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in different places. In some districts we find chalk, | directest means of intercourse by navigation : and in in others clay, in others again marl, stone, slate, and the interior of every civilized country, either rivers, many other substances. In sinking a well also, we or navigable canals, furnish the inhabitants with an find that the soil varies at different depths. Again, easy and cheap conveyance for merchandise and in passing through a tract of country, we observe productions of all kinds. Water, also, either enters, that a soil, which, in one place, was at a considerable as an ingredient, into almost every article of food, or depth, comes to the surface in another place. Thus is used as the means of preparing it. Without the the different substances of which the crust of the aid of water, many of the operations of agriculture earth is composed are usually found in strata or could aot be performed ; nor any building constructed layers, which are cut horizontal, but inclined, so as with any ordinary cement. to come to the surface, or cross-cut, as it is called, at Of such universal benefit is the apparently simple different points, in a manner somewhat resembling substance, water : furnishing us with an instance of the annexed figure. Here, if a traveller went from the numerous merciful ends, which the wisdom of the A to B, he would pass successively over chalk, for Creator produces, by the fittest means. Thus, the

more deeply we reflect upon objects, even of the most familiar nature, the stronger proofs do we meet with of intelligence, beneficence, and design.

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ST. MICHAEL ORANGES.

The orange-plantations, or quintas, of St. Michael's, are instance, in the stratum c, over clay in D. over sand of large extent, always encircled by a wall from fifteen to in E, and so on. Or if a well be sunk through the

twenty feet high, and within a thick plantation belt of the

faya, cedar-tree, fern, birch, &c., to protect the orange-trees clay, the different soils will be found at different

from the sea breezes. depths, as at d, e, f, &c., in succession.

The trees are propagated from shoots or layers, which Now suppose that there is high land at P, the soil are bent at the lower end into the ground, and covered with of which permits the water to pass freely, as sand or soil until roots begin to strike, when they are separated gravel does : but'that on each side of this stratum,

from the parent stem, and transplanted into a small excaas at o and Q, there is a stratum of stone or clay,

vated well about three feet deep, (lined with pieces of lava,

and surrounded at the top by plantations of laurel, young which will not let the water pass. Thus the whole

faya, and broom,) until the tender orange-plants are suffistratum, P, will be very full of water, and if, in

ciently strong, at which period the plantations immediately another place, as m, the soil be bored through, till

round them are removed, and each plant begins to shoot the stratum p be reached, as at p, the water will up and flourish, after which no further care is taken of it,

beyond tarring occasionally the stem to prevent injury by
insects; and it in time spreads out with the majestic luxus. - -
riance of a chesnut trco. In this countiy it uity requires
seven years to bring an orange-plantation to good bearing
and each tree, on arriving at full growth, a few years after,
will then, annually, upon an average, produce from 12,000
to 16,000 oranges:—a gentleman told me, he had once
gathered 26,000.

The crops are purchased previous to their arriving at a state of maturity by the merchants, who ascertain the

value of the probable year's produce, through the medium immediately rise, not only to the surface at m, but as

of experienced men, and then make their offer accordingly. high as m, the level of the surface at P, if a pipe be The men thus employed to value orange-crops, gain a liveinserted into the bore at m.

lihood thereby; and such is the skill whereto they attain, This method is frequently used to procure water that, by walking once through a plantation, and giving a artificially: and the springs which rise naturally, are general glance at the trees, they are enabled to state, with probably often occasioned by the same cause : and

the most astonishing accuracy, on what number of boxes

the merchant may calculate. It becomes, however, quite a thus the water, which falls upon one district, and

matter of speculation to the purchaser, as orange-crops are appears to sink into the earth, and to be lost, is

a very uncertain property, and subject to various casualties stored up in reservoirs, to supply the wants of places between the time they are thus valued and the gatheringfar distant.

