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centre of the island, distant from ports and harbours, and and the monuments of commercial intercourse in modern. not easy of access, was first sought out by Sir Robert times. Farquhar; he first displayed the rays of light (la lumière) It is not till nations have become considerably advanced to us, and which have beamed so gloriously to our advan- | in civilization, and have acquired many of the habits tage. Commodore! I give the health and prosperity of which mark an improved state of society, that they begin my friend and benefactor, Sir Robert Farquhar.'
to take any important part in commercial intercourse, or to On the previous day, we had a state meeting on shore cherish any correct views of the benefits to be derived. with Radama, when he expressed himself to the same from it. The ideas of commerce and even of property, effect as he did on board the Andromaché, adding, that, by generally entertained by savage nations, are very indistinct the attempts he had made to imitate civilized nations, and and inaccurate. It is evident that these ideas, being by the instruction and aid afforded him by England, he merely relative, are the result of intercourse between man was now master of many provinces; in fact, but few places and man, and would never arise without that intercourse. in the island were without military parties, stationed for Many savage nations appear to be almost wholly destitute the purpose of exacting obedience to his laws, and that he of ideas belonging to this class. Their wishes do not appear sliould adhere most strictly to every engagement he had to extend beyond the supply of present wants. When Euro made with England. This Radama, the Great he may be peans first began to visit the continent of America, they styled, or, from his acts, worthy of the name he took upon found many tribes, on whose minds motives referring to himself, RADAMA Lani MANZAKA, or Radama King of property would exert no influence. Tell an individual Men, died in July, 1828, and the island, it is to be feared, belonging to one of these tribes that if he would work for has again returned into anarchy and confusion.
you, you would pay him largely, and he would reply, “I am not hungry." Offer him one article of convenience,
and he would reply, “I do not want it." Offer him HISTORY OF NAVIGATION, COMMERCE, AND another, and he would say, “I have enough now." One
of the early adventurers to America, sorely vexed at their DISCOVERY.
stupidity, said, “One knows not what inducements to PART I.-INTRODUCTION. COMMERCE OF ANCIENT Cities. set before them." EFFECTS OF CivilizATION ON COMMERCE. MONEY.
In such a state of society as this, commerce can bardly ACTIVE AND Passive COMMERCE.
be said to exist;, and even among the most intelligent
of savage nations, it is restricted to the barter of the few To a savage unacquainted with the art of navigation, the trifling articles which their simple mode of life requires. ocean must appear an insurmountable barrier to the inter
But as the knowledge of the savage extends, he awakes course of those nations, between whose shores it rolls. As from that drowsy sluggishness, by which, when not engaged he stands and surveys the mighty mass of waters, now in war or the chase, he was before characterised, and sleeping calmly in the morning sun, and now lashed into begins to observe the means of improving his condition fury by the madness of the tempest, if the wish ever enters that are placed within his reach. By degrees his ideas of his mind to know who lives on the other side of the great property acquire distinctness and definiteness. He now waters, he regards that wish as one, the attainment of has new motives for effort. He no longer aims merely to which would require powers more than human. Little, supply his daily wants, but to add to the amount of his indeed, does he imagine, as he crosses the river, or glides permanent possessions. Whatever his own ingenuity or along the margin of the lake in his light canoe, that industry can produce more than is needed for the supply yonder wild waves are a part of that field where human of his own wants is exchanged for such commodities as he genius has exhibited its noblest energies, and human skill cannot, by his own unassisted labour, produce. Such, we achieved its proudest triumphs. Little, too, does he may reasonably conclude, is the commencement of comimagine that that very ocean, which he regards as an mercial intercourse. At length, as this intercourse becomes awful barrier beyond which human power and prowess are more extensive, the want of some universal circulating destined never to advance, has by the skill and ingenuity medium is felt. Such a medium ingenuity soon supplies. of man, been made the means of facilitating that very This, among some nations, is shells or other perishable intercourse which it seems designed to interrupt, and that substances, but generally the precious metals are used for it is now the scene of commercial operations, more im- this purpose. From scripture and other ancient records portant than any which the world ever before saw. Yet all we learn that money was first dealt out by weight. So this is true. The commercial operations and international | Abraham weighed out to Ephron “four hundred shekels intercourse of ancient times, and of those nations which of silver, current money with the merchant." It is supposed were strangers to the art of navigation, sink almost into that money was not coined among the Jews till the time of insignificance, compared with the results and operations of Judas Maccabeus, and we have no account of coin among modern commerce. There it is true, in the mode of the Greeks till about 330 B.C., nor among the Romans till carrying on commerce by means of caravans, so celebrated the year 266 B.C. in ancient times, much that is splendid and imposing. In the infancy of commerce, the views entertained in The long procession of camels loaded with the riches of regard to the value of money are often far from correct. the East, the magnificent display of varied luxury, the Johnson relates that, in his journey to the Western encampment by night with its accompaniments of song Isles of Scotland, he found that the inhabitants regarded and eastern tale,-all these, viewed through the vista of money as having an absolute and uniform value. Such is departed ages, and adorned with all the splendour, which generally the light in which it is regarded by those whose oriental fancy is wont to throw around the objects and the commercial operations are principally confined to barter. scenes on which it dwells, make upon the mind an im- Yet a little reflection will make it obvious that the value pression far transcending the reality of the scenes to which of money depends on the quantity of the necessaries they refer.
