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me that the scales were the same, and Mr. Shore* The birds, those artless choristers of the grove, afterwards informed me, that when the voice of a suggested nature as at once the most exquisite and native singer was in tune with his harpsichord, he transporting prototype of art, and man was led to found the Hindoo series of seven notes transcend imitate, -of course, at first, rudely and imperfectly,– like ours, by a sharp third.”
what Divine Wisdom had pronounced to be very From these extracts it will appear, that the Hindoos, good. The Deity had sta ped every thing with the at an early period, cultivated music as a science, and signet of consummate harmony. The very roar of that they were moreover deeply cognizant in the the tiger became the solemn stillness of the forest, theory of sounds. This music, if we examine its as much as the plaintive notes of the nightingale the modes, appears to have the same origin as that of silence of the glen, or those of the thrush and blackthe Greeks, and also that of the Arabs, under the bird that of the secluded copse. Caliphs, although but few fragments of the two latter We find that even among the most savage tribes, remain. There is, however, one peculiarity in the there generally prevails a keen relish for, and a ready music of the Hindoos: every melody is in correct aptitude in, producing an artificial combination of measure, and may be barred like an ordinary Euro- sounds, constituting a melody in which they delight; pean air. The Arabs, on the contrary, had no fixed so that music is a universal, and, to a certain extent, measure, the length and brevity of their notes being, may be denominated, an intuitive art. like the modern recitative, subordinate to the per We are to remember, in considering the musical former's taste. The lyric music of the Greeks was qualifications of different countries, that our percepmeasured by the prosody of the poetry to which it tions of the harmonious, as well as of the beautiful, was adapted. The only thing possessed by modern depend upon circumstances. Our minds are moulded Europeans, which bears any resemblance to the and our tastes nurtured by these circumstances. The music of the ancients, is the Gregorian canto fermo, man who had never beheld the sun but from a mighty modelled upon what was supposed to exist among eminence, or from valleys surrounded by gigantic the Romans, before the decline of art. In this chant shapes, where vast crags tremble above his head, precithe same variety of modes exists as in the music of pices yawn beneath his feet, and the perpetual dash of antiquity, and the same names have been applied to the mountain-torrent chimes in his ear the clamorous each. Modern writers usually mistake these modes music of his native hills, --such a man, surely, would for different keys, though they all belong to one key, entertain very different feelings of the sublime and being composed, to speak intelligibly to a modern beautiful, as well of what was addressed to the ear musician, of the different scales of the diatonic hep- as to the eye, from him who had passed his days tachord.
among grassy meads and sunny plains, where the These same modes exist in the Hindoo music, and sweet song of birds, and the beautiful livery of therefore, many of them will not carry a regular fruitful fields, had impressed his heart with gentler modal harmony, such as distinguishes all modern melodies, and his eye with more subdued objects of European music, which contains only two modes. delight. Our notions of external things are as Thus the Hindoos, like the Greeks and Arabs, sing various as the expression of our features. The only in unisons, though in the native concerts I have African is said to paint the devil white, and to his ear sometimes distinguished a third or a fifth struck upon that may be delightful harmony, which to ours is the final note. But this is mere instinct: the human “horrid discord.” The savage ear naturally conceives these harmonic intervals, and
Whose rough untutor'd mind, this is so true, that I have heard bands of Mozam
Sees God in clouds and hears him in the wind, bique Negroes, whose music is strictly that of nature, may, perhaps, discover as fine a melody in those sing in three parts, and their ear led them instinct-rude tones which shock our more refined perceptions, ively to the common chord, and the chord of the as we do in the ravishing strains of Mozart or dominant seventh. The Hindoos pretend to musi- Haydn. Our fastidious įtastes have been taught to cal science, and are therefore disposed to reject reject every thing musical, that has not been conthat which nature teaches them; the consequence is, secrated by the high creations of genius, or, at least, that where they light unconsciously upon and sound been submitted to the intricate rules of science; so a harmonic interval with its fundamental note, it that we may fail to discover in the rude strains of breaks the monotony of their unisons, which they the mere musician of nature in savage life, agreeable consider a blemish.