For instance, a continuance of cold north or north-easterly A part of the shower, then, which we have

wind will cut them off;—a violent storm will sometimes lay supposed, having been immediately applied to support

the whole crop on the ground in a night, or it may be en

tirely destroyed by insects. animal and vegetable life, and part having sunk into

Nothing can exceed the rich luxuriant appearance of the earth, the remainder is poured down the sides of

these Hesperian gardens, during the principal fruit months the hills, is collected in streams, and rivers, and, in -namely, from November to March, when the emerald the end, completes its circuit to the ocean, whence it tints of the unripe and golden hue of the mature fruit arose.

mingle their beauties with the thick dark foliage of the In contemplating this beautiful arrangement, it is

trees; and the bright odoriferous blossom which diffuses a

| sweetness through the surrounding neighbourhood is quite impossible not to call to mind the language of David: |

delicious. He sendeth the springs into the valleys, which run

The present amount of oranges and lemons exported, among the hills. They give drink to every beast of is upwards of 120,000 boxes, and nearly seventy or eighty the field ; the wild asses quench their thirst. By vessels are sometimes seen lying in the roads, waiting to them sball the fowls of the air have their habitation, carry them to Europe. Besides these, a large quantity of and sing among the branches. He watereth the hills

the sweet lemon is cultivated for the consumption of the from his chambers ; the earth is satisfied with the

inhabitants: it is produced by grafting the sour lemon on

the orange, but is tasteless and vapid, though esteemed fruit of thy works." (Psalm civ. 10-13.)

salutary and refreshing by the natives. These, however, are by no means the only benefits

There is a species of epicurism peculiar to the Azores derived from water in its fluid state. The waters with respect to oranges, particularly observed by the higher furnish the means of subsistence and enjoyment, classes, who only eat that side which has been most exprobably to more living creatures than the carth and posed to the sun, and is, of course, in its fresh state, easily the air. The ocean, again, which might appear to

distinguished by the tint-a refinement we are unable to

emulate, the colour being rendered uniform by age, shut out one country from another, becomes the

[Bord's Western Islands.]

coat.

ALEXIS ST. MARTIN.

LIFE PROLONGED BY CIVILIZATION. IN 1822, Alexis St. Martin, employed by the If we collect England, Germany, and France, in one American Fur Company, was wounded in the side by group, we find that the average term of mortality, the discharge of a musket. The contents of the gun which, in that great and populous region, was blew from his left side integuments and muscles, the formerly one in thirty people annually, is not at size of a man's hand, so as to leave, when the wound present more than one in thirty-eight. This difference had healed, a perforation in his stomach, about two reduces the number of deaths throughout these and a half inches in circumference. Hence the countries, from 1,900,000 to less than 1,200,000 cavity of his stomach is exposed to view ; its surface, persons; and 700,000 lives, or one in eighty-three and secretions from it, can be readily examined, and annually, owe their preservation to the social different articles of food can be introduced, and ameliorations effected in the three countries of taken out at pleasure, to study the changes which western Europe, whose efforts to obtain this object they have undergone. Since the recovery of Martin, have been attended with the greatest success. The he has enjoyed the best health. He has performed life of man is thus not only embellished in its course the duties of a labourer, has married, and become by the advancement of civilization, but is extended the father of a family; and Dr. Beaumont, a by it, and rendered less doubtful. physician stationed at the place where the accident The effects of the amelioration of the social happened, has retained Martin several years in his condition, are to restrain and diminish, in proportion service, for the express purpose of examining the to the population, the annual number of births, and functions of an organ, which was so accidentally in a still greater degree, that of deaths ; on the thrown open for his inspection and study. The contrary, a great number of births, equalled or even results of this laborious inquiry, have been published exceeded by that of deaths, is a characteristic sign of by Dr. Beaumont, and he has added much important a state of barbarism. In the former case, as men in information to animal physiology. He found the a mass reach the plenitude of their physical and inner coat of the stomach to be of a light or pale social developement, the population is strong, inpink colour, varying in its hues, according as it was telligent, and manly; while it remains in perpetual full or empty. It had a soft or velvet-like appearance, infancy, whole generations are swept off without and was constantly covered with a thin, transparent, being able to profit by the past,—to bring social viscid mucus, secreted from small oval-shaped glan- economy to perfection. - Philosophical Journal. dular bodies, beneath the mucous