or conveniences of life which it will purchase, and is, As imagination travels back through the long series of therefore, like that of all other things, relative and variable. departed years, and pensively lingers around the ruins The wanderer in the desert, who, when almost famished, of proud Balbec or beautiful Palmyra, and we reflect found a bag which he supposed to contain dates, was that these magnificent capitals owed their splendour and sadly disappointed, when an inspection of its contents their wealth to the kind of commerce of which we have compelled him to exclaim, “ Alas, they are only pearls !" been speaking, we are ready to ask if the commerce of To him the pearls were of no value, as he had no use for modern times, with all its boasted extent and improvement, them himself, and could not exchange them for food, for can exhibit more of nobleness in plan, or vastness and the want of which he was perishing. If gold and silver magnificence in execution. But in fact, the commerce could not be exchanged for articles far more necessary than carried on by means of caravans was poor and scanty themselves to the support and comfort of life, those metals, compared with that, of which the ocean is the scene, and now so precious, would possess but very little value at all. navigation the handmaid. One single ship, pursuing its The small bulk, and almost imperishable nature of the noiseless and unostentatious way across the deep, may precious metals, have caused them to be almost universally bear a freight, the value of which a whole caravan with adopted as the medium of exchange; and from the ability, all its display would scarcely equal; and the cities long which in consequence of this adoption they possess, of famed as the marts of this ancient commerce, splendid commanding any other commodity, results the greater as they were in their day, would bear no comparison in part of their value. From the fact that value is merely a extent of foreign intercourse or magnitude of operations at relative term, we may see how commerce is a source of home, with the proud capitals which are, at once, the seats wealth. It takes the various productions of nature and
art from places where their abundance has diminished ASBESTOS AND INCOMBUSTIBLE CLOTH. their value, and carries them to places where their scarcity Asbestos, one of the most singular productions of gives them an increased value.
By writers on political economy commerce is divided the mineral kingdom, was considered by the ancients into active and passive. The difference of these_two rather of vegetable than of mineral origin. Its fibrous kinds of commerce is illustrated by the trade from Eng- texture and, in some cases, silken
appearance, and at land to China. Our merchants send to China money, the same time its capability of being easily separated or such commodities as the Chinese will purchase, and take into very fine threads, led them to regard it as a in return such articles as are wanted in this country: This species of fossil flax, dried by the heat of a burning is termed active commerce. The commerce of China, so far as regards this country, is passive. The Chinese It is, however, in every respect, a perfect minedo not come here with their commodities, but keep them at ral ; upwards of one-half its substance is composed home till our ships come and take them. Active commerce of silex (pure Aint), and one-fourth of magnesia. is far more profitable than passive, inasmuch as it creates There are several species of this mineral, which a greater demand for labour, and also gives to those en are distinguished by different names, according to gaged in it a greater choice of markets. Hence nearly all the appearance of each, as, 'for instance, fibrous enlightened nations are engaged more or less extensively asbestos, reticulated asbestos, hard asbestos, and in active commerce.
