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THE CATHEDRAL OF STRASBURGH. to lay the foundation of the edifice which now exists. STRASBURGH is a French city of great antiquity, the No less, however, than 424 years èlapsed before the capital of the department of the Lower Rhine, and building reached the state in which we how behold formerly of the province of Alsace. Till the latter it; and of these 162 were spent in the construction part of the seventeenth century, it was a free city of of the tower alone. the German empire, possessing the power of electing “ This far-famed Cathedral,” says Mr. Ruse in its own magistrates, being exempt from subjection to his Tour in Germany, “is in some respects the is est any neighbouring prince, and entitled to assert its Gothic building in Europe. There are many which independence at the diet. But in 1682 it was taken are more ample in dimensions. In the solemn imby Louis the Fourteenth; and its possession being posing grandeur to which the lofty elevations and confirmed at the peace of Ryswick, it thenceforth dim colonnades of this architecture are so well became a part of the French territory. Strasburgh adapted, the Cathedral of Milan acknowledges no is distinguished for having at an early period embraced rival; and not only in some German towns, as in the doctrines of the Reformation; and at the time Nürnberg, but likewise among the Gothic remains of of its incorporation with France, the majority of its our own country and of Normandy, it would not be inhabitants were of the Protestant religion. Even difficult to find samples of workmanship equally now it counts of that persuasion no less than one- light and elegant in the detail with the boasted fane third of its population; and boasts of containing of Strasburgh. The main body of the building is one of the two principal Protestant seminaries in put together with an admirable symmetry of proFrance,—the other being at Montauban.
portion, and to this it is indebted for its principal The city stands at the confluence of the rivers beauty as a whole.
Connoisseurs, indeed, have Brusche and Ille, and is only half a mile distant measured and criticised; they have found this too from the left bank of the Rhine. Some of its streets long, and that too short: but architectural beauty is are wide and straight, but most of them are narrow; made for the eye; and even in classical architecture, the houses are built chiefly of the red stone found where all has been reduced to measurement, the in the quarries along the Rhine, and though lofty, rules of Vitruvius or Palladio are good only as exare heavy and inelegant. Its appearance i3, indeed, pressing, in the language of art, judgments which altogether German, as are the language and customs taste forms independent of rules. Yet there is no of the greater part of its inhabitants. Strasburgh superfluity or confusion of ornament about the ediis a bishop's see, and contains, besides the cathedral, fice; there is no crowding of figure upon figure, six Catholic churches, seven Lutheran, and one merely for the sake of having sculpture. With more Reformed church. The Cathedral is its principal it would have approached the tawdry and puerile public building, and is justly classed among the most style of the present day; with less it would have distinguished specimens of Gothic architecture been as dead and heavy as the cathedral of Ulm, existing.
which, though exquisite in particular details of the The origin of the first Cathedral of Strasburgh is, sculpture, yet, without being more imposing, wants like that of most buildings of a similar character, all the grace and elegance of the fabric of Strasburgh. matter rather of tradition than of history. It is The side of the Cathedral represented in our probable that the bishopric was founded about the engraving, is the southern; but the view is well middle of the fourth century of the Christian era, calculated to convey an excellent idea of the chief and that there existed soon after that period an beauties of the building, especially of the tower, Episcopal church, which was entirely swept away by which is the most remarkable part of it.
The the barbarous hordes who broke out from the wilds western front has, as usual, three portals, decorated of Germany, when the power of Rome declined, and with statues and sculptures in bas-relief, and presents who, for a time, obscured the light of religion, in an appearance of great beauty and elegance. "Immethose countries which they invaded.
diately above the portals are three equestrian statucs, But about the beginning of the sixth century, the each formed of one block, and representing the kings zeal of Clovis, king of the Franks, himself a convert | Clovis and Dagobert, anid Rodolph of Hapsburgh, from paganism, re-established the worship of Chris- Emperor of Germany. There is a niche for a fourth tianity, and caused the Cathedral of Strasburgh to be figure; but it has always remained vacant, although rebuilt. The structure thus raised was extremely the proposal has been entertained of placing in it a simple in its nature, being composed, according to statue of Louis the Fourteenth, who was a great the practice of the time, entirely of wood, and benefactor to the Cathedral. boasting of few decorations either in its internal or But the grcat attraction of this edifice consists in external arrangements. But it lasted only until the the tower which surmounts the western front, and commencement of the eleventh century, though pro- which is remarkable for its enormous height, its bably it underwent many alterations and repairs in elegance of form, and the delicacy of its workmanthe mean while.
