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of all the bishops of Selsey and Chichester, till the destructive and spoiling part to be finished by th: Reformation; many, of course, ideal.

common soldiers; who break down the organ, and On the vaultings of the church, among other dashing the pipes with their pole-axes, scoffingly say, painted ornaments, appear the arms of William of 'Hark how the organs go!' break down the rails of Wykeham often repeated, with his well-known motto, the altar, and the tables of the commandments; and Manners makyth Man.” To the east of the south no wonder that they should break the commandments transept is the Chapter-house, with its arched roof and in representation, who had before broken them all windows of a very early age. In the Sacristy, (now over in their substance. Sir W. Waller, wary man the vicars' vestry,) is a curious old oak chest, evidently as he is, and well known not to be too apt to expose Saxon, originally brought from Selsey.

himself to danger, stood all the while with his sword The Chantry of St. Richard, formerly Bishop of drawn, a spectator and approver of these barbarous Chichester, is a beautiful shrine of highly-finished impieties. And being asked by one of his troopers work, standing in this transept, at the back of the what he meant, to stand in that posture, answered, stalls. He died in 1253, after being fondly alleged To defend himself !'" to have wrought miracles. In the same transept is a But it seems, the work of robbery and desecration noble window, famed for the elegance of its tracery, was then not complete. In 1647, Sir Arthur Haslerigg and its fine proportions. It was put up for 3101., (a was ordered to harass the few loyalists who remained large cost for those times,) by Bishop Langton, early in Chichester, particularly those connected with the in the fourteenth century, and remained until the church. Accordingly, says Mercurius,“ having entered great rebellion, when its rich painted glass was wan the chapter-house, and received intelligence where the tonly broken ; and it is now in a state requiring repair. remainder of the church-plate was, he commanded the

But we must accompany our readers into the soldiers to take down the wainscot round about the Choir. This is richly fitted up, and has lately under- room, they having brought crows for that purpose. gone considerable improvement. The stalls erected Which while they were doing, Sir Arthur's tongue by Bishop Shurborne, are of brown oak, finely was not enough to express his joy; it was operative carved, with the titles of the dignities and prebends at his very heels by dancing and skipping. Mark ! painted over them in old characters. Above a beau- what music it is lawful for a puritan to dance to!" tiful altar-screen was formerly a gallery, in which, Chiefly owing to this cruel devastation, it is now before the Reformation, the singers were placed at difficult to ascertain to whom many of the mutilated the celebration of high mass. The other parts of the tombs may be assigned : but there are some of very choir are executed in a pleasing style, the whole put- ancient date. The Latin inscription on Bishop Shurting the visiter in mind of foreign Cathedrals; a borne's is striking, “ Enter not into judgment with circumstance owing, perhaps, to Bishop Shurborne's thy servant, O Lord. Robert Shurborne.Among the having passed many years abroad, as ambassador to various interesting monuments are many of a modern foreign courts, in the reign of Henry the Seventh. period, admirably executed; particularly that erected

The Lady Chapel, at the east end of the Cathedral, to WILLIAM COLLINS*: also a monumental lowis an ancient and elegant building, but sadly altered relief of a beautiful female figure, rising from the since the havoc made by the puritans, and by the grave, angels beckoning and inviting her with the subsequent filling-up of the east window. This words, “ Come, thou blessed.Both these, as well as portion of the fabric is now used as a library, and several other fine specimens of sculpture in the contains many scarce and excellent books. Beneath cathedral, are by the late gifted and classical JOHN it, is a spacious vault, belonging to the noble family FLAXMAN, who frequently visited his friend, the of Richmond, whose banners are hung over the poet Hayley, then resident near Chichester. A entrance. Above it is a Latin inscription, stating statue from the chisel of Mr. Carew, has lately been that it was made in 1750, and ending with the words, erected here, to the memory of the late WILLIAM

This is the last house;'-words which always appeared HUSKISSON, Esq., the sad circumstances of whose to us, to convey a cheerless and unsatisfactory idea. death by an accident, many of our readers recollect. For when surveying the dormitories of the dead, the It only remains to add, that, within the last few common dwelling-places of the peer and the peasant, years, much has been done to this building, not only our minds strongly cling to the truth, that they are to repair former injuries, the effects of violence, but but temporary homes. And beyond the dark confines to remedy what we have to deplore in many a venerof the grave, a glorious prospect is opened: we then able structure,—the deformities occasioned by bad contemplate the inspired declaration of the Apostle; taste, in an age when the beauties of early English For we know, that if our earthly house of this tabernacle architecture were but little understood. were dissolved, we have a building of God, AN HOUSE

M.

