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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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SQUARE OF THE LITTLE PILLAR, IN

the streets; and sometimes a monk in a state of LISBON.

intoxication, with a rabble of boys at his heels : The ground on which Lisbon stands, is naturally these are the passing objects that render a residence very uneven; and, as little care has been taken to in this street so highly diverting.” obviate this inequality by artificial means, it gives The Gallego, here spoken of, is the common porter rise to many curious scenes in the internal disposition and water-carrier of Lisbon; he is not a native of of the city. This is peculiarly the case with that the city, but comes usually from the Spanish province portion of it which suffered most severely from the of Galicia. His occupation is extremely laborious; Earthquake* of 1755 ; and there the streets are but he is generally a contented being. His hard toil literally jumbled together, one resting, as it were, enables him to earn, though with difficulty, about upon another, and having its pavement on the same sixpence a day; one half of this serves to procure level with the housetops of its more lowly neigh him his bread, his fried Sardinha, (a kind of fish,) bours. Our engraving in the preceding page fur- from a neighbouring cook's stall, and a little light nishes a striking picture of this sort of arrangement; wine perhaps on holidays, water being his general the view which it contains is taken at a short distance beverage. A mat in a large upper room, shared with from the Tagus, in a district which was wholly de several of his brethren, serves him in winter as a molished by the calamity alluded to.

place of repose for the night; but during the summer The Largo do Pelourinho, or Square of the Little he frequently sleeps out in the open air, making his Pillar, is so called from the column which decorates filled water-barrel his pillow, ready to start, in case its centre; it stands very near the river, being sepa of fire, at the call of the captain of his gang, to rated from it by only the Marine Arsenal. The front perform the only public duty exacted from him; for of that building forms the southern end of the square; every Gallego is obliged, by the police of the city, to our view exhibits the northern and eastern sides, have his water-barrel constantly filled at night, and over the intersection of which may be seen the to hasten with it at the first sound of the fire-bell, to church of St. Francisco da Cidade. To the right of assist in extinguishing the flames. His savings are this edifice are the backs of the houses in the street sufficient to enable him, in the course of about fifteen of San Francisco, immediately overlooking the open years, to return to the mountains of his native space beneath. The little column, from which the Gallicia, and to purchase a little plot of ground, square derives its name, is ornamental in its appear upon which he erects a small cottage. He then ance; its twisted shaft rises from a richly-sculptured marries, and at the proper age sends forth his pedestal, and supports a capital surmounted by a children to follow in the Portuguese towns the same globe of open iron-work. The material of which it path of industry and frugality of which he has set is composed is a fine stone, which bears considerable them an example, and which have procured him the resemblance to marble. In former days this little independence and the comforts of a home. pillar performed a very important function, being used The common carriage of Lisbon is the séget, a in the execution of traitorous fidalgos, (nobles,) and species of cabriolet drawn by two mules. Its apother criminals of high degree; it has ceased, how- pearance is rather grotesque; but, nevertheless, it ever, to enjoy that enviable distinction, and is now affords a luxurious accommodation when compared no longer employed in the infliction of punishment. with the toil of walking up and down the steep Its capital is still disfigured by the projecting iron streets of the city, under the influence of a burning hooks to which the criminals were attached; and Its construction is admirably adapted to meet these are the only memorials of its ancient occu the inequalities of ground which we have before pation.

noticed. The seat is suspended off the axletree, so This square is situated in the chief line of commu that the jolting of the wheels on the rough pavement pication between the eastern and western parts of is nearly imperceptible within the vehicle, the body Lisbon; and thus it always presents an appearance of which preserves nearly an upright position, wheof great bustle and activity. Mr. Kinsey gives a