ship. Its altitude is second only to that of the great In 1002 it was pillaged, together with the town, pyramid of Egypt,--the pinnacle of the spire being and burnt, by Herman Duke of Suabia and Alsace, more than 500 feet above the pavement. There is in revenge for the bishop's having sided with Henry nothing uncommon in its general form; but the of Bavaria, the competitor of that prince for the harmony of proportions, and the elegance of workimperial throne. When, however, Henry became manship, appear to greater advantage in it than in Emperor of Germany, he was not unmindful of the the rest of the building. The massive base termisufferings of the people of Strasburgh in his cause, nates just at the point where, to the eye, it would and he compelled Herman to make restitution for become too heavy if carried to a further elevation; the mischief which he had occasioned, by surrender- and it is succeeded by the lofty slender pyramid, so ing to their bishop the revenues of a rich abbey. delicately ribbed that it hardly seems to be supported. Wernher, who then held the see, proceeded with The profuseness of decoration, and the extreme great zeal to make arrangements for the erection of lightness displayed in this part of the structure, give a new Cathedral; and, after many interruptions, was it, at a distance, the appearance of an exquisite laceenabled, in-1015, by the liberality of the emperor, work; but a glance at the engraving in the preceding and the contributions of the clergy and the people, page, will enable our readers to form a more correct
notion of its beauty than could any detailed descrip
Time is precious, but its value is unknown to us. The clock of the Cathedral of Strasburgh * is one We shall obtain this knowledge when we can 19 of the most curious specimens of early proficiency longer profit by it. Our friends require it of us as in horological mechanism that exist, and is equalled if it were nothing, and we give it them in the same in celebrity (though not in size) only by that which
It is often a burden to us, and we know belongs to the Cathedral of Lyons. It was con not what to do with it; but the day will come when structed in the sixteenth century, after the designs a quarter of an hour will appear of more value to and under the superintendence of a learned mathe us than all the riches of the universe. matician, Cunradus Dasypodius by name, who filled GOD, who is liberal in all his other gifts, shows the post of a professor in the university of Strasburgh, us, by the wise economy of his providence, how cirand who has left behind him a very erudite descrip- cumspect we ought to be in the management of our tion of this master-piece of his ingenuity. Besides time, for he never gives us two moments together. serving the ordinary purposes of a measurer of time, He only gives us the second as he takes away the it exhibits the motions of some of the planets, with first, and keeps the third in his own hands, leaving various other astronomical phenomena; and is fur us in absolute uncertainty whether it shall ever nished with a fanciful apparatus of allegorical figures, become ours or not! Time is given us that we may for marking the division of time into hours and take care for eternity; and eternity will not be too quarters. We must obserye, however, that all these
long to regret the loss of our time if we have mis-spent merits belong to this clock only when it is in very it.---FENELON good repair,-an occurrence which, according to all accounts, has not happened very frequently since its
AN ANSWER TO “ WHAT IS TIME?' original construction.
“Know'st thou me not ?" the deep voice cried; Our readers will perceive, above the small dome “ So long enjoyed, so oft misused :which crowns the point of intersection of the cross,
Alternate in thy fickle pride, a species of apparatus somewhat resembling the
Desired, neglected, and abused. machine which is occasionally seen in operation on
“Before my breath, like blazing flax, the top of the Admiralty-office in London. It is an
Man and his marvels pass away, instrument of the same kind, being, in point of fact,
And changing empires wane and wax,
Are founded, Aourish, and decay. a telegraph used for the purposes of communication by signal.