* See the Saturday Magazine, Vol. I., p. 196, NOT MADE WITH HANDS, eternal in the heavens. The following are stated to be the dimensions of

CHILDREN GATHERING FLOWERS IN THE CATHEthe Cathedral.

Total length from east to west, including Lady Chapel 407
Length of transepts from north to south

When spring returns, the little children play,
Height of the spire from the floor

In the church-yard of the Cathedral gray, Height of the vaulting of the nave

Busy as morning bees, and gather flowers, Height of the vaulting of the choir

Daisies, and gild-cups, of the hurrying hours We may presume that the Cathedral remained un Thoughtless, as unsolicitous, though Time injured till 1642, when it was ransacked and defaced

Speeds, like a spectre, and their playful prime by the Oliverian soldiers, under Sir W. Waller, who

Bears on to sorrow. Angel, cry aloud ! had got possession of the city. An account much

Speak of the knell, the grave-worm, and the shroud !

No! let them play; for solitude, and care, longer than we can here quote, is to be found in a Too soon, will teach them, what poor

mortals are. scarce old work, called " Mercurius Rusticus, or the Yes! let them play, but as their thoughts expand, countrie's complaint of the barbarous outrages committed May smiling pity lead them by the hand, by the sectaries of this late flourishing kingdom." After

When they look up, and in the clouds admire, describing the seizure of the communion-plate, &c.,

The lessening shaft of that aërial spire, by the officers, it is added, “They having in person

So be their thoughts uplifted from the sod,
Where Time's brief flowers they gather--to their

God. executed the covetous part of the sacrifice, leave the March 12th, 1834.

W. L. BOWLER 132

Feet.

DRAL CHURCH-YARD,

129 271 62 59

POPULAR SUPERSTITIONS.

A person with a stick of phosphorus once wrote upon

the wall of a friend's bed-chamber, This night thou must I. PREVALENCE OF SUPERSTITION. TERRORS INSTILLED

die.' The light of the lamp prevented his observing the INTO THE MINDS OF CHILDREN. JACK A LANTERN.

light of the phosphorus; but as soon as the light was PROSPHORUS. REFLECTION IN A CONCAVE MIRROR. extinguished, the phosphoric effect flickered upon the Fxw persons will acknowledge themselves to be supersti

wall. But he happened to be acquainted with the nature tious; but still fewer are those who are not, in some

of phosphorus, laughed heartily at the attempted deception,

and quietly fell asleep. The experiment, however, was there is an almost universal apprehension of something

| hazardous and wicked, for an ignorant person, and one of supernatural. Those who laugh the loudest at the mention

sensitive nerves, might thus have received an irrecoverable of ghosts and hobgoblins, will sometimes quicken their pace,

shock. if they hear an unusual sound in passing the church-yard

Sir Walter Scott records the following instance of the at the gloomy hour of midnight, and even the calm and

and | application of philosophical principles in effecting a decepintellectual philosopher, whose reason spurns imaginary

tion of a different kind. At a certain old castle, on evils, may, at times, feel ashamed of himself, on finding

the confines of Hungary, the lord to whom it belonged, that the imagination has gained a mastery over the judg

determined upon giving an entertainment, worthy of his ment. The reason of the universal prevalence of these feel

own rank, and of the magnificence of the antique manings is, in a great degree, to be found in impressions received

sion which he inhabited. The guests, of course, were in childhood. The tales of the nursery awaken a belief,

numerous, and among them was a veteran officer of hussars which the future judgment may pronounce to be foolish,

remarkable for his bravery. When the arrangements for but the influence of which, in a greater or less degree, is

the night were made, this officer was informed that there felt through life. It is in childhood that we generally

would be difficulty in accommodating the whole of the receive those impressions which future years are unable

company in the castle, large as it was, unless some one to erase, and it is a humiliating fact, that there is scarcely

would sleep in a room supposed to be haunted; and as an individual who does not at times experience momentary

he was known to be above such prejudices, the apartinconveniences from feelings more or less tinctured by

ment was proposed for his occupation, he being the person superstition; and there are multitudes who have an un

least likely to suffer a bad night's rest from such a cause. doubting confidence in the reality of ghostly interference

