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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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TENBY, SOUTH WALES.

| Tenby is chiefly composed of one principal street On the western coast of the extensive bay of Car- and various smaller ones, several of which are steep marthen, very singularly situated on the eastern and and narrow, branching from it on the hill side ;southern sides of a narrow rocky peninsula, sur

many new and handsome houses have however been rounded by the sea on every side, except the north, built in what may be termed the suburbs, within the stands the town of Tenby, one of the most interesting

last few years, commanding a magnificent and varied and romantic of British “watering places."

marine view. The town is generally well built, and From its Welsh name, Dynbych y Pyscod, that is,

| the antiquary may note many very interesting exarnthe Precipice of Fishes, and other circumstances, | ples of domestic architecture, of a very early date, there is reason to believe that Tenby acquired con

several of which are of Flemish origin. siderable importance, at a very early period, as

Amongst the improvements which the corporation a fishing-station, for which it is still admirably has effected within a few years, may be mentioned the adapted. Some writers have ascribed the origin erection of a new and commodious market-house, and . of the present town to the settlement of a colony of

the alteration of one of the principal entrances into Flemings in this and the opposite peninsula of Gower

the town, which was inconveniently steep and narrow. in Glamorganshire, early in the twelfth century*. Tenby possesses many excellent hotels and lodgingThese people, whose industrious habits, language, and houses; a reading room, subscription library, a theatre, manners, presented a striking contrast to the restless

and baths, on an extensive scale. dispositions of the native inhabitants, were placed by

The sands are dry and extensive, and are rendered the King (Henry I.) under the control of Gerald de interesting, not only by the beauty and grandeur of Windsor, Governor of Pembroke Castle, by whose the surrounding scenery, but by the great variety of direction they fortified Tenby, and other towns and

shells with which they are studded.
shells with which they are studded

The coast of strong-holds in Pembrokeshire, as a means of security | Pembrokeshire, indeed, offers a wide field for the conagainst the incursions of the vartly-subdued Welsh. | chologist, “not less," we are told, “than one half of In consequence of the strength and importance of the British collection of 600 varieties of shells,” being the situation, more than ordinary care seems to have found on it, besides various others usually met with been bestowed in fortifying Tenby, which was only on foreign shores. enclosed by walls of great height and strength, and The harbour is small, though well sheltered. The further defended by a castle, of whose ponderous and shipping lie within an ancient but well-constructed pier, crumbling ruins we shall presently have occasion to of irregular form, at the foot of the castle-hill, which speak. The town and castle, however, underwent

curves at its extremity, and being closed with floodseveral serious changes in the middle ages, and were gates, acts at low water as a scouring dock, by which once burnt and almost wholly destroyed by the sons means the harbour is cleansed every other tide. The of Rhys ap Griffith, Prince of South Wales.

chief trade of the neighbourhood (the export of coals, During the Civil War Tenby and its castle were

culm, and limestone,) is carried on at a place called more than once taken and re-taken by the rebels and Saunder's Foot, or Sandisfoot, about three miles to royalists. In 1647, when Cromwell marched into the north of Tenby, where a pier has lately been South Wales, it was in the hands of the Cavaliers, erected; which, together with the introduction of who defended it with great resolution and gallantry, tramways from the coal-pits, has proved of material against a large detachment of Cromwell's army, for

consequence to the prosperity of the district. more than five days. The importance attached by

Near the extremity of Tenby pier, is a small chapel Cromwell to the possession of this place affords of high antiquity, formerly dedicated to St. Julian, strong evidence of its consequence as a military

and said to have been appropriated to devotional post, at that period,

purposes, in the olden time, by sailors before going The woollen manufacture was introduced and car

to sea. This aged little building is even now someried on for many years in Tenby, by the Flemings and

times used as a chapel. their successors; on its decline, the inhabitants were

In stormy weather the harbour affords a safe refuge chiefly supported by fisheries, from which the town

to the numerous craft frequenting Carmarthen bay, first derived its importance. Various privileges and

which abounds with every description of fish found immunities were granted to it, under successive

on the British coasts, and is in some respects perhaps governments, with a view of fostering a commercial the finest fishing-station in the kingdom. The marspirit; but, notwithstanding, Tenby seems to have

kets at Tenby are well supplied, and the prices of languished until towards the close of the last century, | provisions 'extremely reasonable. The population of when the extreme beauty of the situation, the mild. this place, including the parish of Weston, accordness and salubrity of the air, and the great advan ing to the last census was 2687. In conjunction with tages which its fine hard sand offered for sea-bathing,

Pembroke and Milford, it returns one member to attracted the attention of invalids and loungers, and

Parliament; one portion, or district, termed the out have elevated it from an obscure sea-port, into a

liberties, is not subject to the jurisdiction of the mayor flourishing and considerable town, the permanent and magistrates, but to that of the magistrates of the residence of many individuals of opulence, and the county. periodical resort of the frequenters of fashionable as

The ivy-mantled remains of the walls and towers well as of retired "watering-places.”

by which Tenby was formerly surrounded, are still Of the romantic appearance of this town from sea in many parts tolerably perfect. ward, of the singular perpendicularity of its site, and On the summit of the hill, about the middle of the the intermixture of houses, rocks, and foliage with the town, stands St. Mary's Church, an extensive and lofty spire of its church, and the scattered ruins of interesting structure in the early pointed style, its aged castle, the annexed view affords some idea. founded by Warren, Earl of Pembroke, in 1250. It * The Flemings, who had, in 1108, been driven from the Low

consists of a nave, north and south aisles, and a Countries by a disastrous encroachment of the sea, first landed on chancel, and is surmounted by a spire, 152 feet high, ine southern coast of England ; but proving troublesome, they were compelled to emigrate to South Wales, where many of their descend

which forms a prominent sea-mark. Many very uts, especially in the wild district of Gower, still preserve to a

remarkable monuments are to be found within this great extent the manners and customs of the early colonists. They venerable edifice, which is one of the largest in the are even now essentially distinct from the native Welsh, and use principality. many Flemish words.