“Redeem my hours,—the space is brief,
While in my glass the sand-grains shiver, This Cathedral did not escape the violence which,
And measureless thy joy or grief, at the time of the Revolution, profaned the chief When Time and thou shalt part for ever." part of the sacred edifices in France. The great gate
Sir W. Scott. of the central portal was coined into money; and many of the most precious ornaments of the building It were unjust and ungrateful to conceive that the amusewere carried off or mutilated, or entirely destroyed. ments of life are altogether forbidden by its beneficent
Author. They serve, on the contrary, important purposes In the height of their phrensy the levellers of the
in the economy of human life, and are destined to produce day proposed to demolish the exquisite tower of the
important effects both upon our happiness and character. Cathedral, on the ground that its superior loftiness They are “ the wells of the desert;" the kind resting-places was offensive to the spirit of “equality" which then in which toil may relax, in which the weary spirit may characterized the ruling party in France, and led recover its tone, and where the desponding mind may rethem away into such absurdities; fortunately, the assume its strength and its hopes. They are, in another proposal was not carried into execution.
view, of some importance to the dignity of individual cha
racter. In every thing we call amusement, there is gene* See Saturday Magazine, Vol. III., p. 156.
rally some display of taste and of imagination; some
elevation of the mind from mere animal indulgence, or the The numbers of the Ants here were so immense as to cover baseness of sensual desire. Even in the scenes of relaxathe roads for the space of several miles; and so crowded tion, therefore, they have a tendency to preserve the dignity in many places, that the prints of the horses' feet were dis- of human character and to fill up the vacant and ungarded tinctly marked amongst them till filled by the surrounding hours of life, with occupations, innocent at least, if not virmultitudes. They made bridges across large and rapid tuous. But their principal effect, perhaps, is upon the rivers with the dead bodies of their comrades. Every kind social character of man. Whenever amusement is sought, of cold victuals, all species of vermin, particularly rats, it is in the society of our brethren, and whenever it is and even the sores of the negroes, were exposed to their found, it is in our sympathy with the happiness of those attacks. A premium of 20,0001., from the public treasury, around us. It bespeaks the disposition of benevolence, and was offered to the discoverer of any effectual method of it creates it. When men assemble, accordingly, for the destroying them, and the principal means employed were purpose of general happiness or joy, they exhibit to the poison and fire. By mixing arsenic and corrosive subli thoughtful eye, one of the most pleasing appearances of mate with animal substances, myriads were destroyed; their original character. They leave behind them, for a and the slightest tasting of the poison rendered them so time, the faults of their station, and the asperities of their outrageous as to devour one another. Lines of red-hot | temper; they forget the secret views and the selfish purcharcoal were laid in their way, to which they crowded in poses of their ordinary life, and mingle with the crowd such numbers as to extinguish it with their bodies; and around them with no other view than to receive and comholes full of fire were dug in the cane-grounds, which were municate happiness. It is a spectacle which it is impossoon extinguished by heaps of dead. But while the nests sible to observe without emotion; and while the virtuous remained undisturbed, new progenies appeared as numer man rejoices at that evidence which it affords of the ous as ever; and the only effectual check which they benevolent constitution of his nature, the pious man is apt received was from the destructive hurricane which, by to bless the benevolence of that God, who thus makes the tearing up altogether, or so loosening the roots of the plants wilderness and the solitary place be glad, and whose wiswhere they nestled as to admit the rain, almost extirpated dom renders even the hours of amusement subservient the whole race -Martin's West India Colonies.
to the cause of virtue.
It is not, therefore, the use of the innocent amusements Troth should never strike her topsails in compliment to of life which is dangerous, but the abuse of them; it is not ignorance or sophistry; and if the battle be fought yard when they are occasionally, but when they are constantly arm to yard-arm, however her cause occasionally may pursued; when the love of amusement degenerates into a suffer from the weakness of its champions, it is sure to passion, and when, from being an occasional indulgence it prove ultimately victorious.-T. H.
becomes a habitual desire.ALION.