The major thankfully accepted the preference, and having in mortal concerns.

shared the festivity of the evening, retired after niidnight, Those who are not habituated to reflection, often retain

denouncing vengeance against any one who should atteinpt undiminished till a dying hour, a belief in signs and omens

to disturb his repose; a threat which his habits would, it which they were taught in childhood. Such persons do

was supposed, render him sufficiently ready to execute. not question the truth of ideas instilled into their minds in

The major went to bed, leaving his candle burning, and earliest infancy, and to which their parents may have

laid his pistols carefully loaded upon his bedside. appealed, in their imbecile efforts to govern. How often

• He had not slept an hour, when he was awakened by has a child been told that unless he ceased crying, he

a solemn strain of music. He looked out. Three ladies should be shut up in a dark closet, where ghosts would

fantastically dressed in green, were seen at the lower end come and get him? And what an indelible impression

of the apartment, and they sung a solemn requiem. The must such a threat produce upon the pliant mind? With

major listened for some time with delight, but at length grew the unretlecting, therefore, superstition is consequently

tired. “ Ladies," said he, “this is very well, but somewhat strong, their minds not being sufficiently cultivated to

monotonous, will you be so kind as to change the tune." throw off the load which has been imposed upon them.

The ladies continued singing. He expostulated, but the The better informed, who are accustomed to examine their

music was not interrupted. The major began to grow feelings, and inquire into the grounds of their belief, eman

angry. “ Ladies," he said, “I must consider this a trick, cipate their judgments from these unreal fears, but are

for the purpose of terrifying me, and as I regard it as an generally through life in some degree under the control

impertinence, I shall take a rough mode of stopping it." of such strong prejudices as were early inculcated. The

With that he began to handle his pistols. The ladies sung belief in supernatural appearances, though less general

on. He then got seriously angry. “I will wait but five 'than it was in former times, is still a subject upon which

minutes," he said, " and then fire without hesitation." The the minds of many persons require to be disabused.

song was still uninterrupted, the five minutes were expired. Let us first consider some of those appearances which

“I still give you leave, ladies," he said, “ while I count

twenty." This produced as little effect as his former threats. are unusual, and which to the uninformed seem supernatural, but which are capable of explanation from known

He counted, one-two-three-accordingly, but on apprinciples of philosophy or natural science. The fire

proaching the end of the number, and repeating, more balls, usually known by the name of ‘Jack with the

than once, his determination to fire-the last numbers, Lantern,' or Will o' the Wisp,' so often seen dancing

seventeen-eighteen-nineteen-were pronounced with over the marsh, produce great terror, and often serious

considerable pauses between, and an assurance that the injury. Now here there is no delusion. A person

pistols were cocked. The ladies sung on. As he proactually sees a light where there is no human being who

nounced the word twenty, he fired both pistols against the bears it, and, not being acquainted with the chemical

musical damsels—but the ladies sung on. The major, principles of inflammable gases and spontaneous com

overcome by the unexpected inefficacy of his violence, bustion, concludes that it must be an apparition. In a

had an attack of illness which lasted more than three few days, some accident may occur, or a neighbour may

weeks. The trick put upon him, may shortly be described die, an event of which a superstitious person would con

by the fact, that the female choristers were placed in an vince himself that he had received a supernatural warning.

adjoining room and that he only fired at their reflection, The man conversant with natural science, on the contrary,

thrown forward into the chamber in which he slept, by would behold, in this appearance, no cause of fear, but

| the effect of a concave mirror.' rather an interesting natural phenomenon. An inflam