unions of sound, which are evident to less sensitive Subjoined is a Hindoo song of extreme antiquity, ears. to which a musical friend of mine has added a simple It will, then, be manifest, if there be any truth in piano-forte accompaniment, for the purpose of show the premises I have advanced, that music may really ing, that wild and singular as it must appear to the exist where we do not perceive it, only because our European musician, it will, nevertheless, bear regular habits have been familiarized, and our emotions wont harmonies, although such combinations of sound to be excited by different modes of acoustic comhave always been unknown to the Hindoos.
binations. Let us not, therefore, affect to despise the The practice of music is universal. There appears music of Hindoostan, because we happen to think it to be no nation upon the face of the earth to whom inferior to our own, remembering, too, that even it is not familiar. It may be considered to be almost Europeans living in India, verò seldom hear it in its coeval with the creation; for man, soon perceiving perfection. that his voice was susceptible of most expressive The pictorial illustration which heads this article, modulations, of producing an innumerable variety exhibits a band of itinerant musicians, such as are of tones, and of modifying its inflexions in endless commonly engaged by the natives, for the niggard changes, would naturally employ the power with remuneration of a few picet. The picture represents which his Creator had gifted him, in embodying rather an unusual thing, a mixture of Hindoo and that music which he felt himself to have the power | Mohammedan performers. This distinction may be of expressing. He perceived that there was, more or traced in their dress, as the former always fasten less, a vocal melody in every thing which God had their jumma, or tunic, on the left side, the latter on created, capable of emitting voluntary sound. the right. It will, therefore, appear, that the figures in The late Lord Teignmouth.
† A small copper coin, in value about the third of a penny,
front áre Hindoos, and the two behind Mohammedans. / accompanies the instrument with his voice. Of the This union of interests among the votaries of Mo- figures in the rear, one is playing on a sarinda, the hammed and of Brahma, can only take place where common violin of Hindoostan, while the other perthe prejudices of caste are despised, which is now not forms upon two drums, one of which he strikes with unfrequently the case amongst the lowest of the four the fingers of his left hand, and rubs the other with civil divisions of the Hindoo population.
those of his right, as Europeans occasionally play The group in the print are seated upon a coarse the tambourine. rug in an open verandah, exercising their musical These vagrant musicians are generally any thing skill for the amusement of the master of the house but adepts in their art. It must be confessed, that and his friends. The figure on the left is the prin- frequently, as CAPTAIN LUARD asserts in the brief cipal vocal performer; he beats time with the fingers descriptions which accompany his beautiful lithograof his right hand on the palm of the left, while he is phic prints*, "nothing can equal the discord both of accompanied by his three companions on their re their vocal and instrumental music. If,” he conspective instruments. The figure upon the right plays tinues, "the noise made by this group when it was upon a sort of trilateral guitar, an instrument cer- sketched, could be heard on viewing the drawing, tainly not common among Hindoo musicians, as it is the page would be closed for ever." I. H. C. not enumerated either by Ward, or by the author of Sketches in India, published by Dickenson, Old Bond-street, froin the work to which I have before alluded. He also one of which the Engraving which precedes this article is copied.
ra ca -
ON THE PERIODICAL CASTING OF THE a quantity of liquid materials proper for the conSHELL OF THE LOBSTER.