The extensive interchange of the commodities of dif- woody asbestos; it is the fibrous variety which is ferent nations, and the consequent almost universal dif- most noted for its uses in the arts. The most sinfusion of whatever valuable productions any portion of gular of these purposes is the formation of a kind of the earth supplies, are among the most important advan. Cloth, which can be heated to a red heat without tages resulting from the extension and improvement of being destroyed. This manufacture seems to have navigation. But they are not the only ones. This art has done much to extend knowledge and to awaken a
been highly esteemed by the ancients. Pliny, the spirit of enterprise. Navigation has been the handmaid Roman naturalist, says he has seen napkins of of discovery no less than of commerce. To this art we Asbestos, taken soiled from the table after a feast, owe it that scarce any portion of the globe remains un which were thrown into the fire, and by that means explored. Scarce a spot can be found amid the Atlantic better scoured than if they had been washed with or the Pacific seas, which the eye of the navigator has water. not seen; scarce a shore on either continent that he has for the making of shrouds for royal funerals, to
But it appears to have been principally used not surveyed.
wrap up the corpse, so that when it was burnt, the We live in the midst of blessings, till we are utter.y insen- wood. It it is said at present to be used by some of
ashes might be preserved separate from those of the sible of their greatness, and of the source from which they the Tartar chiefs for the same purpose. The supeflow. Wo speak of our civilization, our arts, our freedom, our laws, and forget entirely how large a share of all is riority of all other cloths to this in every other redue to Christianity. Blot Christianity out of the page of spect, except the resistance of the action of fire, man's history, and what would his laws have been, what together with the scarcity of the material, has caused, his civilization ? Christianity is mixed up with our very incombustible cloth to be regarded, in modern times, being and our daily life, there is not a familiar object round merely in the light of a curiosity, but it is still apwhich does not wear a different aspect, because the light of plied to some purposes in chemical preparations. One Christian hope is on it, not a law which does not owe its of the most familiar applications of it is in the comtruth and gentleness to Christianity, not a custom which mon instantaneous-light boxes, where it is employed cannot be traced in all its holy and healthful parts to the as a sort of sponge, for the purpose of absorbing the Gospel. Rose.
vitriolic acid, and preventing the consequences that
might arise from so dangerous an agent as the acid COLONEL GARDINER was habitually so immersed in
being spilt. intrigues, that if not the whole business, at least, the whole happiness of his life consisted in them; and he had
The method of preparing the cloth was thus too much leisure for one who was so prone to abuse it. described by Ciampini, an Italian, who wrote on the His fine constitution, than which, perhaps, there was subject in the year 1691. “ The stone is laid to soak hardly ever a better, gave him great opportunities of in- in warm water, then opened and divided by the dulging himself in these excesses; and his good spirits hands, that the earthy matter may be washed out. enabled him to pursue his pleasures of every kind, in so alert and sprightly a manner, that multitudes envied him, like filaments are collected and dried; these are most
This washing is several times repeated, and the flaxand called him, by a dreadful kind of compliment, “The happy rake.". Yet still the checks of conscience, and some
conveniently spun with the addition of flax. Two remaining principles of so good an education, would break or three filaments of the Asbestos are easily twisted in upon his most licentious hours; and I particularly with the flaxen thread, if the operator's fingers are reinember he told me, that when some of his dissolute kept oiled. The cloth also, when woven, is best precompanions were once congratulating him on his distin- served by oil from breaking or wasting ; on exposure guished felicity, a dog happening at that time to come into the room, he could not forbear groaning inwardly, and
to the fire the flax and the oil burn out, and the saying to himself, Oh that I were that dog! Such was
The shorter fila,
cloth remains of a pure white. then his happiness, and such, perhaps, is that of hundreds ments, which separate on washing the stone, may be more, who bear themselves highest in the contempt of formed into paper in the usual manner. religion, and glory in that infamous servitude which they A specimen of this incombustible cloth is preserved affect to call liberty.--DOODRIDGE.
among the minerals in the national collection at the
British Museum, but it is a very clumsy specimen of To give your children those pure principles of religion ana
the manufacture. morality, which will gain them the esteem of men, and the approbation of God, and will guide them to happiness
This mineral is found in the greatest quantity in here and hereafter, the first duty of a parent. You must the silver-mines of Johann Georgenstadt, in Saxony; convince your children that a compliance with the laws at Bleyberg, in Carinthia; in Sweden, Corsica, and of God is the surest way to happiness
, and that to neglect sometimes, though not so frequently, in France and the gracious promises offered us in the Gospel, is the England. blindest folly and ingratitude. Teach them to look up with gratitude and love, to the Divine author of all their WHEN Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, was besieging felicity. Mingle the encouragements of Christianity with Stetin, (1630,) he replied to a soldier who complained of its precepts; make them love those virtues which you wish the hard weather, while working at the fortifications, “My them to practise; let the religion you teach not be founded friend, the earth is always frozen to those who wans on fear, but on gratitude and love.