Mr. Kinsey gives a ther upon the ascent or the descent. Two curtains picture of the daily scene beheld in the Rua San close in front of the sége, to keep out the rain or Francisco, the characteristic features of which are heat; and considering that no other sort of carriage not confined to that street in particular. “ The could be used up and down the streets of Lisbon, chapel of the convent," he says, “has never been the traveller has good reason to congratulate himself finished, and offers another instance—beyond skeleton upon the happy invention. houses seen every where, and public buildings left

+ See Saturday Magazine, Vol. III., p. 120. incomplete, -of the grand designs suggested, after the Earthquake, by Portuguese, or as some would say, English architects, and of the total inadequate

THE CANARY BIRD. ness of the means possessed to do them justice. A Tuis bird, though not a native, is so well naturalized, party of friars were seen lounging all day long upon that some account of it may prove interesting. the steps of the portal, looking out for funerals, or In length, this beautiful species is about five inches for people coming to confession and mass, and for and a half; the bill pale flesh-colour, passing into the performance of other penitential offices ; beggars reddish white; eyes chestnut brown; the whole reclining beneath; a large heap of ruins accumulated plumage of a rich, deep primrose colour, inclining to from the period of the Earthquake, to the north of yellow; edge of the quills sometimes yellowish the steps, where a few half-starved goats, who supply white; legs and feet, the same colour as the bill

. the neighbourhood with milk, pick up a scanty sub- The female is distinguished from the male by the sistence upon refuse vegetables; the occasional pro- plumage being of a paler colour; the yellow round cession of the host, honoured by the kneeling multi- the bill, eye, and on the breast, and edge of the wing, tude; séges filled with fat friars; Gallegos with their being also of a paler yellow; she is likewise rather many-coloured water-barrels ; fruit-women, and larger, and less slender in form towards the tail. dealers in vegetables and fish; strings of saucy The original stock is said to have been imported looking muleteers, and a demure duenna now and from the Canary Isles , about the fourteenth century; then seen carefully guarding her fair charge through a circumstance not mentioned by Belon, and dis* See Saturday Magazine, Vol. II., p. 123.

# See page 130 of the present volume.

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credited by Syme for these reasons. The wild birds | mirth and revelry, while others are sullen, intractable, found in the Canary Isles, says he, bear less and lazy. Some cocks are most assiduous in resemblance, in song and plumage, to the domestic assisting the hen to build her nest, and even to hatch Canary, than to the siskin of Germany, the venturon the eggs, while others will destroy the eggs, or tear of Italy, or the serin of France. The plumage of the young from the nest, and kill them in their rage: these is a mixture of yellow, green, and very little the gray ones will never build, and the person who brown or gray.