Here the plain and well-known laws of the reflection mable gas which oozes from the ground, is set on fire by

of light, account for the whole appearance. But suppose spontaneous combustion; and a person acquainted with

the deception had never been explained, what reasoning gases, might, by going to the marsh, fill a vessel with

could ever have satisfied the man, that the room was not this gas, with which he could return to his house, and burn

in reality haunted. It would have been one of the most it there. But how is it set on fire, down in the marsh,

conclusive ghost-stories, that ever was heard. Had he rose where every thing is damp? It is well known that barns

from the bed to investigate, the ladies would merely have are frequently burnt in consequence of hay being put into

withdrawn from before the mirror, and the apparition them before it has been sufficiently dried. The damp hay

hay would have vanished; and by again resuming their place, inflames itself. In the same manner this gas, which is

as he laid down, the vision would again have appeared so very combustible, may take fire, and the innocent flicker- / before him. ing of its feeble flame, send dismay through an ignorant and superstitious village. The light frequently emitted by decayed wood is pro

Sum up at night what thou hast done by day, duced by a substance called phosphorus, a most useful

And in the morning what thou hast to do; substance when properly prepared for use by chemists.

Dress and undress thy soul, mark the decay

And growth of it; if with thy watch, that too The light which it emits is so pale, that it cannot be

Be down, then wind up both; since we shall be seen in day-light, but is easily discernible in the night. More surely judged, make thy accounts agroe.--HERBER (

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VALLEY OF THE RHINWALD, IN THE SNOWY ALPS. No. III.-SPLUGIN. VALLEY OF THE RAINWALD. I once made the attempt to push on with a guide to the VEGETATION IN THE SNOWY ALPS. SOURCE OF THE

head of the Rhine, where it flows from the Moschelhorn

glacier; but the clouds so entirely and closely enveloped RHINE. CROSSING THE ALPS. LAKE OF Couo.

us, that independently of the inconvenience of getting AFTER the fatigues of our journey from Wesen to the vil- so thoroughly drenched with rain, at a place where we had lage of Splügen, we were in a right condition to enjoy the no means of changing our clothes, the journey would have luxury of a comfortable repose. My surprise and regret, been very unprofitable, as we could see but a very few however, may be imagined, when, on the following morn- yards around us, and must actually have crawled up to the ing, I perceived the rain pouring down in torrents. This mouth of the glacier, to see the Hinter-Rhein issuing was an event wholly unlooked for, but the only course from it. that remained was to rise and take breakfast, and if the The weather cleared up a little during the latter part rain still continued, to stay and take dinner. This soon of the day, but it was then much too late to start; so that appeared to be the general will; and as Splügen is high we were actually kept in doors throughout the whole day. among the snowy Alps, and has a very cold climate, we As this was a new occurrence, and one quite unlooked for, kept up cheerful fires, and were very happy in each other's we had time to talk over the past at our leisure, to scribble society, the ladies eongratulating themselves on the happy down our thoughts, and render more legible our notes, and mischance of a thoroughly wet day. They had undergone to mend two or three slight rents in our garments. much fatigue on the previous day; for during ten succes When the next morning dawned, the rain was seen den sive hours, they had been either jolted in that intolerably scending as before, in a steady continued heavy shower. rough conveyance, the jaunting carts, without springs or But on this occasion no deliberation was required, it bad cushions, or were sitting on the backs of mules, and they never entered into our minds to stay at Splügen two days ; had eaten very little.

and no weather which it was possible to face, would have The engraving which accompanies this article, is a view induced us to do so. Besides, I had travelled sufficiently of the valley called the Rhinwald, in which the village of far to know, that if it rains on your side of the mountain, Splügen is situated. This valley is enclosed by lofty and you wish for fine weather, you had better pass on to mountains, covered with enormous glaciers; and this the other side, and place the mountain at once between you situation exposes it to frequent avalanches. It derives and the clouds. It must be a very high wind that will its name from the Hinter-Rhein, or Lower Rhine, which carry them over such heights as the Splügen and the runs along it, and which has its source in the further Moschelhorn. As soon, therefore, as breakfast was desextremity of the valley, at the great glacier of the Rhin- patched, and the ladies properly habited for the occasion, wald, called the Moschelhorn. The elevation of the valley and thoroughly protected from all possible chances of is very considerable, and the climate is cold. The winter suffering from the rain, we started, trusting in about three lasts during nine months of the year; at the end of hours to clear the ridge, and to descend amidst warmth June the grass begins to grow, and the crops must be and sunshine into the Italian vale of St. Giacomo.. gathered in before the commencement of the month of Quitting the village of Splügen, we crossed the September. Nevertheless, in the neighbourhood of Splü- Rhine by a wooden bridge, and immediately began to gen, flax is grown, and barley and peas ripen. But the ascend the mountain along a winding road, shat in by gradual ascent of the valley from that village, causes a lofty rocks, and overhung by dark pines. We gained the corresponding increase in the severity of the climate; and narrow crest which forms its summit, whence, the road even small differences of elevation are sensibly marked in rapidly descended to the Austrian Custom house. The the vegetable productions, insomuch, that at the village of pass was occasionally very magnificent; and one frightful Hinter-Rhein, which is only 170 feet above the level of gorge, called the Kardinell, made a deep impression. I Splügen, barley seldom comes to maturity,