ON THE LUMINOUS APPEARANCE OF up, in which he discovered iwo kinds of animals that THE SEA.
occasioned the phenomenon; the ore a crustaceous From the earliest ages, the luminous appearance of creature, which he called the cancer fulgens, and the the sea, in the night-time, attracted the attention of other a large species of Medusa, to which he gave navigators; and the phenomenon was attributed to the name of Pellucens. various causes, such as putrid substances floating on the water, electricity, friction, and, lastly, the presence of luminous insects. Its appearance is thus described by an old author, who merely gives the result of his observation without a knowledge of the cause.
" When the ship ran apace, we often observed a great light in its wake. This light was not always equal, sometimes it was very vivid, and at other times nothing was to be seen. As to its brightness I could easily read by it the title of a book, although I was nine or ten eet above it from the surface of the water. As to the extent of this light, sometimes all the wake appeared luminous to thirty or forty feet distance from the ship, but the light was very faint CANCER FULOENS magnified. The line above shows the natural length at any considerable distance. Some days one might
The Medusa Pellucens is one of the most splendid easily distinguish such particles as were luminous of the luminous inhabitants of the ocean, the flashes from those that were not, at other times there was no difference. The wake seemed then like a river of milk, and was very pleasant to look on. It is not always that this light appears, though the sea be in great motion, nor does it always happen when the ship sails fastest."
The general cause of this appearance, is the presence of an immense number of minute creatures of the Class Radiata, Zoophytes * (animal plants); although, at times, it may be attributed to putrid substances. It has been asserted that several species of fishes, particularly those belonging to the mackerel tribes, give out, under peculiar circumstances, while yet living, a kind of phosphorescent light; but more accurate researches have proved, that the power of shining in the dark has been limited, in living animals, to the classes Mollusca, Insects, Worms, and Radiated animals. The mollusca and worms contain each but a single luminous species, the Pholas dactylus (the Date pholas) in the one, and the Nereis noctiluca, (Nightshining nereis) in the other. Among
the insects the species are more nu-
we have already said, to the class The same mognilied. Radiata. The most numerous and the most widely-distributed species is the Medusa Scintillans.
The origin of the property possessed by these curious creatures is hitherto unexplained. Sir Everard
“ It seems proved, that so far from the luminous substance being of a phosphorescent nature,
MEDUSA PELT.OCENS. One quarter the size of nature. that it sometimes shows the strongest and most constant light when excluded from oxygen gast; of light being so vivid as to affect the eye of the that it is no circumstances undergoes any process spectator. like combustion, but is actually incapable of being The Pyrosoma Atlantica was discovered by Peron, inflamed; that the increase of heat, during the during his voyage from Europe to the Mauritius, shining of glow-worms, is an accompaniment and and the sudden appearance of an immense group of not an effect of the phenomenon, and depends upon these creatures, appears to have produced a very the excited state of the insect, and lastly, that heat striking effect; he thus describes the incident. and electricity increase the exhibition of light, merely “We had for some time been detained by calms in by operating like other stimuli, upon the vital pro- the middle of the equatorial regions, and were only perties of the animal."
able to increase our latitude, by the aid of the sudOn the passage from Madeira to Rio de Janeiro, den stormy gusts of wind, peculiar to these climates. the sea was observed, by Sir Joseph Banks, to be In the evening we had experienced one of the mest unusually luminous, flashing in many parts like violent of these gusts; the heavens were in every lightning; he directed some of the water to be hauled quarter covered with heavy clouds, and a profound • Sec Saturday Magasine, Vol. II., p. 236.
darkness hung over all; the wind blew with violence, t Phosphorus burns intensely when exposed to this gas
and our vessel made great way. On a sudden there
appeared at a little distance from him, he had three favours to beg of him ; and he us, what seemed to be an enor. hoped he would not refuse a dying friend, be they mous sheet of phosphorus, what they would. Sir Joshua promised. The stretched out upon the waves; it first was, that he would never paint on a Sunday'; occupied a great space in front the second, that he would forgive him thirty pounds of us. This spectacle, under that he had lent him, as he wanted to Icave them to the circumstances I have just a distressed family; the third was, that he would described, had something ro-read the Bible whenever he had an opportunity, and mantic, imposing, and majestic that he would never omit it on a Sunday. There in it, which attracted all our was no difficulty on the first point; but at length, notice.