superintends these must make a nest for them. Buffon says, in his elegant manner, “that if the Mr. Syme informs us that he possessed a jonquil nightingale is the chantress of the woods, the Canary cock that used to nibble at its cage till he opened it, is the musician of the chamber ; the first owes all to and then escaping from its prison-house, it would fly nature, the second something to art. With less to the mantel-piece, where it would place itself on a strength of organ, less compass of voice, and less china ornament, flutter as if in the act of washing, variety of note, the Canary has a better ear, greater and continue to do so till water was brought. The facility of imitation, and a more retentive memory ; | same bird was so docile, as to come, when called, to and as the difference of genius, especially among the the hand, and hide trifling articles in the corner of its lower animals, depends, in a great measure, on the cage, stopping and looking round as if for encourageperfection of their senses, the Canary, whose organ ment and applause. But one of his favourite an useof hearing is more susceptible of receiving and ments was to perch upon one of the branches of a retaining foreign impressions, becomes more social, tall myrtle, in a window where the cage frequently tame, and familiar; is capable of gratitude, and even hung; and he even became so bold, as to dart upon of attachment; its caresses are endearing, its little the ephemeral insects that rose from a stream close humours innocent, and its anger neither hurts nor by, and which seemed to afford him a delicious offends. Its education is easy; we rear it with banquet. Poor Dickie, was, however, doomed to pleasure, because we are able to instruct it. It leaves suffer for this indulgence, and one morning was the melody of its own natural note, to listen to the found dead in his cage, having been killed by a melody of our voices and instruments. It applauds, young pointer, a privileged vagrant like himself. it accompanies us, and repays the pleasure it receives At a public exhibition of birds, we are informed that with interest; while the nightingale, more proud of one of these docile creatures acted the part of a its talent, seems desirous of preserving it in all its deserter, and ran away, while two others pursued and purity, at least it appears to attach very little value caught him. A lighted match being given to one of to ours, and it is with great difficulty it can be these, he fired a small cannon, and the little deserter taught any of our airs. The Canary can speak and fell on his side, as if dead; another bird then whistle; the nightingale despises our words, as well appeared with a small wheel-barrow, for the purpose as our airs, and never fails to return to its own wild of carrying off the dead, but at its approach the wood-notes. Its pipe is a masterpiece of nature, little deserter started to his feet. which human art can neither alter nor improve ; Syme seems to think that these birds might be while that of the Canary is a model of more pliant naturalized to our climate, having seen a pair flying materials, which we can mould at pleasure; and about at liberty, probably, an experiment to try if therefore it contributes in a much greater degree to they would breed: and he thinks they had built a the comforts of society. It sings at all seasons, nest, from their being repeatedly observed flying in cheers us in the dullest wcather, and adds to our and out at one spot, on the precipitous bank at St. happiness, by amusing the young, and delighting the Bernard's Well, near Edinburgh. recluse ; charming the tediousness of the cloister, A small breeding-cage is all that is required for and gladdening the soul of the innocent and rearing these birds, but where a room can be allotted captive."

to the purpose, it ought to have shrubs for them to There are said to be upwards of thirty varieties of roost and build, with plenty of water to drink and the breeds of Canaries, which can be easily distin- / bathe in, that being indispensable for all birds. The guished ; and the number is increasing every year. | light should be admitted into the room from the

There are two distinct species of Canaries, the east, for the benefit of the morning sun, and the plain and variegated ; or, as they are technically windows should have wire-cloth, that they may enjoy called, the gay spangles, or meally; and jonks, or the fresh air. The floor of the apartment ought to jonquils. These two varieties are more esteemed by be strewed with sand or white gravel, and on that amateurs, than any of the numerous varieties which should be thrown groundsel, chickweed, or scalded have sprung from them; and, although birds of rape-seed; but when breeding, they should have different feathers have their admirers, some pre- | nothing except hard chopped eggs, dry bread, cake ferring beauty of plumage, others excellence of song, without salt, and, once in two or three days, a few certainly that bird is most desirable, where both are poppy-seeds, combined. The first property of these birds consists About the 15th of April, they ought to be furnished in the cap, which ought to be of fine orange colour, with flax, soft hay, wool, hair, moss, and other dry pervading every part of the body, except the tail and materials, for building the nest, which usually occuwings, and possessing the utmost regularity, without pies three days; but when the hen has set eight or any black feathers, as, by the smallest speck, it loses nine days, it is necessary to examine the eggs, holding the property of a show-bird, and is considered a | them carefully by the ends, against the sun or a broken-capped bird. The second property consists lighted candle, and to throw away the clear ones. in the feathers of the wing and tail being of a deep | When the young are to be reared by the stick, they black up to the quill, as a single white feather in the must be taken from the mother on the eighth day, wing or tail causes it to be termed a foul bird ; the taking nest and all. Prior to this, the food should requisite number of these feathers in each wing is consist of a paste composed of boiled rape-seed, the eighteen, and in the tail twelve. It is, however, yolk of an egg, and crumbs of cake unsalted, mixed frequently observed, that the best-coloured birds are with a little water: this must be given every two foul in one or two feathers, which reduce their value. | hours. This paste ought not to be too wet, and

The dispositions of Canaries are as various as must be renewed daily, until the nestlings can feed their colours; some are gay, sportive, and delight in themselves. The hen has generally three broods in

