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the canal with passengers, between Gravesend and without the limits of the port of London, the inhabitRochester, passing through the tunnel; the echo ants have the advantage of obtaining their coals made by the noise of her machinery and paddles, exempt from certain duties. was singular and powerful. The roof of the tunnel, except a portion near the Frindsbury or Medway In the centre of the grove there stood an oak, which, end, is generally remarkably dry. This whole though shapely and tall on the whole, bulged out into a undertaking, from various causes, was more than large excrescence about the middle of the stem. On this twenty years in progress. The capital was raised of years, that the oak was distinguished by the title of the

a pair of ravens had fixed their residence for such a series in 4805 shares; the average cost per share, was Raven Tree. Many were the attempts of the neighbouring 301. 4s. 3d.;

but, although an important public youths to get at this eyry: the difficulty whetted their incliaccommodation, it has proved an unfortunate under- nation, and each was ambitious of surmounting the arduous taking for the original proprietors, the selling price task. But when they arrived at the swelling, it jutted out of the shares being recently quoted at only 11.

so in their way, and was so far beyond their grasp, that the During the hop-season, the traffic on the canal is most daring lads were awed, and acknowledged the undervery considerable; the hop-growers of Kent being upon nest, in perfect security, till the fatal day arrived in

taking to be too hazardous. So the ravens built on, nest thus enabled to transport their hops to the London which the wood was to be levelled. It was in the month market from Maidstone, in twenty-four hours. The of February, when those birds usually sit. The saw was river Medway, which is rendered navigable as high applied to the butt, the wedges were inserted into the as Tunbridge, proves of infinite utility to the county opening, the woods echoed to the heavy blows of the beetle

, of Kent, as well as Sussex, on the borders of which or mallet, the tree nodded to its fali; but still the dam it takes its rise. Its course is exceedingly circuitous her nest; and, though her parental affection deserved a

At last, when it gave way, the bird was flung from throughout; the tide flows up as far as Maidstone, a better fate, was whipped down by the twigs, which brought distance from Sheerness, by water, of about thirty- her dead to the ground.—White's Selborne. seven miles.

LONDON: The immediate vicinity of the Thames and Medway JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. Canal to Gravesend, is of some advantage to that PUBLISHED

IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IX MONTHLY PARTS town, as in consequence of its basin being just Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom,



No 158.




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constantly practised in the grounds, the most skilful Tae Village of Hofwel, six miles north of the among the youths being chosen from among themcity of Berne, in Switzerland, is in a beautiful selves to take the lead, and to regulate the rest. It is situation, surrounded by hills and interspersed with the same with the military exercises, in which they woods, with the Jura mountains and the Alps in elect their own captain, who confers the honour of view.

lieutenant and ensign on those he thinks fit, the The singular institution of which we are about to choice being generally acceptable to the rest, and it give some account, and which has lately become is pleasing to notice the harmony that prevails among more interesting, from many of our countrymen them. They have, likewise, their own head gardener, having sent their sons thither, has been established or Meier, as they call him, who looks after the porupwards of thirty-two years, under the direction of tion of ground allotted to them, that they keep it in M. de Fellenberg, a native of Switzerland, and of proper order; and with regard to the household noble birth. This zealous and persevering man, who affairs, the head man, or Hauswart, must see to the had long directed his mind to the subject of educa- class-rooms, or nominate a lad weekly, for each detion, started Hofwyl with one poor country lad. At partment, to take care of the pens, paper, chalk, &c. the age of sixty-two, he has now 260 youths under During the heat of the summer, instead of gymhis especial charge, and has brought his establish- nastics, they employ a portion of the time of recreament to consist of four different stations, distinct tion in swimming, for which they have an excellent from one another, and in separate houses,

bath, with a fountain in the centre : and thus they The first comprises the higher class of students; become excellent swimmers. they belong to what is called la Grande Maison d'Edu- Every evening, M. de Fellenberg holds an assembly, cation, and receive a regular course of instruction in at which all are obliged to be present, when he either the classics, and in various arts and sciences, every finds fault or praises, as their conduct merits, and branch of elegant and useful learning being attended closes with an evening prayer. He seldom has to to. The second division is known by the name of speak of a thing twice, so willingly are his orders, or Mittel Schule, or Middle School, where young men, rather desires, attended to. His first care is to make generally of the grade of farmers' sons, are taught himself acquainted with a boy's character, and he the business of agriculture. The third is l'Ecole then treats his scholars as his own sons. Every Rurale, comprising poor boys of Switzerland, and the possible attention is paid to the morals and manners, adjoining countries. The fourth and last, l'Ecole and seldom can any thing be done in secret without des Filles, which comprehends girls in humble life, its coming to his ears. There are not more than who are brought up in such a way as to enable twenty Roman Catholics in the institution ; the great them to gain an honest livelihood, the produce of bulk of the establishment, with M. de Fellenberg their work while at school, going towards the expense and his family at their head, being Protestants. of their maintenance.