Sir Joshua promised to gratify him in all. How “Every one, on board both delighted should I be to hear the dying discourses of vessels, hurried to the prow, to this great and good man, now that faith has subdued enjoy so singular an appearance. his fears. I wish I could see him. We soon
came up with the In a letter written at a subsequent period, we find phenomenon, and perceived at the following very interesting particulars, not generally once that this brilliant light was known. The writer is recording a conversation caused, simply, by the presence which she had with the Rev. Mr. Storry, respecting of an innumerable quantity of Dr. Johnson. large zoophytes, which, lifted We were riding together near Colchester, when I up by the waves, and carried asked Mr. S. whether he had ever heard that Dr. forward along with them, were Johnson had expressed great dissatisfaction with floating at different depths, and himself, on the approach of death, and that in reply appeared to partake of various to friends, who, in order to comfort him, spoke of forms. The individuals which his writings in defence of virtue and religion, he had were situated deep in the water, said " admitting all you urge to be true, how can I
and were imperfectly seen, ap- tell when I have done enough." Mr. S. assured me peared like large masses bound together, or rather, that what I have just mentioned was perfectly like enormous red balls; while those which appeared correct, and then added the following interesting on the surface of the waves, perfectly resembled particulars. cylinders of red-hot iron.
Dr. Johnson, said he, did feel as you describe, In the mean time, all the naturalists of both and was not comforted by the ordinary topics of vessels were equally strenuous in their endeavours conversation which were addressed to him. In to obtain these singular creatures. One of our party consequence, he desired to see a clergyman, and soon succeeded in withdrawing from the water more particularly described the views and character of the than thirty or forty, which we immediately proceeded person whom he wished to consult.
After some to examine. The length of these animals differed consideration, a Mr. Winstanley was named, and the from three to seven inches, their form was lengthened Doctor requested Sir John Hawkins to write a note in and nearly cylindrical. As to their colour, when in his name, requesting Mr. W.'s attendance as a state of rest, or immediately after death, they were minister. of a transparent yellow, mixed with a dirty green ; Mr. W., who was in a very weak state of health, but when, during life, they spontaneously contracted was quite overpowered on receiving the note, and felt themselves, if they could be induced to this act by appalled by the very thought of encountering the gentle irritation, they became instantly of the colour talents and learning of Dr. Johnson. In his of molten iron of extreme brilliancy, but in the same embarrassment, he went to his friend Colonel Pownall, manner as this metal, as it becomes cooler, they and told him what had happened, asking, at the assumed a host of agreeable, delicate, and varying same time, for his advice how to act. The Colonel tints, such as red, pink, orange, green, and azure blue. who was a pious man, urged him immediately to This last colour, above all, was as bright as it was follow what appeared to be a remarkable leading of pure.
Providence, and for the time, argued his friend out “I may here observe," says Peron, “ that during of his nervous apprehension ; but after he had left the whole of our long and numerous voyages in the Mr. Pownall, Mr. W.'s fears returned in so great a midst of different seas, we never afterwards observed degree, as to prevail upon him to abandon the any animals resembling these, so that it would appear thought of a personal interview with the Doctor. He that they are confined between the 19th and 20th determined, in consequence, to write him a letter : degrees of longitude, to the east of the meridian of that letter I think Mr. Storry said he had seen, at Paris, and the 3rd and 4th degrees of north latitude." least a copy of it, and part of it he repeated to me,
Sir, I beg to acknowledge the honour of your THE LAST DAYS AND THOUGHTS OF
note, and am very sorry that the state of my health DR. JOHNSON,
prevents my compliance with your request; but my FROM THE LETTERS OF MRS. HANNAH MORE. nerves are so shattered, that I feel as if I should be
Dec. 1784. quite confounded by your presence, and instead of Poor dear Johnson ! he is past all hope. The promoting, should only injure the cause in which dropsy has brought him to the point of death : his you desire my aid. Permit me, therefore, to write legs are scarified, but nothing will do. I have, what I should wish to say, were I present. I can however, the comfort to hear that his dread of dying easily conceive what would be the subjects of your is in a great measure subdued, and now he says “the inquiry. I can conceive that the views of yourself bitterness of death is past." [We have been told have changed with your condition, and that on the in previous letters of the same writer, that this near approach of death, what you once considered great man's dread of death had been exceedingly mere peccadillos, have risen into mountains of guilt, great.] He sent, the other day, for Sir Joshua while your best actions have dwindled into nothing. Reynolds; and, after much serious conversation, told | On whichever side you look, you see only positive
transgressions, or defective obedience; and hence in spirit as if he had been in perfect health. When he
Raynal was introduced to him, upon the Abbé's
What a comment is this upon that word, “The loftiness of When passing near the Riet river-gate, and while our man shall be bowed down, and the haughtiness of oxen were grazing, Van Wyk, the colonist, related to us men shall be laid low, and the Lord alone shall be the following interesting circumstance. “ It is now," he exalted in that day.”
