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Some of the metals, namely, iron, bismuth, and trating the particles of matter, and increasing their antimony, possess, in common with water, and dimensions, or by diffusing itself among them and solutions of crystallizable salts, the property of separating them to greater distances. Whichever expanding at the moment of their becoming solid. may be the exact mode of operation, heat has to To this property, in iron, we are indebted for the sharp contend with a more powerful antagonist force in impression it receives from the mould in which it is solids, than in liquids. That there exists among the cast. Antimony, in combination with other metals, particles of liquid bodies, a slight attractive force, is is employed with a similar result, for printing-types. evident from their uniting readily in drops. As, The impressions on the current coin of the realm, however, they possess this property, in a degree very whether copper, silver, or gold, are all produced inferior to solids, and as their particles have greater by stamping. Many articles of plate and ornamental freedom of motion among themselves, we may jewellery are also stamped. The precious metals, perceive the reason of their yielding more freely to both pure and alloyed, contract in passing from the very slight impulses of heat. To aëriform bodies, fluid to the solid state. If they were cast in moulds, considerable quantities of heat are essentially necesthey would receive impressions that would be indis- sary. Their very existence, either as vapours, or tinct and imperfect.
gases, depends on its presence. In some cases, the Aëriform bodies differ essentially from solids and heat, thus combined, may be separated, and the liquids, not only in their rate of expansibility, but vapours, or gases, become liquids or solids ; as in the also in not being subject to the same irregularities. transition of water from the state of steam to that of Whatever may be the character of an aëriform body, ice. In other cases, it is impossible, by any means whether it be a vapour, or a gas, simple or compound, at present known to us, to abstract from a gaseous all are obedient to the same law as respects the body, the heat with which it is combined, in quantiinfluence of heat, and all expand, in an equal degree, ties sufficient to produce any change in its character. by the addition of equal quantities of that subtile of this we have an instance in atmospheric air. element.
Aëriform bodies, by their intimate union with heat, If we take a large flaccid bladder, containing a few and by containing in, or among, a given number of cubic inches of air, and tie it securely, on placing the their particles, a greater proportion of it than either bladder in boiling water, we shall observe a vast solids or liquids, are, therefore, of all bodies with increase in the bulk of the contained air. By holding which we are acquainted, in the most favourable the bladder a few minutes before a fire, it will circumstances for receiving additional supplies of this become still more distended. Here is an instance penetrating and powerful agent, as well as for of the expansion of an aëriform body. If the bladder betokening its entrance by a simultaneous enlargebe placed, in its expanded state, in cold water, it will ment of their dimensions.
R. R. be restored to its former dimensions; the air imparting to the water the heat which had been temporarily united with it.
THERE is a branch of useful training, which cannot be too The rate expansion of aëriform bodies, is złoth heedfully regarded ; I mean, the education that children
Their observation is ever alive and (one four hundred and eightieth) of their volume, awake, to the circumstances which pass around them; and, for every degree of Fahrenheit's thermometer : 480
from the circumstances thus observed, they are continually cubic inches of air, or gas, at 32°, becoming 481 at drawing their own conclusions. These observations and 33° ; 482 at 31°; 483 at 35°; and so on for every conclusions have a powerful intluence in forming the chaadditional degree of heat. To this susceptibility of racters of youth. What is imparted in the way of direct change, by every variation of temperature, we owe
instruction, they are apt to consider as official: they receive much of our health and comfort in the open air, as
it, often, with downright suspicion; generally, perhaps,
with a sort of undefined qualification and reserve. It is well as in our private dwellings. The currents that otherwise with what children discover for themselves. As prevail out of doors, and the ventilation that goes on matter of self-acquisition, this is treasured up, and reasoned silently within, are alike dependent on the changes upon; it penetrates the mind, and influences the conduct, to which air is subjected by the presence or the beyond all the formal lectures that ever were delivered. absence of certain quantities of heat. Air, as it Whether it be for good, or whether it be for evil, the educabecomes heated, ascends, a colder and heavier column
tion of the child is principally derived from its own
observation of the actions, the words, the voice, the looks, flowing in to supply its place. On this principle it
On this principle it of those with whom it lives. The fact is unquestionably is, that the fire burns in a grate, and smoke issues at so; and since the fact is so, it is impossible, surely, that the top of a chimney, that the stratum of air near the the friends of youth can be too circumspect in the youthful ceiling of a room, or public edifice, when it is presence, to avoid every, the least appearance of evil. ineffectively ventilated, is unfit for respiration, and This great moral truth was keenly felt, and powerfully
inculcated, eren in the heathen world. But the reverence that when the door of a heated room is open, a current of cold air sets inwards at the bottom, whilst surably further. It is not enough that they set no bad
for youth of Christian parents, ought to reach immeaa corresponding current of warm air sets outwards,
example; it is indispensable, that they show forth a good near the top. As air expands so readily, by a slight one, It is not enough that they seem virtuous; it is indisincrease of temperature, it is a dangerous practice to pensable that they be so. place fermented liquors, as ale or porter, in stone or
The Christian parent ought to be a living exemplification
of Christianity." His house, his habits, his family, bis glass bottles, near a fire. Serious accidents ha been occasioned by the bursting of bottles thus regulated, as to evince that religion is, indeed, the parent
associates, his pursuits, his recreations, ought all to be so incautiously exposed to heat.