Sunday is strictly attended to: the Church Service The chief Academy, la Grande Maison, consists of is performed in German, and a Confirmation is held sixty youths, some being of the highest ranks, and every year at Ilofwyl. sent from various parts of the world, with the This short account will give our readers some exception, it appears, of Germany. To train these idea of the good order which reigns throughout pupils in the several departments of knowledge, the whole, and which tends so greatly, not only to there are thirty-two professors, principally clergymen present advancement, but to success in after-life. of the Lutheran church, who are always at hand to And it is still more important to trace the effects of propose questions and explain difficulties, M. de Fel- religious cultivation, without which all other endealenberg, himself a classical scholar, often superin vours after knowledge must be valueless and vain. tending the different lessons in person, and laying It is a judicious provision of de Fellenberg, not to great stress on explanation and examination in the allow of any interference with politics; newspapers teacher's presence. His wish is to receive the boys are forbidden, and card-playing is out of the question. at an early age, that he may educate them wholly | A boy is not obliged to take books with him, as he according to his own system. The distinguishing finds access to a good library, as well as to a collection excellence of this consists in the practical details of natural history, to which he may contribute which comprise an infinite variety of ingenious me- whatever specimens he can procure. Though a thods for economizing the resources within reach, regular correspondence with relations and friends is and gaining proposed ends by sure means. To enter encouraged, a part of the plan is to prevent, as much fully into particular points, would exceed our bounds; as possible, the interruption caused by visits home; and, indeed, it is a question how far any description and the vacations at Easter, Midsummer, and Christcould enable the reader, who had not been upon the mas, making little more than two months altogether, spot, to form an adequate idea of the system in all are spent either in visiting the country in parties, on its bearings. In teaching the sciences, much aid is botanical and other excursions, or, in the colder derived from the method of Pestalozzi, which consists weather, in agreeable but harmless reading, and in in exercising the reasoning faculties more than is getting up concerts and plays, superintended by the done by the ordinary process of instruction, and in principals, and in which the students take a part. making the acquirement of knowledge much less We are informed that no particular charges are a matter of rote. No intervals of idleness are per- specified, but that the parents receive, at regular mitted to interfere with the general object. The boys intervals, the accounts of expenses for their children. first apply to Greek and Grecian History; afterwards In the Middle School are thirty young men, chiefly to Latin, Roman History, and Ancient Geography: farmers' sons, who are not less busy or happy than subsequently to Modern Languages and Literature, those we have just described, though differing from Modern History and Geography, the Physical Sci- them in the nature of their occupations and amuseences and Chemistry: and during the whole period to ments. Their main pursuit is agriculture, in which Mathematics, Drawing, Music, and bodily exercises. M. de Fellenberg is an adept. With this they are

The founder, who is personally extremely active, made practically acquainted, and their hours of reencourages all those manly sports which tend to laxation are employed in examining and making form and strengthen the frame; and gymnastics are models of several machines invented by him. They

have had for six years vur English ploughs, which them as for the poor boys, by taking them into his are now used over a great part of Switzerland service, or procuring them good situations in respectand France. The boys of this division are not able families. allowed to join the sports of the others, nor to accompany them in their travels. Here it may be

MORAL DISCIPLINE. remarked as applicable to all the schools, that early Tue law of habit when enlisted on the side of rising is insisted upon, and that corporal punishment righteousness, not only strengthens and makes sure is unknown. A good preceptor should be, as much as possible, a kind and experienced friend, who performances of virtue. The man whose thoughts

our resistance to vice, but facilitates the most arduous guides, rather than a master, who commands, and is feared more than loved. Here the boys feel as if

with the purposes and doings to which they lead, are

at the bidding of conscience, will, by frequent repetiunder the paternal roof. The Third Class, the Poor, or Wehrli, School has

tion, at length describe the same track almost spon.