said, “ more than two years since, in the very place where Another anecdote from the same source, relating to
we stand, I ventured to take one of the most daring shots
that ever was hazarded. My wife was sitting within the the last hours and thoughts of this great man, is house, near the door, the children were playing about her, highly interesting.
and I was without, near the house, busied in doing some-
an enormous lion appeared, came up and laid himself Mr. Pepys wrote me a very kind letter on the quietly down in the shade, upon the very threshold of the
door. My wife, either frozen with fear, or aware of the death of Johnson, thinking I should be impatient to danger attending any attempt to fly, remained motionless hear something relating to his last hours. Dr. in her place, while the children took refuge in her lap. Brocklesby, his physician, was with him; he said to The cry they uttered attracted my attention, and I hastened him a little before he died, “ Doctor, you are a worthy towards the door; but my astonishment may well be man, and my friend, but I am afraid you are no conceived, when I found the entrance to it barred in such a Christian! What can I do better for you, than offer way. Although the animal had not seen me, unarmed as up in your presence, a prayer to the great God, that scarcely knowing what I meant to do, to the side of my
I was, escape seemed impossible ; yet I glided gently, you may become a Christian in every sense of the house, up to the window of my chamber, where I knew my word !” Instantly he fell on his knees, and put up loaded gun was standing. By a most happy chance I had a fervent prayer ; when he got up, he caught hold of set it into the corner close by the window, so that I could his hand with great earnestness, and cried, "Doctor, reach it with my hand; for, as you may perceive, the you do not say Amen.” The Doctor looked foolishly, opening is too small to admit of my having got in; and, but after a pause, cried“ Amen!" Johnson said, “My that I could see the whole danger of the scene. The lion
still more fortunately, the door of the room was open, so dear doctor, believe a dying man, there is no salvation
was beginning to move, perhaps with the intention of but in the sacrifice of the Lamb of God: go home, making a spring. There was no longer any time to think; write down my prayer, and every word I have said, I called softly to the mother not to be alarmed; and and bring it me to-morrow.” Brocklesby did so. invoking the name of the Lord, fired my piece! The ball
A friend desired Dr. Johnson would make his will, passed directly over the hair of my boy's head, and lodged and as Hume in his last moments had made an impious which shot forth, as it were, sparks of fire, and stretched
in the forehead of the lion, immediately over his eyes, declaration of his opinions, he thought it would tend him on the ground, so that he never stirred more." to counteract the poison, if Johnson would make a Indeed, we all shuddered as we listened to this relation. Public confession of his faith in his will. He said Never, as he himself observed, was a more daring attempt he would ; seized the pen with great earnestness, and hazarded. Had he failed in his aim, mother and children asked what was the usual form of beginning a will.
were all inevitably lost; if the boy had moved, he had been His friend told him. After the usual forms he wrote, struck; the least turn in the lion, and the shot had not I offer my soul to the great and merciful God, I offer been mortal to him. To have taken an aim at him without,
was impossible; while the shadow of any one advancing it full of pollution, but in full assurance that it will in the bright sun, would have betrayed him; to consum be cleansed in the blood of the Redeemer.” And for mate the whole, the head of the creature was in some sort some time he wrote on with the same vigour and protected by the door-post.--LICHTENSTEIN's Travels,
FROM MRS. HANNAH MORE.