solidation of the new shell. These materials are The process by which the periodical casting and mixed with a large proportion of colouring matter, renewal of the shell of lobsters are effected, has of a bright scarlet hue, giving it the appearance of been very satisfactorily investigated by Réaumur. red blood, though it differs totally from blood in all The tendency in the body and in the limbs, to expand its other properties. As soon as the shell is cast off, during growth, is restrained by the limited dimensions this membrane, by the pressure from within, is sudof the shell, which resists the efforts to enlarge its denly expanded, and by the rapid growth of the soft diameter. But this force of expansion goes on parts, soon acquires a much larger size than the increasing, till at length it is productive of much former shell. Then the process of hardening the uneasiness to the animal, which is, in consequence, calcareous ingredient commences, and is rapidly prompted to make a violent effort to relieve itself ; completed; while an abundant supply of fresh matter by this means it generally succeeds in bursting the is added, to increase the strength of the solid walls shell; and then, by dint of repeated struggles, which are thus constructing for the support of the extricates its body and its limbs. The lobster first animal. Réaumur estimates that the lobster gains, withdraws its claws, and then its feet, as if it were during each change of its covering, an increase of pulling them out of a pair of boots: the head next one-fifth of its former dimensions. When the: throws off its case, together with its antennæ ; and animal has attained its full size, no operation of this: the two eyes are disengaged from their horny kind is required, and the same shell is permanently pedicles. In this operation, not only the complex retained. apparatus of the jaws, but even the horny cuticle A provision appears to be made, in the interior of and teeth of the stomach, are all cast off along with the animal, for the supply of the large quantity of the shell: and, last of all, the tail is extricated. But calcareous matter required for the construction of the whole process is not accomplished without long. the shell at the proper time. A magazine of carbocontinued efforts. Sometimes the legs are lacerated nate of lime is collected, previous to each change of or torn off, in the attempt to withdraw them from shell, in the form of two round masses, one on each the shell ; and in the younger crustacea, the side of the stomach. In the crab these balls have operation is not unfrequently fatal. Even when received the absurd name of crabs' eyes; and during successfully accomplished, it leaves the animal in a the formation of the shell they disappear.. most languid state : the limbs, being soft and pliant, It is well known that when an animal of this class are scarcely able to drag the body along. They are has been deprived of one of its claws, that part is, not, however, left altogether without defence
in a short time, replaced by a new claw, which grows For some time before the old shell was cast off, from the stump of the one which had been lost. It preparations had been making for forming a new appears from the investigations of Réaumur, that one. The membrane which lined the shell had been this new growth takes place more readily at particularacquiring greater density, and had already collected parts of the limb, and especially at the joints; and.
the animal seems to be aware of the greater facility
OF MODERATION. with which a renewal of the claw can be effected at I cannot but commend, says Bishop Hall, that thèse parts; for if it chances to receive an injury at great clerk of Paris, who, when King Louis of France the extremity of the limb, it often, by a spontaneous required him to write down the best word that ever effort, breaks off the whole limb at its junction with he had learnt, called for a fair skin of parchment, the trunk, which is the point where the growth more and in the midst of it wrote this one word MEASURE, speedily commences. The wound soon becomes and sent it sealed up to the king. The king, opening covered with a delicate white membrane, which pre- the sheet, and finding no other inscription, thought sents, at first, a convex surface: this gradually rises himself mocked by his philosopher, and calling for to a point, and is found, on examination, to conceal him, expostulated the matter ; but when it was the rudiment of a new claw. At first this new claw showed him that all virtues, and all religious and enlarges but slowly, as if collecting strength for the worthy actions were regulated by this one word, and more vigorous effort of expansion, which afterwards that without this, yirtue itself turned vicious, he takes place. As it grows, the membrane is pushed rested satisfied; and so he well might; for it is a forwards, becoming thinner, in proportion as it is word well worthy of the seven sages of Greece, from stretched, till, at length, it gives way, and the soft whom, indeed, it was borrowed, and only put into a claw is exposed to view. The claw now enlarges new coat. For while he said of old, (for his motto,) rapidly, and in a few days more acquires a shell as Nothing too much, he meant no other than to comhard as that which had preceded it. Usually, prehend both extremes under the mention of one : however, it does not attain the same size ; a circum- neither in his sense is it any paradox to say, that stance which accounts for our frequently meeting with too little is too much; for as too much bounty is lobsters and crabs, which have one claw much smaller prodigality, so too much sparing is niggardness. than the other. In the course of the subsequent Neither could aught be spoken of more use or excastings, this disparity gradually disappears. The cellency; for what goodness can there be in the same power of restoration is found to reside in the world without moderation, whether in the use of God's legs, the antennæ, and the jaws.
creatures, or in our own disposition and carriage, [Dr. Roger's Bridgewater Treatise.]
Without this, justice is no more than cruel rigour; mercy, unjust remissness; pleasure, brutish sensuality;
love, frenzy; anger, fury; sorrow, desperate mopishThe angels of heaven, who are spirits, see God present to ness; joy, distempered wildness; knowledge, saucy them; but we on earth can only see him through a glass curiosity; piety, superstition; care, wracking distracdarkly, when we contemplate his glory in the sun, his tion; courage, mad rashness; shortly there can be terrors in the thunder,—his wrath in ihe lightning, his nothing under Heaven without it, but mere vice quickening power in the air that gives us breath, bis and confusion : like as in nature, if the elements majesty in the noise of the sea, and the gathering of the should forget the temper of their due mixture, and clouds. JONES of Nayland.
encroach upon each other by excess, what would follow but universal ruin?