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the year, but will hatch five times in the season, each Canaries are bred in immense numbers, both for time laying six eggs.

amusement and commerce, in France, Tyrol, GerThe process of moulting, which takes place five or many, and in this country: those from Germany are six weeks after they are hatched, is frequently fatal in the least esteem, from their living only one or two to them. The best remedy yet known, is to put a years in this country, although the cock of this small piece of iron into the water they drink, keeping variety is an approved songster. them warm during the six weeks or two months

[From Montagu's Ornithological Dictionary.] which generally elapse before they regain their strength. This malady, to which they are all subject, is often fatal to the hen after the sixth or seventh year; and even the cock, though from superior

CHRISTIANITY IN CEYLON. strength he may recover, and continue occasionally The province of Jaffna, which is the most northern to sing, and survive his mate four or five years, province on the island of Ceylon, has, for the last appears dull and melancholy from this period, till he three hundred years, been an object of curiosity to all gradually droops, and falls a victim to this evil. those who felt an interest in the state of Christianity

The most common cause of disease in birds, pro- in India. ceeds from a superabundance of food, which brings When the Portuguese possessed that part of on repletion. In this case, the intestines descend to the island, the Jesuits, who were established there, the extremities of the body, and appear through the divided the province into thirty-four parishes; skin, while the feathers on the part affected fall off, building on each a very fine church and a schooland the poor bird, after a few days, pines and dies. house, and taking active measures by preaching, and If the disease is not too far gone, putting them in by the representation of dramas founded upon Scripseparate cages, and confining them to the cooling ture, to propagate the principles of the Cathodiet of water and lettuce-seed, may save the lives of lic religion amongst the natives of the country. many: they are also subject to epilepsy, asthma, When the Dutch conquered this province from the ulcers in the throat, and to extinction of the voice. Portuguese, they took equally active measures for The cure for the first is doubtful; it is said, that if a preserving the churches and schools which had been drop of blood fall from the bill, the bird will recover erected by the Portuguese, in each of the parishes, life and sense; but if touched prior to falling of and for propagating the principles of the Reformed itself, it will occasion death. If they recover from Religion amongst the natives. the first attack, they frequently live for many years One of the most active of the Dutch clergymen without any alteration in their note. Another cure in Ceylon, who had charge of the province immediis to inflict a slight wound in the foot. Asthma is ately after the Dutch had established themselves in cured by plantain, and hard biscuit soaked in white it, was Dr. Baldæus. He published a very detailed wine; while ulcers, like repletion, must be cured by account of the whole province, and of the state in cooling food. For extinction of voice, the cure which he found the churches and schools in all the ought to be hard yolk of eggs, chopped up with different parishes. crumbs of bread, and for drink a little liquorice-root, In the year 1796 the British took possession of or a blade of saffron in water. In addition to these the maritime provinces of Ceylon, and, in 1798, evils, the canary, if kept dirty, is infested by a the whole island was formally transferred to the small insect. To avoid this, they should have British Crown. In 1810, Sir Alexander Johnston, plenty of water to bathe in, a new cage, covered with then Chief Justice of His Majesty's Council in new cloth, and their seeds well sifted and washed. Ceylon, among many other measures for improving These attentions, if troublesome, are nevertheless the condition of the natives, proposed the establishneeessary to possess a thriving bird. When wild, all ment of a college for the education of the halfbirds require water, and to a canary this is so neces casts, in European literature and science; and he also sary, that if a saucer or cup of snow be put into the exerted himself in inducing missionaries to establish cage, they will flutter against it with the utmost scàools throughout the country. The Wesleyan delight, even during the most severę winters. missionaries, soon after, on the advice of Sir

Alexander, and in the hope that it would forward his and largest of this province, called by the Portuguese plans for the moral and spiritual improvement of the Punto das Pedras, or the Rocky Point; Paretiture people, reprinted, at their press, that part of the old signifies in the Malabar tongue, as much as Cotton's English translation of Baldæus's history, which Harbour, from the great quantity of cotton that grows treated more particularly on the state of the churches thereabouts on small trees. and schools in the different parishes.