When aliment or other irritants were applied to the inner coat of the stomach, there were

seen, with a

THE WELLINGTON SHIELD magnifying glass, innumerable minute lucid points, and

No. XI. THE DUKEDOM OF WELLINGTON vary fine nervous and vascular papillæ, arising from the villous membrane, and protruding through the

CONFERRED. mucous coat, and from which distilled a pure, In the preceding papers of this series, we have narlimpid, colourless, and slightly viscid fluid. This rated the principal events in the military life of Lord fluid is always distinctly acid, and is the gastric juice Wellington, from the year 1803, when he won the which converts the food into chyme. Dr. Beaumont battle of Assaye, down to the period when, in 1814, regards, with much probability, the sensation of the entry of the allied British, Spanish, and Portuhunger, as occasioned by a distension or repletion of guese army into Toulouse, closed the war in the the gastric vessels, which cannot discharge their Peninsula and the South of France; we have now contents till the stomach is irritated with food. only, for the completion of our task, to speak of the When food was placed in the gastric juice, taken out honours which awaited him at the hands of his soveof the stomach, the same chemical result was reign and his country, on the termination of so obtained, when it was kept at the temperature of brilliant a career. 100° Fahrenheit, which Dr. Beaumont found to be Of these, the most distinguished was, his elevation that of the stomach. This artificial digestion, to the highest rank in the peerage, to which the Crown however, occupied a period two or three times longer can raise a subject. than when the gastric juice acted upon the same

On the 10th of May, a message from the Prince materials in the stomach.

Regent was communicated to both houses of ParliaDr. Beaumont has published the times in which ment, announcing that his Royal Highness, having various articles of food are digested. A full meal of taken into consideration the many signal victories various articles of food was digested, in from three obtained by Lord Wellington, had been pleased to to three and a half hours ; but when the stomach confer upon him the rank and title of a Duke and was diseased, or affected by narcotics, or when the Marquess of the United Kingdom, and expressing the mind was agitated by anger, or other strong emotions, wish entertained by his Royal Highness, to be enabled or when the food was taken in large masses, the to grant such annuity to his Grace and his successors, time of digestion was prolonged, while, on the

as should tend to support the high dignity of the contrary, it was shortened when the food had been title conferred, and be, at the same time, a lasting minutely divided and mingled with saliva, and when memorial of his Royal Highness's feelings, and of the the temperature of the stomach, and the rest of the gratitude and munificence of the nation. The subject body, had been elevated by moderate exercise. was speedily taken into the consideration of ParliaAmong vegetable substances, rice was the soonest ment, in which there appeared to exist but one feeling, converted into chyme, viz., in one hour; and of all that of an ardent disposition to give full effect to animal substances, broiled venison, which was con

the gracious intentions of the Prince Regent. The verted into chyme in one hour and thirty-five minutes; services of the Duke were acknowledged with equal while beef, roasted or broiled, required three hours ; readiness by all, however wide the difference of their broiled veal and fowls four hours; and roasted pork, political opinions; and his exploits were compared five and a quarter hours.Edinburgh Review. Ö. N. with those of a general with whom comparison was

indeed glorious—the great Duke of Marlborough. What we term the course of nature is the constant admi

But Marlborough, said the Earl of Liverpool, in the pistration of Providence.-HERVEY,