It is, therefore, moderation by which this infeThe remains of the pious Bishop Ken are deposited in rior world stands ; since the wise and great God, Frome churchyard. It has been erroneously stated, that who hath ordained the continuance of it, hath there is not a stone to mark where he lies; whereas, there decreed so to contemper all the parts thereof, is a monument near the spot, probably erected at the time of his death, by the noble family at Long Leat, where the that none of them should exceed of their own proBishop died; but the sculpture is decayed, and the epitaph portion and degree, to the prejudice of the other. has disappeared. Some years ago, one of the churchwardens | Yea, what is the heaven itself, but (as Gerson comwas induced, by respect and veneration for his memory, to pares it well) as a great clock regularly moving in an plant a few flowers round the grave, and some of these still equal sway of all the orbs, without difference of remain. The following verses were composed by the Rev. poise, without variation of minutes, in a constant W. L. Bowles, Canon Residentiary of Salisbury Cathedral, and writer of a Life of Ken.
state of eviternal evenness, both of being and motion.
Neither is it any other, by which this little world of
ours (whether of body or mind) is upheld in any Peaceful shine, oh! Sabbath morn;
safe and tolerable estate; when humours pass their And eve, with gentlest hush, repose.
stint, the body sickens; when the passions, the mind. To him is raised no marble tomb,
There is nothing, therefore, in the world more Within the dim cathedral-fane;
wholesome, or more necessary for us to learn, than But some faint flowers of summer bloom,
this gracious lesson of moderation; without which, in And silent falls the winter's rain.
very truth, a man is so far from being a Christian,
that he is not himself. This is the centre wherein This only monumental stone Records his resting-place and name
all, both divine and moral, philosophy meet; the rule What recks it! when thy task is done;
of life, the governess of manners, the silken string Christian ! bow vain the sound of fame.
that runs through the pearl-chain of all virtues, the Oh ! far more grateful to thy God,
very ecliptic line, under which reason and religion The voices of poor children rise,
moves without deviation; and, therefore, most worthy Who hasten o'er the dewy sod,
of our best thoughts, of our most careful observance.
NOTHING but the sanctifying influences of religion can
subdue, and keep in tolerable order, that pride which is As if to say, _“ Vain world, farewell !"
the concomitant of great talents with a bad education.-Without a thought, that, from the dust,
Riches, honours, and pleasures, are the sweets which
destroy the mind's appetite for its heaveniy food ; poverty disgrace,
and pain, are the bitters which restore it. * Alluding to ‘Morning and Evening Hymns,” by Bishop Ken, Bishop HORNE.
breadth of the peninsula along the line of the canal THE THAMES AND MEDWAY CANAL.
is only seven miles, whilst it is nearly forty miles UNTIL Mr. Brunel commenced his great and inter- between the respective places in sailing round by the esting undertaking below the bed of the Thames, Nore; and all delay from easterly winds is thus also but little attention seems to have been excited to the avoided. important works of the kind previously completed in The canal, (which is twenty-eight feet wide at the this country above-ground, or indeed, to the subject of bottom, fifty feet at the top, and has seven feet tunnelling generally. The idea, however, of con water,) commences on the southern bank of the structing tunnels for the purpose of facilitating inland Thames, in the parish of Milton; and for more than navigation, is by no means new; and appears to four miles crosses a dead level, chiefly marsh-land. have been first carried into effect in France, by M. It then meets with a hill or rib of chalk, which Regnet, an eminent engineer in the reign of Louis intervenes between this place and the Medway. the Fourteenth, who thus conveyed the canal of Through this elevation the tunnel is perforated. Our Languedoc through a mountain which obstructed its engraving furnishes a vivid idea of the effect of this progress. It was not until about the middle of the subterranean canal. Its entire length exceeds two last century, that Brindley, who is, perhaps, the miles and a quarter, but so true is the line, that the greatest engineer which this country has produced, light, at either extremity, is clearly visible when excavated the first tunnel in England, on the Duke viewed near the opposite end. The width of the of Bridgewater's canal, in the neighbourhood of excavation is about thirty feet, of which twenty-four