was by this route, that Macdonald, one of Buonaparta's

oars.

generals, led an army of reserve into Italy, towards the

TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES. close of the year 1800. The difficulties and dangers of crossing the mountains

The object of Temperance Societies is to check the would have interrupted the passage at different times, had progress of intemperate drinking, as the most prolific it not been for the perseverance of the general. He led in cause of ruinous expenditure, guilt, and misery, and person the pioneers to the tracts of the road near the as presenting a most formidable obstacle to all moral summit of the Splügen, which were filled up and totally improvement; the means which they employ, PEReffaced by the drifted snow. He himself set the example

SUASION COMBINED WITH ASSOCIATED EXAMPLE. of working to open a path, on the 5th of December, about two leagues from the village of Splügen, which was

However simple these means appear, they have effected. This foremost party had not advanced far, when effected a change of public opinion and custom which the path was again covered, and his grenadiers, sinking in has awakened the attention of civilized nations. the snow, began to believe that it was impossible to proceed The first European Temperance Society was estabfurther; for even the poles which were set up for marks, lished in 1829, at New Ross, in the South of Ireland; had been covered by the snow, which was still falling: and others were early formed in the north of that But the general, at the head of the pioneers, himself examined the road, and animating all who were near him island, and in Scotland. Their principles have been by his voice and example, at length conducted his troops spread with much zeal and perseverance, and with through all the dangers of the Splügen.

most cheering success, among the manufacturing In a short time, our highest expectations were realized. population of the north of England; Lancashire and No sooner had we reached Isola, than we lost sight of the Yorkshire alone, where the earliest efforts were made, clouds, and of all remembrance of them, and so different containing above 30,000 members. already was the temperature, that the extra cloaks and wrappers, which had recently been in such great request, Associations have been formed in England, including

Above four hundred Temperance Societies and were now found to be distressing incumbrances: so we halted, and very gladly deposited them again in the the interesting islands of Guernsey, Jersey, and travelling-bags, and in high glee pursued our way to Man; the whole comprising more than 80,000 Chiavenna, where we engaged a car to Riva, and a boat members. with six rowers from Riva to Cadenobio, on the Lago Scotland, under the direction of the vigorous di Como; we were, I believe, six hours on this, the most beautiful lake, perhaps , in the world. It was my first view 400 Societies, and 54,000 members. In Ireland,

Committee of the Scottish Society, numbers about of Italy; and a lovelier view, perhaps, never subsequently met my eye. The scenery on the banks was exquisite, notwithstanding numerous disadvantages and diffiand was every minute varying in kind, and increasing culties, about 20,000 persons have joined the standard in beauty, as the boat passed on; first a village-church of Temperance Societies. would open on the sight, then a promontory, then a bay• The Canadas and other distant colonies are known the air, besides, was clear, and warm, and bright; every to comprise several thousand members, making a thing glittered in the rays of such a sun, even the transparent waters of the lake sprinkled their little showers of total of more than 150,000 British subjects volunlight , when struck and scattered about by the boatmen's tarily engaged to abstain from distilled spirits

, except

as a medicine, and to discourage intemperance in The inn of Cadenobio is a villa, placed on the very spot general. where the lake appears to have concentrated all its beauties; Temperance Societies are formed in Newfoundland, the garden-lerrace rises from its waters, and we who had

at Calcutta, and in Van Diemen's Land. in the morning of this day been enveloped in clouds, and surrounded by mountains of snow, were now walking Good Hope, who were thought to be “ beyond the

The Hottentots in the vicinity of the Cape of among myrtles, and pomegranates, and fig-trees, and orange-trees, in full flower and fruit; and looking on the reach of good example,” take a lively interest in magnificent scene before us, varying every instant its this reformation; and the inhabitants of the Society shadows and its hues, and made still more resplendent by Islands of the Pacific have formed themselves into the last rays of the setting sun.