of order, the inspirer of good sense, the well-spring of good We know no more of the forms or sizes of the humour, the teacher of good manners, and the perennial ultimate particles of matter, than we do of the true source of happiness and peace. Accustomed to üve and nature of heat; but we think it is not difficult to breathe in such a holy atmosphere, it is morally impossible understand why liquids expand more than solids, and
that a child can materially go wrong. And this, in the aëriform bodies more than liquids. In solid bodies, highest sense of the word, is incomparably the most
valuable branch of a Christian education.--Bishop there exists a certain attractive force, by which
JEBB. their particles are held together, and which is directly opposed to the expansive energies of heat. We may Do not depreciate any pursuit which leads men to conreasonably infer that heat operates, either by pane-template the works of their Creator.-SOUTHEY,
THE Hind and the Roe, the Hart and the Antelope, ; a vegetable they grow from the extremities ; like a have always been held in the highest estimation by vegetable, they are for a while covered with a bark the Orientals, for the voluptuous beauty of their which nourishes them; like a vegetable, they have eyes, the delicate elegance of their form, and their their annual productions and decay. graceful agility of action. In the Sacred Writings, The Hart is a ruminating animal, and divides the therefore, as well as in other literary compositions of hoof; it was therefore permitted for food under the the East, we frequently meet with direct references, Mosaic law; which was, doubtless, a great advantage or incidental allusions, to their qualities and habits. to the Israelites, the mountainous tracts of Lebanon,
The Hart, which is the Stag or male Deer, is one of Gilead, and Carmel, abounding with Deer, and thus those innocent and peaceable animals, that seem supplying them with a rich provision of food. made to embellish the forest, and animate the soli Naturally of a hot and arid constitution, the Hart tudes of nature. The easy elegance of his form, the suffers much from thirst in the Oriental regions. He lightness of his motions, those large branches that therefore seeks the fountain or the stream with seem made rather for the ornament of his head than intense desire, particularly when his natural thirst its defence; the size, the strength, and the swiftness has been aggravated by the pursuit of the hunter. of this beautiful creature, all sufficiently rank him Panting and braying, with eagerness he precipitates among the first of quadrupeds, among the most himself into the river, that he may quench at once noted objects of human curiosity.
the burning fever which consumes his vitals, in its The size of the Deer's antlers is in proportion to cooling waters. No circumstance can display more its age, and they are shed every year: in full-grown forcibly the ardent breathings of Divine love in the animals they are very large, and give an expansion soul of a true believer; and the holy Psalmist has and beauty to the head which is remarkably striking. availed himself of it with admirable propriety and The growth and extension of thesc appendages to effect, in the description of his religious feelings, the head, are affected by several external circum- when exiled from the house of God. As the hart stances; and Buffon thinks it possible to retard their panteth after the water-brooks, so panteth my soul after growth entirely, by greatly retrenching their food. thee, O God. As a proof of this, we may adduce the fact of the The Deer seems to resemble the Goat, in being difference between a Stag bred in fertile pastures and remarkably sure-footed, and delighting in elevated undisturbed by the hunter, and one often pursued situations. To this it adds extraordinary swiftness, and ill-nourished. The former has his head ex- and will bound, with agility, more than fifty feet. panded, his antlers numerous, and his branches The Hind or female Stag, is a lovely creature, and thick ; the latter has but few antlers, and the expan- of an elegant shape : she is more eeble than the sion is but little. The beauty and size of their Hart, and is destitute of horns.
S. horns, therefore, mark their strength and vigour;
[Scripture Natural History.) such of them as are sickly, or have been wounded, never shooting out that magnificent profusion so
LONDON: much admired in this animal. Thus the horns may, JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. in every respect, be resembled to a vegetable sub- PUBLISHED IN WELKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTALY PARTS stance, grafted upon the head of an animal. Like
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SKETCHES OF THE HIGHLANDS AND ISLANDS OF SCOTLAND.