RECULVER CHURCH, FROM THE SEA. RECULVER, situated on the north-east coast of Kent, account of its importance as a seamark, interfered to about eight miles from Canterbury, was a place of stop the work of destruction, and erected upon the considerable note in the time of the Romans. From towers at the west end, a frame-work of wood, in the coins found on the spot, in great numbers, it is the form of the ancient spires. By driving piles, proved that the Romans not only had an early and laying a stone pavement for a considerable settlement here, but that they long continued it. distance in front of the church, the further fall of The walls of a fort built by them are still remaining. the cliff has been prevented. It is much to be The ancient town probably stood without those walls, regretted that these measures were not adopted declining towards the sea, on that part of the cliff earlier, as the whole of the sacred building might now washed away; and from the present shore, as then have been preserved. far as a place called the Black Rock, seen at low There is something very striking in the ruin of water, there have been found great quantities of Reculver church as it now stands. The situation, tiles, bricks, and other marks of a ruined town. close to the very brink of the cliff, the dreary chaThe soil of the cliff being a loose sand, the sea has racter of the surrounding scenery, the deserted yearly gained upon it; large pieces from time to time appearance of the place itself, which, from being a falling on the shore below, discover a number of royal residence and the seat of a populous town, is cisterns and cellars, with a great many coins, and now reduced to an insignificant village, the churchother remains of antiquity.
yard partly washed away, and the bones of the dead Ethelbert, King of Kent, having embraced the distinctly visible in the side of the cliff,—all these Christian faith, gave up his palace at Canterbury to circumstances combine to make an impression on the St. Augustine, and retired with his court to Reculver, mind. This interest is heightened by the tradition, where he built himself a palace on the site of the that St. Ethelbert, first Christian King of Kent, is ancient Roman fort. It continued a royal residence, buried there. In James the First's reign, there was till King Egbert, as an atonement for the murder of remaining a monument of antique form, at the his two nephews, gave it, in the year 669, to a priest í upper end of the south aisle, under which, as it named Bassa, to build a monastery there, the church was said, the monarch lay. At the time the church of which subsequently became the parish church. was destroyed, no remains of this monument were This church, at the time of its erection, stood a left, but an inscription on the wall pointed out the considerable distance inland ; but the inroads of the place where it once stood. sea on this part of the coast gradually washed away the hill on which it stood, till only a very few feet He that refuseth to buy good counsel cheap, will generally remained between the edge of the cliff and the buy repentance dear. building. At length, about twenty years ago, it was considered no longer safe to assemble there for the A fault once excused is twice committed, and the last
commission is worse than the first. purposes of Divine worship; and the parishioners, having determined to erect a new church further
LONDON: inland, proceeded to dismantle the ancient structure. PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NOMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTALY PARTH
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signed to portray evil spirits embodied, and frighteneu THE CITY OF CHICHESTER is of great antiquity, beyond measure at the sound of the bells ;—Christian its origin being considered previous to the invasion bells having, in former days, had wondrous powers of Britain by the Romans. There is no doubt of attributed to them. their having made it one of their settlements: and The Spire, with the tower which supports it, rises by them it is supposed to have en called REGNUM. 271 feet from the floor; from the base of the spire After its destruction by Ælla, a kind of northern the height is 138 feet. A general likeness between pirate, the town was restored by his son Cissa, the the spires of Salisbury and Chichester has given rise second king of the South Saxons, (whence comes to a story of their being the work of the same archịSuthsex, or Sussex,) and on this prince making it his tect. The master workman,” says the quaint residence and the capital of his kingdom, it obtained Fuller, “ built Salisbury, and his man Chichester." the name of Cissan-ceaster, or Cissa's city, from which But though this spire resembles that of Salisbury in the word Chichester is derived. Cissa died in 577. its just proportions, and in the pinnacles and light
About six miles south of Chichester is the penin- | canopied windows at its base, it cannot, on examinasula of Selsey, a flat tract of land, running far into tion, be assigned to the same hand. Great danger to the sea.