“Not long ago, whilst we were engaged in war with The annexed Prints of the churches of Tellipally the English, a fort was ordered to be erected here. and Point Pedro, are taken from the plates in one of During the war with Portugal, the Dutch carried off the old editions of Baldæus; the accounts of the from hence one of their priests, and plundered parishes in which they stand, are from that part of Manaar at the same time. Hereabouts, also, haphis history which was republished at the Wesleyan pened a smart engagement, betwixt the Portuguese press.

and us, wherein we were hard put to it, and lost, “ The Church of Tellipally is a large and noble among others, Captain John Hoogstraten. During structure; the house thereunto belonging is the the siege of Jaffnapatam, the Portuguese expected work of the Jesuits, beautified with a pleasant gar- the landing of their succours in this place. den, handsome court, and most delicious vineyards, “The road is so good here, that ships may ride safe affording most sorts of Indian fruits, and watered at anchor for seven or eight months; but they must with several springs. In August, 1658, the Reformed take care to depart before the northern monsoon, Religion was the first time (as in all other churches which renders this shore very dangerous. So soon of Jaffnapatam and Manaar,) introduced and taught as any ships are discovered at sea, a flag is put out here by me. The 12th of January, 1661, the Holy on a long pole for their direction. The church was Sacrament was the first time administered to twelve much decayed, but has been repaired of late. Just com municants of the natives. The 19th of April the before the church stands a tall tamarind tree, which same year, their number increased to fifteen, and affording a very agreeable shadow in the heat of the befo-re my departure to thirty. In the year 1665 we day, the people are often iustructed under it by the had above 1000 school boys, among whom 480 who minister, to the number of 3000. The school has could answer all the questions relating to the chief about 1000 children t." points of our religion. "I have sometimes had no less Miss Johanna Baillie to write her drama called The Bride for the than 2000 auditors in this church.

same purpose. “ Most of the churches here have certain scaffolds have had the college

for the education of the half-casts, and to this

+ It is at Point Pedro that Sir Alexander Johnston intended to or theatres near them, where the Jesuits used to place the celebrated Missionary Schwartz, in 1769, paid the visit represent certain histories of the Bible to the people described in Pearson's life of that celebrated man.

"'On the 5th of on holidays. The Church of Paretiture is the finest September, prior to his departure, Mr. Schwartz went to Point

Pedro for the purpose of seeing ihe large tree under which the

celebrated Baldæus, who accompanied the Dutch expedition which It is from the sacred dramas having been acted upon the stages took possession of Ceylon in the seventeenth century, addressed in front of the churches, as described by Baldæus, that Sir Alex- his first discourse to the natives. Schwartz conversed with some ander Johnston took the idea of having translations of Miss Malabar people whom he met on the spot, and preached the Gospel Hannah More's dramas acted amongst the people, and of getting to them.”

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ON WILLS. No. VI.

lawyer's province further, than by making, in this WILLS OF PERSONAL PROPERTY

our concluding paper, a few remarks upon such

peculiar bequests as most frequently occur, and $ 12. On certain Special Dispositions of Property.

upon the errors into which testators commonly fal] In our five former papers on this subject, we have concerning them. given such hints as may enable persons, who wish I. If a person to whom a legacy is bequeathed, only to make a simple disposition of their property, dies in the lifetime of the testator, the legacy lapses, to frame their own Wills. To those who might be as it is called ; that is, becomes void. Sometimes a desirous of making special provisions and intricate testator, foreseeing the possibility of such an event bequests, we recommended an application to their attempts to provide for it, but does not do so in lawyer. And we do not intend to trespass upon the terms sufficiently precise. He will bequeath property,

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