house of Lords, had been opposed to Louis XIV., in

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the decline of his power, when his most eminent services, both hotises of Parliament had bestowed the officers were dead or unemployed, and when Marshal | highest honours it was in their power to grant—their Villars was, perhaps, the only very great general with unanimous thanks and approbation. The glorious whom he had to contend. Let their lordships, con- result of all his toils and victories, had been to tinued the noble Earl, then, look at the Duke of achieve the peace, the security, and the greatness of Wellington, opposed to Buonaparte, in the plenitude his country, while, by his example, he had animated of his power, with not only France, but Italy, and the rest of Europe, and enabled her governments to the greater part of the Peninsula at his command. | restore their ancient order. The Lord Chancellor Their lordships might remember what was the state then expressed the infinite gratification which he felt of Europe four years before, when Russia, Sweden, in fulfilling the commands of their lordships, by Denmark, Germany, nay, the whole Continent almost, informing the nuble duke, that they had unanimously was on the side of France; when nothing remained | voted their thanks for his eminent and unremitted of Europe, except Great Britain, and the space within services, and their congratulations upon his return to · the lines of Torres Vedras, and the limits of Cadiz. this country. The duke briefly acknowledged the Let them consider the situation of the civilized world honour thus conferred upon him, and observed, that at that period, and then look at the advance of the the entire confidence which the government had Duke of Wellington from Torres Vedras, in 1810; | reposed in him, the ample means which they had let them follow his steps to Ciudad Rodrigo and intrusted to his disposal, and the cordial assistance Badajoz, and the brilliant exploits there performed ; which he received from the gallant officers who let them then follow his course in those operations shared his campaigns, contributed powerfully to which closed with the battle of Salamanca; let them those successes which the house had noticed in a next trace his steps to Vittoria ; see him deliver manner so gratifying. Spain and Portugal from the oppressor, carry the In addition to the pecuniary remuneration so war into the invader's own territory, and at last, liberally and cheerfully voted by Parliament to the plant the British standard in Bourdeaux. Let them Duke of Wellington, the House of Commons resolved look at all this, and say, whether the renown which to pay him the highest tribute of respect that it was was gained, had ever been exceeded or equalled at possible for them to bestow; namely, voting him any former period of our history.

their thanks, and appointing a committee to wait These sentiments were responded to by every peer upon him to communicate the same, and to offer him who spoke; and in the house of Commons a similar their congratulations on his return to England. The unanimity prevailed. It was there proposed by the Duke, in reply, signified his desire to express to the government, that an annuity of 10,0001. should be House his answer in person, and the following day, granted to the Duke, to be at any time commuted for July 1st, was appointed for the purpose. At about the sum of 300,0001. to be laid out in the purchase of a quarter before five o'clock, the Speaker being an estate ; but at the instance of those who had been dressed in his official robes, and the House being the loudest in condemning the policy of continuing crowded with members, some of them in naval and the war in the Peninsula, the amount was raised military uniforms, and a great number in the courtto 400,0001; thus making, together with what had dresses in which they had attended the Speaker to been formerly granted to the Duke of Wellington by Carlton-House with their address to the Prince the nation, the sum of half a million.

Regent, upon the definitive treaty with France, It was not till towards the close of the month of June, Lord Castlereagh acquainted the House that the that the Duke arrived in England; nothing could, Duke of Wellington, having desired that he might however, exceed the rapture with which he was then have the honour to wait upon the House, was now in received. One of his first acts was to take his seat attendance. Upon this it was resolved unanimously, in the house of Lords; and this he performed on the that the Duke of Wellington be now admitted. And 28th of June. The ceremony was highly interesting, a chair being set for his grace on the left hand of the and nothing was omitted that could render it more bar, towards the middle of the House, he came in, pleasing or honourable to the great commander. A making his obeisances, the whole House rising upon considerable concourse of persons were assembled his entrance within the bar; and the Speaker, below the bar of the house, and an unusual number having informed him that there was a chair in which of peers were present on the occasion. Below the he might repose himself, the Duke sat down covered throne were seated the Duchess of Wellington, and for some time, the serjeants standing on his right the Countess of Mornington, the venerable mother of hand with the mace grounded. The House then the noble Duke ; several other ladies were present, resumed their seats; and his grace, rising uncovered, and many members of the house of Commons. His expressed his thanks for the honour they had done Grace was introduced with the usual formalities; and him in deputing a committee of members to congraas he had not been in England since he was first tulate him on his return to this country ;—and this raised to the peerage, the patents of his creation, as

| after they had animated his exertions by their applause baron, earl, marquess, and duke, were severally read upon every occasion which appeared to merit their one after the other. The oaths were then adminis-approbation; and after they had filled up the measure tered to him, and having subscribed the parliamentary of their favours by conferring upon him, at the roll, he took his seat; when the Lord Chancellor recommendation of the Prince Regent, the noblest rose to address him, for the purpose of conveying the gift that any subject had ever received. thanks of the house, as voted to him, on the preceding