PART THE THIRD.
tion of sheep, and the diminution of farm-servants, useless On our return to Mull, we found the harbour of Tobermory retainers, and unprofitable stock: and unavoidably caused in considerable bustle. It is the port of embarkation for the ejection of a large body of people from their former the emigrants from the western Highlands and islands. modes of employment and of living. For these it became Four vessels, laden with them, now lay here; one bound necessary to provide. Emigration immediately presented for Quebec, and the other for Nova Scotia. One contained itself as an obvious resource; and, from the period in ques200 persons, from the Long Island, emigrating in conse tion, has been adopted at intervals, in almost all parts of quence of a difference with their landlord. They had the Highlands and islands, till almost every district has received no assistance in the prosecution of their under- created a corresponding colony on the other side of the taking, from any quarter; were in high spirits, and much Atlantic. encouraged by the accounts which they had received from Its effect, in retarding the progressive increase of the their friends who had preceded them. Near Tobermory population, has been, however, little perceptible. Lord we met a man from Ballochroy, in Mull, proceeding to Selkirk observes, in 1805, in his letter on emigration, embark with his wife and three children. By the sale of that the population had materially increased, both in the their house, two cows, a horse, and the rest of their little Long Island, which had contributed the largest portion in property, they had realized a capital of £40; and, as the proportion to its people, and in Sky, from whence about whole expense of their voyage to Cape Breton, amounted 4000 persons had proceeded to America, and about double to £9, for the passage, and £4. 10s. for provisions, they the number to the Low Countries, between 1772 and 1791; calculated on a surplus sufficient to enable them to locate and Sky has continued since to be overburdened with themselves prosperously on their arrival. The former people! The commencement of this very emigration was absurd or useless regulations, which rendered the convey witnessed by Dr. Johnson, and suggested the following ance of emigrants expensive and almost impracticable, remarks, indicating, his ignorance of a principle which have been abolished. Among other provisions, it was Mr. Malthus has since enrolled among the fundamental required that each individual should be supplied with a truths of political science. large allowance of meat during the voyage, calculated on “Some method to stop this epidemic desire of wandering, military rations ; a diet almost unknown to most of the which spreads its contagion from valley to valley, deserves natives of these regions: and pork was particularly specified, to be sought with great diligence. In more fruitful countries, though as much abhorred by Highlanders as by Jews. the removal of one only makes room for the succession of There is no doubt but that the prevailing prejudice against another: but in the Hebrides, the loss of an inhabitant emigration, conspired, with motives of humanity, to induce leaves a lasting vacuity; for nobody born in any other the Society, from which these regulations emanated, to part of the world, will choose this country for his residence; suggest them to government.
and an island once depopulated will remain a desert, as The obstacles to Emigration have been now, in a great long as the present facility of travel gives every one who measure, removed: the emigrants are healthy on their is discontented and unsettled, the choice of his abode." voyage: generally carry out sufficient capital to enable them The intluence of the change of system on population, to settle: are located, on their arrival, whether in Canada may be further illustrated by the following quotation from or in the United States, usually among their own kindred Lord Selkirk's work. or former neighbours, who have paved the way for them “ There is no part of the Highlands where the change in there: or enjoy the benefit of arrangements framed for the system of management has advanced so far towards their accommodation by government or by societies. In maturity as in Argyleshire. In Dr. John Smith's Survey general they succeed well; but it is remarked that their of that Country, drawn up for the Board of Agriculture, habitual indolence, though yielding to the temporary pres- we find this remark: The state of population in this sure of necessity, too frequently returns, when that stimu- county, as it stood in 1755, and as it stands at present, may lant no longer operates. Our American colonies afford a be seen in the statistical table. Although many parishes bright prospect to the industrious settler. The advantages have greatly decreased in their number of inbabitants, of emigration must, however, be considered not only in owing to the prevalence of the sheep-system, yet upon the reference to the individuals, but in a national point of view. whole the number is greater now than it was forty years
Emigration has been, during a considerable period, a ago. This is owing to the greater population of the town resource of the population of Scotland, as of all poor of Cambleton, and village of Oban, which have more than countries. In former times, among the Scotch, it was doubled their joint numbers in that period; so that, if confined almost entirely to military service; and they these are left out of the reckoning, the population in the supplied troops to several foreign states, and contributed to county will be found to have decreased considerably. some of the most important victories which have intluenced “ The fact is curious and valuable: the population of the fate of Europe. "Many of the noble families of Sweden Argyleshire has not diminished on the whole, yet the value have descended from, and bear the name of their Scottish of produce which is now sent away to feed the inhabitants ancestors, who fought under Gustavus Adolphus. War of a distant part of the kingdom, is much greater than constituted almost the sole employment, and offered the formerly." sole inducements, to the Highland elansmen: for them the The unquestionable result of the substitution of order, speculations of more peaceful adventure possessed no charm. economy, and judicious and well-regulated employment of Lord Selkirk mentions that a temporary emigration, from the resources of the Highlands, for the vicious system Inverness-shire to Georgia, in 1722, was produced by which it superseded, and the consequent augmentation of tempting prospects of advantage; but that forty years wealth, comfort, civilization, and moral improvement, has elapsed before it was followed by another.