E. D. B.

numerous and zealous Societies to deliver their

nations from the curse of spirit-drinking. THERE IS A TONGUE IN EVERY LEAF.

The King of Sweden, though surrounded by THERE is a tongue in every leaf !

noble distillers, has officially expressed his distinct A voice in every rill!

approbation of Temperance Societies; and the Crown A voice that speaketh every where,

Prince takes an active interest in their proceedings. In food and fire, through earth and air ;

The Government of Prussia has applied to the A tongue that's never still !

New York State Committee for a complete history 'Tis the Great Spirit wide diffused

of the temperance reformation, “ and a sketch of Through every thing we see, That with our spirits communeth

the machinery necessary to be set in motion to Of things mysterious—Life and Death,

enable Government to establish Temperance Societies Time and Eternity !

throughout the kingdom of Prussia." I see Him in the blazing sun,

The quantity of spirits which pay duty for home And in the thunder-cloud ;

consumption in this kingdom, has more than doubled I hear Him in the mighty roar

within a few past years. According to Parliamentary That rusheth through the forests hoar,

returns, made in 1833, it amounted to 25,982,494 When winds are raging loud.

gallops at proof, which, with the addition of oneI feel Him in the silent dews,

sixth for the reduction of strength by retailers, By grateful earth betray'd;

amounted to 13,429,3311. 58. 10d.; and this sum I feel Him in the gentle showers, The soft south wind, the breath of flowers,

does not include any part of the many millions of The sunshine, and the shade.

gallons known to be illicitly distilled, or imported

without paying duty.
I see Him, hear Him, every where,
In all things darkness, light;

In the neighbourhood of our large towns, the habit
Silence, and sound; but most of all,

of drinking spirits especially is found to be the chief When slumber's dusky curtains fall,

source of misery among the poor. Dram-drinking I' the silent hour of night.

offers to them a ready, though fatal oblivion of their

sorrows; and thousands seek refuge from distress in WHATEVER is glorious and excellent in the world, cannot

this insidious indulgence, which obstructs all attempts be acquired without care and labour. No real good, no

to afford them substantial relief, and baffles exertions true happiness, is given to men upon any other terms. for their moral and spiritual advancement.

It

destroys' domestic happiness, and cuts off all hope | abstain; none endure so well hardships and exposure, of rising by industry and frugality to an honest the inclemency of the weather, and the vicissitude of independence.

season." The customs of principal towns rapidly extend to The public attention being called to the subject, a smaller places. Debasing habits of excess in beer mass of medical evidence to the same effect was drinking too often prepare for the cheaper and readier readily collected; and several hundred physicians excitement of spirits; and in many country towns of and surgeons, including some of the most eminent England, gorgeous gin-shops now glare among modest practitioners, have publicly declared, that so far and useful trades, and thrive upon the want, and mi- from spirits affording any nourishment, the entire sery, and moral ruin which they spread around them. disuse of them would powerfully contribute to the

Four-fifths of all the crimes in our country have health and comfort of the community. been estimated to be committed under the excitement The testimony of eminent medical men proves of liquor. During the year 1833, 29,880 persons that distilled spirits “often bring on fatal diseases were taken into custody by the metropolitan police without producing drunkenness; that many persons for drunkenness alone, not including any of the have been destroyed by them, who were never comnumerous cases in which assaults or more serious pletely intoxicated in their lives;" and that madness offences have been committed under the influence of in its most awful form, "has occurred to persons drinking; and it should be observed, that this state- rarely or never known to be intoxicated." ment relates only to the suburbs of London, without

Public admonitions against excess, and private any calculation for the thousands of cases which entreaties to moderation, in the use of these danoccurred in the city itself.