feet is appropriated for the canal, whilst the remainindividual drove a tunnel through Harecastle Hill, in der of the space is reserved for a towing-path, which Staffordshire, for the purpose of uniting the naviga- is protected by a stout rail of oak, bolted to supports tion of the Trent with the Mersey; a work of great of cast iron, which are let into stone bearers, emmagnitude, in consequence of the nature of the bedded in the solid chalk. ground. This excavation is 2880 yards in length, It has not been found necessary to construct an and between 70 and 80 yards under ground. archway of brickwork, except at intervals, during
The Sapperton tunnel, by which the Thames and the line; so great is the solidity of the material Severn were united, is another splendid instance of through which it is carried. The crown of the public enterprise, and individual ability; it extends arched roof rises more than fifteen feet above the for a distance of two miles and three quarters, two level of the towing-path : the sections of the tunnel miles of which were cut through the solid rock. are of different curvatures, part being parabolic, and The Great Drift, or tunnel in the neighbourhood of part circular, the crown of the arches all coinciding. ,
, taking ever executed in this department of engineering that we must in a great measure attribute the abThis great work, (which was completed in 1797,) is sence of the almost total darkness, which might be excavated through a whinstone rock of extreme expected to exist in some parts of the tunnel. So hardness, (equalling the hardest fint in the density far is this from being the case, that about the middle of its texture,) for the greater part of its extent. of the excavation, there is sufficient light at noon, to The Liverpool tunnel, at the commencent of the rail. decipher print of a large size. Had the tunnel been way, is one of the most considerable works recently arched with brick throughout, however, the absorption executed. Its length is 2250 yards; it is twenty of the light would have been so considerable, as to two feet wide, and sixteen feet high. A double line have rendered it necessary to introduce some artificial of railway runs throughout, and a row of gas-lights light; which is evidenced by respectively observing distance of twenty-five yards from each other. The | "The sensations produced on the mind of a straneffect,” remarks Mr. Stephenson, the engineer to this ger, in exploring this vast and dusky passage, are splendid national work,“ is strikingly beautiful, for powerful and impressive, and increase with each the rays of light from each lamp throw a distinct succeeding step, as the cheerful light of day is left luminous arch on the roof, and the series diminishing behind : “ the reflection of the chalk on the clear according to the laws of perspective, gives the appear- surface of the water,” says an ingenious writer, ance of a number of distinct arches, instead of one “ (more distinctly visible as you approach either end,) continued vault.” Another tunnel of some extent apparently doubling the magnitude; and the entire has still more recently been executed near Buxton, absence of every sound but that of the slow and on that extensive public undertaking, the Cromford measured footsteps of the quadrupeds employed in and High Peak railway.
towing the craft, stealing on the car at a distance, These notices of some of the most remarkable and becoming gradually louder and louder as it tunnels now existing in this country, may not be reverberates through the tunnel, combine to produce uninteresting, as introductory to a notice of the an emotion of sublimity, which enhances not a little subject of our engraving, the tunnel on the Thames the interest with which the work will be contemand Medway Canal, between Gravesend and Ro- plated by the intelligent passenger." chester, itself a work of no ordinary magnitude. In consequence of the canal not being sufficiently
By referring to a map, it will be seen, that that part wide within the tunnel to permit two barges to pass of Kent which lies immediately to the eastward of different ways, they are only allowed to enter either Gravesend, projects into the German Ocean between extremity at stated times; an encounter cannot, the courses of the Thames and Medway, which pre- therefore, possibly take place. The periods are so viously to their junction at the Nore run for about arranged, as to allow sufficient time for the passage twelve miles, nearly parallel. Across the neck of of one line of barges one way, and that of another the peninsula thus formed between Gravesend and line in the opposite direction, and all barges arriving Rochester, a canal has been constructed, for the pur- in the interval, are compelled to wait until the regulated pose of avoiding the circuitous navigation, which period expires, so that it is necessary for the barges vessels and hoys trading in the Medway had formerly to be ready at the extremities at the precise time, or to make in their passage to London. · The saving in they are not permitted to pass until the next turn. distance thus effected, is fully thirty miles, as the About three years since, a small steamer plied on