been, notwithstanding the partial diminution of the popuThe time to which emigration, for the purpose of settling, lation in some few districts, the material increase of its must be referred, is that of the breaking up of the ancient total amount, which may be proved by reference to the Highland system, during the early and middle period of statistical tables. Whether emigration to foreign parts has the last century. The chiefs, whose power depended on been necessary, is a question involving several considethe number of their clansmen and retainers, and who were rations. Johnson observed to Boswell, upon hearing read indemnified for the expense of maintaining them, partly a letter written by Sir Hector Maclean, from Georgia, by low rents and partly by military service, found them- | where he was employed in settling a colony, to the Laird selves transformed, by the operation of law, into mere of Coll, dissuading him from letting his people go there, landlords, and compelled to adopt a new mode of living, on the assurance that there would soon be an opportunity and more productive management of their estates. The of employing them better at home; that “the lairds, intransition, retarded by the force of ancient habits, by the stead of improving their country, diminished their people." ties of relationship and of clanship, by humanity, as well as subsequent experience has most fully proved the truth of by indolence, pride, and prejudice, occupied a considerable this observation. The progressive developement of the period; involving the enlargement of farms, the introdue- resources of the country has since afforded employment
and subsistence to a population, compared with which the is an accumulation of paupers. The removal of the super emigrants form but an infinitely small fraction.
| fluous population becomes, sooner or later, necessary, how Lord Selkirk himself, an active and intrepid personal ever distressing to the feelings of the proprietor, and promoter of emigration, but recoramending it with no empi- oppressive to the people: and emigration may be often rical partiality, deemed it subordinate to the primary object resorted to under such circumstances as a happy resource, of improving the agriculture and the fisheries; yet he did where the landlord is ready to contribute his assistance to not apparently foresee the very ample extension of the the purpose. latter, which has since contributed so much to the wealth 1 Of the beneficial result of such an arrangement, a recent of the Northern Highlands, and of Scotland in general. emigration from the Isle of Rum, effected by the joint The complaints of excessive population in Scotland, during efforts of landlord and tenants, affords a striking instance, the last century, were really as inapplicable as to England, I am indebted for the account of it, to a gentleman who in the reign of Henry VII., when a similar change of was personally engaged in it. The people of this island system occurred; or to Ireland, when that fertile country were an indolent race of gentlemen; some of whom had was thinly peopled and wretchedly cultivated. Emigration held commissions in the Fencible Regiments ; fishing for was, indeed, materially checked by the demands for labour | their amusement, living on good mutton, lying in bed in and capital, produced by the increasing attention to domestic rainy, and on the grass in fine weather, and paying little improvement.