At the conclusion of his address, the speaker, evening, for the twelfth time. In the execution of Mr. Abbot *, who had sate covered during its delivery, that duty, Lord Eldon said, he could not refrain from then stood up uncovered, and replied to his grace. calling the attention of his Grace, and that of the He spoke of the splendid triumphs which the duke had noble lords present, to a circumstance singular in the achieved, and of the feelings which they had excited history of that house ;—that, upon his introduction, in the minds of nations, and then continued in these he had gone through every dignity of the peerage words: which it was in the power of the crown to bestow. “It is not, however, the grandeur of military These dignities had been conferred upon him for success which has alone fixed our admiration or eminent and distinguished services; and for the same |

* Afterwards Lord Colchester.

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commanded our applause; it has been that generous from a consciousness that his victories had been and lofty spirit which inspired your troops with gained in a good cause, and that the high powers unbounded confidence, and taught them to know intrusted to him had never been used for purposes that the day of battle was always a day of victory; of cruelty and oppression. On this point, the obserthat moral courage and enduring fortitude, which in vations of Mr. Southey are just and eloquent; and perilous times, when gloom and doubt had beset or we know not how we can more appropriately close dinary minds, stood, nevertheless, unshaken; and this subject than with the following extract from the that ascendency of character, which, uniting the conclusion of his History of the Peninsular War. energies of jealous and rival nations, enabled you "In Gascony, as well as in Portugal and Spain, to wield at will the fates and fortunes of mighty the Duke of Wellington's name was blessed by the empires. For the repeated thanks and grants be- people. Seldom indeed has it fallen to any conqueror stowed upon you by this House, in gratitude for to look back upon his career with such feelings ! your many and eminent services, you have thought The marshal's staff, the dukedom, the honours and fit this day to offer us your acknowledgments; but rewards which his prince and his country so'munifithis nation well knows that it is still largely your cently and properly bestowed, were neither the only debtor ; it owes to you the proud satisfaction, that nor the most valuable recompense of his labours. amidst the constellation of great and illustrious war- There was something more precious than these ; riors who have recently visited our country, we more to be desired than the high and enduring fame could present to them a leader of our own, to whom which he had secured by his military achievements, all by common acclamation conceded the pre-emi- —the satisfaction of thinking to what end those nence; and when the will of heaven, and the common achievements had been directed ;—that they were for destinies of our nature, shall have swept away the the deliverance of two most injured and grievously present generation, you will have left your great oppressed nations ;—for the safety, honour, and name and example as an imperishable monument, welfare of his country ;—and for the general interests exciting others to like deeds of glory, and serving at of Europe, and of the civilized world. His campaigns once to adorn, defend, and perpetuate the existence were sanctified by the cause ;-—they were sullied by of this country among the ruling nations of the no cruelties, no crimes ;—the chariot-wheels of his earth."

triumphs have been followed by no curses ;—his lauWhen the Speaker had finished his address, the rels are entwined with the amaranths of righteousness, Duke of Wellington withdrew, making his obeisances and upon his death-ded he might remember his in like manner as upon entering, and the whole victories among his good works." House rising whilst his Grace was reconducted by the serjeant from his chair to the door of the House.

Since the commencement of these papers, the world has Such marks of honour did this great general had to lament the death of the venerable artist, Stothard, receive from the three branches of the legislature, had lived long enough, however, to establish for himself a

who was the author of this splendid work of genius. He from each the highest which it could bestow.

reputation which will not soon perish. would be impossible to particularize the various acts by which his countrymen in general marked their gratitude and joy; one of the most memorable was

LONDON: that which we have recorded in this series of papers, JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. - the offering of the Wellington Shield. But PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTALT Paita,

PRICE SIXPENCE, AND besides these he had other rewards ;—those arising Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdon,

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ITERATURE& EDUCATION

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Saturday

Magazine.

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27TH, 1834.

PRICE 2 ONE PENNY.

UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,

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