taneously,—even as in physical education, things, 120 boys, kept entirely at M. de F.'s expense. They laboriously learned at the first, come to be done at have been taught by a Mr. Wehrli, a clever person, appointed to that important undertaking by de moral education, every new achievement of principle

last without the feeling of an effort. And so, in Fellenberg, since he has been so fully engaged. smooths the way to fiture achievements of the same Each boy, upon entering, has to make his agreement kind; and the precious fruit or purchase of each to serve till he is twenty-one; the first three years moral virtue is to set us he only learns, and afterwards he must make himself

on higher and firmer useful. They have their masters for two hours in time coming. He who resoluteis bids away the

vantage-ground for the conquests of principle in all the day, when they are instructed in Geography,

suggestions of avarice, when they come into conflict History, and Mathematics; the rest of the time

with the incumbent generosity; or the suggestions they work in the fields. They keep the whole of the of voluptuousness, when they come into conflict land (about 250 acres) in order, with the assistance with the incumbent self-denial; or the suggestions of some daily labourers, and they are always occu

of anger, when they come into conflict with the inpied. In wet weather they cut wood, make baskets, cumbent act of magnanimity and forbearance-will and thresh corn. Their different trades are the

at length obtain, not a respite only, but a final deliver. Butcher, Baker, Carpenter, Mechanic, Sadler, Tailor,

ance from their intrusion. Shoemaker, Tallowchandler, Blacksmith, and Book

Çonscience, the longer it has made way over the binder; and there is scarcely any thing worn or

obstacles of selfishness and passion, the less will it consumed at Hofwyl, that is not made by them.

give way to these adverse forces, themselves weakened On Sunday, they attend service. They have collected

by the repeated defeats which they have sustained in a very good cabinet of Natural History, their own

the warfare of moral discipline: or, in other wanto property, in which are all sorts of stuffed birds, the oftener that conscience makes good the supremacy beasts, and a large collection of insects, minerals,

which she claims, the greater would be the work of and dried plants: this they keep up, by a subscrip-violence, and less the strength for its accomplishment, tion among themselves. Each has a small garden, to cast her down from that station of practical in which are grown plants and vegetables, to be dis- guidance and command, which of right belongs to posed of, the money being kept for their use. They her. It is just, because, in virtue of the law of sugalso take charge of a dairy of sixty cows.

gestion, those trains of thought and feeling, which With the view of improving the system of education connect her first biddings with their final execution, amongst the poor of Switzerland, M. de F. takes

are the less exposed at every new instance to be disannually 300 schoolmasters, men of the country, who turbed, and the more likely to be repeated over again, instruct the poor children in the different cantons.

that every good principle is more strengthened by its These men are received free of every expense; he exercise, and every good affection is more strengthened boards and lodges them in a house which he has built by its indulgence than before. The acts of virtue for their use, and on which is written in large cha- ripen into habits; and the goodly and permanent racters, Die Hoffnung des Vaterlandes, or The Fiope of result is, the formation or establishment of a virtuous the Country. They stay at Hofwyl for three months in character.- -CHALMERS. the year, July, August, and September, as that is the time their own pupils are at work on the fields.

I KNOW but one way of fortifying my soul against gloomy These 300 men are principally instructed in geo- presages and terrors of mind, and that is, by securing to graphy, and the history of their own country, with a myself the friendship and protection of that Being who sketch of that of others, Mathematics, and Agricul- disposes of events, and governs futurity. He sees, at one ture. M. de Fellenberg is very fond of this part of view, the whole thread of my existence, not only that part

of it which I have already passed through, but that which his plan, and says, if he can but make it answer, he

runs forward into all the depths of eternity. When I lay is sure that it will save many a poor lad from want

me down to sleep, I recommend myself to His care: and ruin. At the end of the three months, the

when I awake, I give myself up to his direction. Amidst probationary masters are publicly examined.

all the evils that threaten me, I will look up to Him for The Fourth and last division, l'Ecole des Filles, is help, and question not but He will avert them, or turn conducted by one of M. de Fellenberg's daughters, then to my advantage. Though I know neither the time

nor the manner of the death I am to die, I am not at all who willingly undertakes the trouble free of expense.

solicitous about it; because I am sure that He knows them These girls are of various ages. They do ail sorts of

both, and that He will not fail to comfort and support me necdle-work, and knit stockings for themselves and

under them.-ADDISON. the several members of the establishment; they likewise have a garden, belonging to Madame de Fellen-By him who can look with firmness on difficulties, the berg, to look after, and a small one of their own : in conquest is already half achieved; but the man on whose summer they help in the hay and corn harvest. heart and spirits they lie heavy, will scarcely be able to

bear up against their pressure. The forecast of timid, or They are all Protestants, and have church service

the disgust of tou delicate minds, are very unfortunate held in their own apartments; they obtain an excel

attendants for men of business, who to be successful, must lent education, and if they conduct themselves pro-often push improbabilities and bear with mortifications, perly for a few years, their kind patron provides for -0. N.