or no rent. At the time of their emigration, they owed The late Duke of Sutherland employed the whole of the Coll, their landlord, upwards of 20001., which he could have population which he ejected from their glens, profitably and recovered by the sale of their stock, which amounted to happily on his coast, which previously supplied only a few double that sum. But he not only declined this mode of cottagers with subsistence. Several other proprietors have indemnifying himself, but contributed 6001. towards the acted similarly. Emigration was also directed to the Low- emigration of the poorer class. The island has since yielded lands of Scotland by the growth of manufactures, of towns, | a rental of 8001. and improving agriculture, though the Highlanders could Emigration should be, however, regarded as affecting be brought little to the actual employment of the loom; and, not merely the interest of landlord and tenant, or of the during the war, it was stopped by the demands of the mili- nation of which they form a part, but that of the new tary service. Yet, as the developement of the means of em- | world to the peopling of which it contributes. And may it ployment could not invariably coincide with the progress of not be hoped, that the continual supply of families nurthe change of system, and the situation of estates sometimes tured under the fostering influence of our Constitution in precluded the transfer of the tenants from one part of them | Church and State *, professing generally the Protestant to another, emigration proved eminently advantageous in faith in its purity, enjoying the benefits of education denied preventing an accumulation of poverty, misery, and crime, to their forefathers, may tend to the diffusion of order, and the general prevalence of those disorders which occurred social happiness, and Christian knowledge, through emin particular districts, and which, had the transition been pires yet unborn? And is the expectation romantic and effected simultaneously in all parts of the country, instead visionary, or rather, is it not warranted by the enthusiasm of diffusing itself gradually during two thirds of a century, which the prospect of the land of his ancestors awakens might have involved the kingdom in another rebellion. in the breast of the enlightened American, that the
The circumstances of these regions have been now descendants of the Scottish emigrants, retaining their materially altered. The Irish, working for lower wages, ancient language, literature, songs, and religion, and ani. have supplanted the natives in the Lowlands; peace has mated by almost put an end to military recruiting; and the con
The stirring memory of a thousand years, sequent redundance of population has been materially
may perpetuate that characteristic hereditary attachment to augmented by the recent failure of one branch of employ
the land of their fathers, their heroes, and their martyrs, ment already adverted to, the manufacture of Kelp. The peculiar energency to which the people are reduced,
so exquisitely expressed by the poet. appears to justify that loud cry for emigration in which
O Caledonia ! stern and wild, landlords and tenants join, blending with the general voice
Meet nurse for a poetic child !
Land of brown heath and shaggy wood, of the nation in its favour. All disinclination to it has
Land of the mountain and the flood, ceased. The agent for an estate on the coast, near Sky,
Land of my sires! what mortal hand assured me that, in a single parish, there were 300 persons
Can e'er untie the filial band anxious to proceed to America; and poverty alone restrains
That knits me to thy rugged strand ! multitudes from embarking. The assistance of government Each emigrating family may thus become a link in the is desired, and the occasion deemed appropriate. But mighty chain, which may hereafter bind the old world to the assumption of permanent distress as the result of this the new, in the bonds of mutual good-will and common temporary failure of a valuable resource, the only, and still philanthropy. inadmissible ground on which national aid can be solicited, The following extract from Stewart's Sketches, affords may be fairly questioned.
a gratifying instance of the perpetuity of Highland attachThe precarious, but often ample, profits of the kelp, have ment, exhibited by some emigrants from the estate of one counteracted the progress both of agriculture and the fish- of his kinsmen, corroborative of these observations. eries. The maritime farms which yield the kelp in Orkney, “ It is now upwards of thirty years since the first detachand in other parts of Scotland, have been notoriously usually ment emigrated; but so far are they from entertaining a the worst cultivated; and the fisheries, which demand the spirit of hostility to this country, that they cherish the almost exclusive attention of those employed in them, and kindest feelings towards their ancient homes, and the which invariably decline, when occupation and subsistence families of their ancient lairds; their new possessions are can be procured on shore, have also suffered from the kelp; named after their former farms, and their children and and the idle lounging habits produced by the mode of grand-children are named after the sons and daughters of employment which it affords, have been prejudicial to their lairds; and so loyal were they to the king and industry,
government of this country, that to avoid serving against Let the proprietors of the maritime farms bend their | them in the late war, several emigrated from the States to attention to the soil and to the sea, profiting by the Canada, when the young men entered the Royal Militia numerous examples of successful speculation and exertion and Fencibles. Such are the consequences of considerate before their eyes, and they will perhaps discover that tem- treatment, and of voluntary emigration." porary distress has been, in this instance, in conformity to the ordinary dispensation of Providence, in eliciting good LOCH SUNART; STRONTIAN; CONNAL FERRY; from evil, productive of substantial benefit both to them
BALLYHULISH; GLENCO; DEVIL'S selves and to their tenants.
STAIR-CASE; LOCH LEVEN. That emigration to America may still continue to be
LEAVING Mull we ascended Loch Sunart to Strontian. advantageous to Scotland, if pursued with moderation, and without extraneous encouragement, cannot be questioned.
Our rowers, two boys, who supported their parents by their Though, on the introduction of sheep, many landlords
industry, belonged to a family exhibiting the peculiarity of provided permanently for their ejected tenants, others
appearance which distinguished the Swiss Albinesses who adopted the temporary expedient of placing them on small
some years ago visited this country,-white hair and red allotments, upon which they have multiplied and become
ferret eyes. burdensome. The usual result of negligence and of mis
Loc. SUNART, a narrow arm of the sea, extending twenty taken humanity, on the part of the landiord or his agent,
* Esto perpelua.