to confirm the superstitions of the vulgar, by what
CONSCIENCE is the moral feeling of a man with might seem indubitable evidence of a ghost.
respect to his actions; whether a man's actions be Several years afterwards, an old woman, who haà long right or wrong in his own estimation, depends upon practised as a sick nurse, was taken ill, and was attended his judgment; thus conscience depends upon judgby a medical member of the club. To him, with many ex ment. The judgment of man consists of his reason pressions of regret, she acknowledged that she had long
or mind, and his information or knowledge,-as the before attended Mr.
naming the president, and that she felt distress of conscience, on account of the knowledge of a law, which his reason considers of manner in which he died. She said, as his malady was binding authority; thus, again, conscience depends attended by a light-headedness, she had been directed to upon a man's knowledge. If a man's moral feeling keep a close watch upon him during his illness. Un is filled with approbation and delight, after an action happily she slept, and during her sleep, the patient awoke has been tried by his judgment, he is said to have a and left the apartment. When, on awaking, she found the bed empty, and the patient gone, she hurried out of the
clear and good conscience: so, if a man is filled with house to seek him, and met him in the act of returning; she
remorse and regret, after any of his actions have got him, she said, replaced in the bed, but it was only to been so tried, he is said to have a guilty conscience. die there. She added, to convince her hearer of the truth But a man may, on such an occasion, neither feel of what she said, that immediately after the poor gentleman self-approbation nor remorse, and then, and it is a expired, a deputation of two members from the club came
fearful state, his conscience is seared and dead. to inquire after their president's health, and received for Thus, conscience, where it exists, and it exists in answer, that he was already, dead. explained the whole matter. The delirious patient had every breast, until' extinguished by repeated opposivery naturally taken the road to the club, from some re
tion and neglect, punishes the transgressor of a law, collection of his duty of the night; in approaching and and rewards the obedient. “And therefore,” to use returning from the apartment, he had used one of the the words of the eloquent Jeremy Taylor, “conscience pass-keys already mentioned, which made his way shorter. is called the Household Guardian, the Domestic God, On the other hand, the gentlemen sent to inquire after his health, had reached his lodging by a more circuitous road; God to witness, we only mean that our own con
the Spirit or Angel of the place; and when we call and thus there had been time for him to return to what proved his death-bed, long before they reached his chamber. science is right, and that God and God's vicar, our The philosophical witnesses of this strange scene, were conscience, know it."— Rule of Conscience, b. i., ch. 1. now as anxious to spread this story, as they had formerly Whether, then, any particular action be against been to conceal it-since it showed in what a remarkable my conscience, depends upon the verdict of my manner men's eyes might turn traitors to them, and judgment passed upon such action, depends upon impress them with ideas far different from the truth." .
what rule or law respecting such action is known to
my reason or mind. May I smuggle goods, if I am As the pleasures of the future will be spiritual and pure, ready on discovery to pay the penalty? This depends the object of a good and wise man in this transitory state
on two questions. 1. Are the revenue laws binding of existence, should be to fit himself for a better, by con
on me? 2. Do they give an option, either to obey trolling the unworthy propensities of his nature, and im- or pay the penalty?
or pay the penalty? It is quite clear, that revenue, proving all his better aspirations, to do his duty, first to and all municipal laws, not contrary to the law of God, then to his neighbour, to promote the happiness and God, are binding on the subject. It is equally welfare of those, who are in any degree dependent upon clear they do not give an option; the penalty is not him, or whom he has the means of assisting, never
intended to be a substitute for the performance of wantonly to injure the meanest thing that lives, to encourage, as far as he may have the power, whatever is useful, their requirements, but it is the best means the and tends to refine and exalt humanity, to store his mind legislature can devise, to prevent the infraction of its with such knowledge as it is fitted to receive, and he is demands. Hence, it follows, that the municipal laws able to attain ; and so to employ the talents committed to in question cannot be safely broken, on the ground his care, that when the account is required, he may hope that we are ready, if called upon, to pay the penalty, to have his stewardship approved.-SOUTHEY.
And I venture to say, happy is it for the State and
society, that the observance of the laws is a matter of The great moral satirist, Hogarth, was once drawing in a conscience. “ The voice within, which approves or room where many of his friends were assembled, and disapproves, has in it a restraining force, more poweramong them my mother.
She was then a very young ful than a thousand gibbets.”—Law Magazine. As she stood by Hogarth, she expressed a wish to learn to draw caricature. Alas, young lady," said Hogarth, “it is not a faculty to be envied. Take my
THE AIR VOLCANOES OF TURBACO. advice, and never draw caricature; by the long practice of it, I have lost the enjoyment of beauty. I nerer see a THESE curious indications of the mighty operations face but distorted; I never have the satisfaction to behold that are going on in the bowels of the earth, although the human face divine." We may suppose that such not equal in grandeur to the volcanoes of the Medilanguage from Hogarth, would come with great effect: his manner was very earnest, and the confession is well de- terranean or the Andes, are curious, as pointing out serving of remembrance.---Bishop SANDFORD.
to the inquirer the working of the same causes under
a different form. “ It is the heaviest stone,” says the amiable Sir Thomas
To avoid the excessive heats and the diseases which, Browne, “that melancholy can throw at a man, to tell him during the summer, are prevalent at Carthagena, and he is at the end of his nature; or that there is no further on the arid coasts of Barù and Tierra Bomba, Eurostate to come, unto which this seems progressioned, or peans, not accustomed to the climate, take refuge in otherwise made in vain." The Christian faith leaves no the interior at the village of Turbaco. This little room for this miserable anticipation. We shall not all Indian village is placed upon a hill, on the borders of sleep, but we shall all be changed: the dead shall rise incorruptible, and we shall be changed." 'Such is the direction, as far as the canal of Mahates and the
a majestic forest, which extends, in a south-easterly comfortable declaration of eternal truth
river Magdalen. The houses are, for the most part, Inle and indecent applications of sentences taken from
built of Bamboo, and covered with palm-leares. the Scriptures, is a mode of merriment which a good man Here and there limpid streams issue from a limedreads for its profaneness, and a witty man disdains for its stone rock, which contains numerous fragments of easiness and vulgarity. --JOHNSON,
petrified corals; these are overshadowed by the