gerous liquors, have been tried for centuries, in vain. Our parochial expenses, which have been nearly Moderation has produced appetite, and appetite doubled since 1815, are principally occasioned by excess; and the evil has become enormous. If, exeessive drinking. Of 143 inmates of a London indeed, it can be proved, that not any nourishment parish workhouse, 105 have been reduced to that is contained in the flood of distilled spirits which we state by intemperance; and the small remainder yearly consume at the expense of so many millions, comprises all the blind, epileptic, and idiotic, as well wrung chiefly from the wages of the labourer and as all the aged poor, some of whom would also drink the mechanic, and from the hard fare and scanty to intoxication if opportunity offered.

clothing of their families ; if it can be proved that More than one-half of the madness in our country they excite to exertion only by inflaming the imagiappears to be occasioned by drinking. Of 495 nation, that they add strength to the sufficiently patients admitted in four years into a lunatic asylum fierce temptations of our corrupt nature, while they at Liverpool, 257 were known to have lost their reason blunt and obliterate the affections and feelings which by this vice.

distinguish man from the inferior creation; if, on The pecuniary interests of all temperate persons are examination, it is evident that spirit drinking is deeply involved in this question. “Every drunkard closely connected with abuse of the Sabbath, and knows well, while he is drinking himself, his wife, contempt of religious institutions, and that it presents and his children to beggary, that the temperate must one of the most serious obstructions to the progress support him. He is as truly and certainly their heir of the gospel of truth,—the Christian, who seeks as one of their own children; and, either at their door not his own profit merely, will not long hesitate or in the workhouse, in the hospital or in the jail, whether he is at liberty to apply to the use of these they maintain him and his family.”

dangerous liquids, the rule of abstinence which a The poor's rate and county rate, for England and great apostle recommends with regard to things in Wales only, amount to 8,000,0001. The proportion themselves lawful, and even useful and desirable, but of this expenditure occasioned by drinking, may be which circumstances render inexpedient as occasionsmost safely estimated at two-thirds, say 5,333,333l.; of stumbling or weakness to others. which, added to the cost of spirits alone, 13,429,3311., The proposed means of reformation are not gives the sum expended by this nation, in the last doubtful, complex, and theoretical; they are harmfive years, on these two objects only, at 93,813,3211.; less and simple, and have proved efficacious beyond amounting, in only twenty years, to three hundred expectation. and seventy-five million pounds sterling; without Temperance Societies consist of persons of both including any computation for the enormous sums sexes, and of all ranks, who are convinced that it is consumed in the abuse of wine and beer, the expenses their duty, for their neighbours' sake, as well as their of prosecutions, the injury done to our foreign trade, own, to abtain from distilled spirits. They are not the loss of shipping, and the notorious destruction of persons bound by a reluctant vow to abstain from property in various other ways.

that in which they wish to indulge; they simply It has been an impression almost universal express their present conviction and determination, among the labouring classes, that ardent spirits, if rejoicing to give to others whatever advantage and not absolutely necessary, are of great use and im- encouragement may arise from their example. portance, as a support during labour, and that, moderately used, they are a salutary, or at least an It is in every man's power to assign proper portions of his innocent stimulus;" and the custom of persons of life to the examination of the rest, by putting himself better information, has confirmed an opinion so frequently in such a situation, hy retirement and abstracagreeable to our natural love of excitement.

tion, as may weaken the influence of external objects. Dr. John Ware created much sensation in North another state be not extinguished, must have the convic

Every man deeply engaged in business, if all regard to America, by publicly declaring, that no impression tion, though perhaps, not the resolution of Valdesso, who, “ can be more unfounded, no opinion more fatally when he solicited Charles the Fifth to dismiss him, being false, than that which attributes to spirituous liquors asked, whether he retired upon disgust, answered, that he any power of promoting bodily strength, or support- laid down his commission for no other reason, but because, ing the systein under labour or fatigue. Experience

"there ought to be some time for sober reflection, between

the life of a soldier and his death." has in all quarters most abundantly proved the contrary. None labour so constantly, so cheerfully, WHEN a man owns himself to have been in error, it is and with so little exhaustion, as those who entirely but telling you, in other words, that he is wiser than he was.

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