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main instrument by which water is thus carried to PHENOMENA.

all parts of the earth is the atmosphere. The vapour No. XIV. WATER IN A FLUID STATE. of water which is mixed with the air is usually When a person returns from sea, after a long invisible *, and becomes sensible only when it begins voyage, in which he has been on short allowance of to be condensed, in the form of clouds, fog, or rain. water, some time elapses before he is quite reconciled It is carried with the atmosphere in this highlyto the great waste of fresh water in ordinary life. rarefied state until it is condensed, either by coming He sees the purest water, perhaps, employed for in contact with high land, by the mixture of two washing down a flight of steps, or cleaning a carriage; currents of air of different temperatures, by the or some spout pouring idly away what, to a ship's action of electricity, or by some other causes which crew in distress, would have been an inestimable are not understood. We shall return to this part of treasure. Thus it is that circumstances make us the subject when we have occasion to speak of water acquainted with the incalculable importance of many in the state of vapour. For the present, we will enthings which we are continually enjoying without deavour to trace the progress of the water which has reflection. Water is one of these: and, especially, been pumped up by evaporation from the ocean or from water as a fluid, the state in which it is most familiar the land, and then precipitated in a copious shower, to us.

which we will suppose to fall on the high land. Water is the universal drink of animals. It is A great part of this welcome supply, having, in admirably adapted for this purpose by being in its fall, washed the leaves of trees, and thus cleansed itself nearly tasteless, yet capable of being flavoured them from impurities which impeded their growth, by various means. The water of our rivers, springs, sinks directly into the earth, and baving there and wells, might, for any thing we know, have been dissolved such substances as are fitted for the all disagreeably salt, or sweet, or bitter; and yet we nourishment of vegetables, is soon imbibed by the might have been compelled to drink it, in order to roots of trees and plants, and conveys to every part support life.

Instead of any inconvenience of this its appropriate supply of food. Another portion of kind, nothing can be more grateful than a draught the shower runs down into reservoirs or lakes, where of pure and cool water. When we call spring-water it is stored for the use of man and animals living pure, however, we must be understood to speak in a near the spot upon which it falls. In parts of India, somewhat qualified sense. The purest water is that and elsewhere, the rain water is collected in large which has been carefully distilled; and such water is tanks, and is so pure and delicious, that those who not, by any means, so agreeable to the palate as that have been accustomed to it are long before they can of springs or rivers, which contains a small quantity be reconciled to the water of rivers and springs. of other

substances, especially atmospheric air, and If the soil, however, upon which the shower falls, carbonic acid gas.

is of a porous nature, a great part of the rain sinks Water is also the means of conveying nutriment directly down, and would appear to be lost to the to vegetables. All plants absorb their food by very use of animals and vegetables. But here a different small sponge-like tufts, called spongioles, situated at property of fluids is called into action. All fluids the ends of the fibres of their roots; and this food run down to the lowest attainable level; and thus cannot be taken in, except it be first reduced to a the water which falls upon highland is carried liquid state.

downwards. But all fluids which are confined rise to Thus the existence of the whole animal and vege the same level in all parts which are connected. Thus table creation depends upon a constant supply of if there be a reservoir of water, R, and pipes P p be fresh water: and the fluid itself is endued with pro laid from it to any distance, the water in all those perties which effectually secure such a supply. The

• See Saturday Magasine, Vol. III., p. 236.


pipes will rise to the very same level as that of the town, constructed immense aqueducts, in order to water in the reservoir.

convey the water on the same level, which they conThis property of water is now so familiar, that it ceived to be necessary. This property of water is of may appear almost superfluous to mention it. But immense importance in supplying springs and wells. the ancients were ignorant of it, and, when they Every one must have observed, that the soil, imwished to convey water from a distance to supply a mediately below the vegetable mould, is very different

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