This place, which gives the title of baron the whole building was apprehended from the effects to a British peer, is remarkable for having been ori- of a thunder-storm in 1721, by which several large ginally a bishop's see, before Chichester became a stones were forced out of the spire ; but these were bishopric. The episcopal seat was fixed at Selsey soon afterwards restored, and the place of the rent in 711, and continued there till the reign of William cannot now be discovered. the First, who gave orders that all cathedral churches Nearly on a line with the west end, at a few yards should be removed from villages to cities. Accord- distance towards the north, stands a campanile, or ingly, Stigand, a Norman, bishop of Selsey, was Bell-tower, 120 feet high, and chiefly remarkable for appointed the first bishop of Chichester. In 1091, the solidity and massive masonry of its walls. It is Radulphus, or Ralph, became bishop. He proceeded called “ Ryman's Tower," from a tradition that with the building of the Cathedral, and in addition Bishop Langton bought of one William Ryman a to laying the foundations, roofed in the fabric with quantity of hewn stone, which the latter had coltimber, having dedicated it to St. Peter, according to lected to build a grand mansion near Chichester, but that at Selsey: but after standing six years, it shared for which he could not get the royal license. The the too-frequent fate of churches built at such an same Langton, who was high-chancellor of England early period, and in 1114, was burned to the ground. during the greater part of Edward the Second's Ralph, however, notwithstanding this disappointment, reign, greatly assisted, at his own expense, in carryset to work again, and lived to see a second building ing on the improvements in the building. erected. This too was most probably of wood; for But it is time that we proceed to the interior of it was burned in 1186, together with the houses of the Cathedral. On entering by the west, a full view the clergy, and almost all the city.
of the nave is obtained. It is formed by eight The present Cathedral may be dated from the time arcades, upon piers flanked by half-columns, under of Bishop Seffrid the Second, who at once began to an upper and lower open gallery. The small coengraft a new work on the walls which the fire had lumns are of Petworth marble, with tops resembling left; adapting to this ancient English edifice the the palm-tree. The vaulted roof is of stone and general style and peculiar ornaments of the age. chalk, and is of early but uncertain date. After fourteen years' labour, and the expenditure of The North Transept is appropriated as the parish vast sums of money, the amassing of which can Church of St. Peter the Great. In the South Transept, only be attributed to the religious zeal of the times, are two curious paintings by Bernardi, an Italian, the Cathedral was sufficiently finished to be conse- employed by Bishop Shurborne, who presided over crated; and in 1199, this rite was performed with great the diocese in the reign of Henry the Eighth. The splendour by Seffrid, assisted by six other prelates. I first exhibits the interview between Ceadwalla, king It then consisted of the nave with its single aisles; of Sussex, and Bishop Wilfrid, the prelate to whom the centre arcade, with its low tower and transept; that monarch confirmed the grant of Selsey. The and of the choir. To these, great additions were bishop, attended by his clergy, and with a scroll in made in the course of the three following centuries. his hand, is seen approaching the king, who stands
At the West Front was originally a porch, between at the door of his palace, with his courtiers round two square towers. These towers seem to bear marks him ; on the scroll is a petition in Latin, to the folof having been part of the ancient church. In that lowing effect : Give to the servants of God a house of facing the south are some fine specimens of early prayer, for God's sake! To this the monarch answers, Norman mouldings. The opposite tower was so much by pointing to an open book, which is held by an battered by the rebellious fanatics in 1642, that it attendant, and is thus inscribed : Be it according to fell a few years afterwards, and remained a ruin till your petition. In the back-ground is Selsey with its 1791, when it received the very irregular form under parish-church, and the sea bounded by the blue hills which it now appears.
of the Isle of Wight. The subject of the other The Nave is supported by plain flying buttresses. picture, which in its grouping and style is very simiThe water-spouts at the parapets of the north aisles, iar, is the interview between Henry the Eighth and are of a most strange and grotesque appearance. It Bishop Shurborne. The latter says, Most religious is curious to trace the origin of these hideous pro- king ; for God's sake adorn your church of Chichester, ductions of the ancient English architects,
now a Cathedral, as Ceadwalla, King of Susser, formerly Gorgons, and hydras, and chimeras dire !
adorned Selsey Cathedral. Henry's answer, also written The Romans used lions' heads of stone, or of baked on an open book, is, For the love of Christ, I grant earth, to convey water from the roofs of their houses. what you ask. These remnants of ancient art are This idea was seized upon by the builders of our valuable, among other reasons, as furnishing instances early churches : but the faces and shapes suggested of the clerical and lay costume of the age. Underby their fertile fancies are often monstrous and hor- neath Bernardi's pictures, are likenesses of all the rible; and, according to good antiquaries, the grim- kings of England, from William the Norman to cooking objects attached to church-towers, were de George the First: and on the opposite side, are portraits