A FABLE.

In the church-yard is a small but elegant arch, THE CATERPILLAR, THE CHRYSALIS, AND THE built about the time of Henry the Seventh, and still

BUTTERFLY. bearing two shields, containing his arms as Earl of

Alas! how many sons of clay Richmond and King of England. It is remarkable

Are govern’d by the passing day: that this and many other ancient arches in Tenby,

They toil, they reach life's utmost mark, are built so low, as scarcely to admit any person

But all beyond they fancy dark ; without stooping, although there is no appearance

In dull distrust await their doom,

And see no light beyond the tomb ! of the earth accumulating at their foundations.

A CATERPILLAR, busy, gay, The picturesque beauty of this delightful place is

Was travelling 'midst the noontide ray; much enhanced by the ruins of the Castle, which was

Hlis form like those we oft have seen, once of great strength and magnificence, and em

Two jaws, twelve eyes, and legs sixteens; braced within its fortifications the whole of the upper

Such as in gardens you may find surface of the peninsulated rock, which terminates the

Upon a cabbage-leaf reclined:

But what is this that he has spied, bay of Tenby on the south. Many parts of the exist

That makes him start and turn aside ? ing remains, which are still extensive, resemble a

It was a shrivellid, shrouded form, baronial mansion rather than a place of defence; but

Though but of late a living worm; the external fortifications are extremely strong and

A Caterpillar it had been, massive. On the summit of the hill are the shattered

Once clad, like him, in silky green; ruins of the Keep, which may be assigned to an

But now, how changed by nature's laws!

Where are the eyes, the legs, the jaws ? earlier date than any other portion of the structure.

No signs of being could he trace The remains of a magnificent hall, one hundred feet

In the cold mass ; its outer case, in length,—of a room scarcely inferior in its dimen

Like cere-cloth round a mummy spread, sions,-of a square tower, a bastion, and lofty arched

'Twas passive, motionless, and dead. entrance, are still tolerably perfect. The view from

“Well,” said the Caterpillar, “ This

Is what folks call a CHRYSALIS, this wild and elevated spot is of high interest. The

'Tis lifeless as its parent clay, bold and majestic outline of the adjacent coast of

And really, when I hear them say, Pembroke, with its dark headlands and receding

That such can breathe again, and fly, inlets; the wide expanse of Carmarthen bay, and the

The proposition I deny. more distant waters of the channel, terminated by

Believe it? Why, I might as well Lundy Island and the lofty scenery of North Devon;

Believe in aught impossible !” the shores of Carmarthen and Glamorgan, and the

He spoke--and lo! the shrouded thing

Loosed from its earthy covering, very singular rocky promontory of the Wormshead

From shape uncouth, and dusky hue, on the opposite coast of Gower; together with the

Like some fair vision sprung to view. wild and romantic group of insulated rocks, almost

A glossy wing, in burnish'd pride immediately below the eye of the spectator, amongst

Unfolding, rose from either side, which the islands of Caldy* and St. Katherine's,

Its tap'ring form in beauty dressid,

Like gold-dust o'er a yellow vest; stand boldly out, compose a scene, which, for extent

Whilst hands unseen had giv'n the power, and variety, has few equals.

To gather sweets and suck the flower. The country adjacent to Tenby is irregular and

It was a BUTTERFLY* as bright undulating ; exceedingly fertile and well cultivated,

As ever sparkled in the light. and calling to mind “merry England,” rather than

She, casting from her large dark eyes, the ideas generally inspired by the scenery of Cambria.

A look of sorrow and surprise, Hill and valley, with here and there the flashing

In language of correction firm,

Address'd the foolish flippant worm: stream battling its troubled course towards the sea;

“ Peace, trifler! can thy words confine the farm, the gentleman's seat, the gray and mossy

The Power that form'd that frame of thine ? towers of many a rude and ancient church, and the

A Power as easily can give broad green expanse of this pastoral and sometimes

A frame renew'd, and bid it live? wooded country, form the constituents of the scenery

Look round creation, and survey

Life springing forth from life's decay : of southern Pembrokeshire. Along the north of the

In gladsome April view the tree county, however, the land becomes mountainous, and

Resume its verdant livery; reaches, in some parts, an elevation of 1754 feet.

From bars of ice the river freed, When the atmosphere of the surrounding district is

Pursue its course along the mead : clear, it is said that the summits of these mountains

And earth, escaping from th’ embrace are frequently wrapped in clouds; a circumstance

Of winter, show a joyous face.

E'en thus the worm, though lowly found, considered by the Pembrokeshire peasant as an un

Groping its way upon the ground, erring forerunner of rain. And this leads us to say

May yet revive, a creature fair, one word on the climate, which from the western

And wander 'midst the realms of air." M. exposure, is milder and more equable than that of

• The same Greek word, Psyche, is used to signify both the Soul any other county in Great Britain, Cornwall and

and a BUTTERFLY (papilio.) South Devon excepted; as in those counties the arbutus, the myrtle, and many exotics, flourish in most winters in the open air. Although humid, the Ir were to be wished that all men of sense, would reflect climate of this district may be pronounced decidedly upon the dignity of Christian virtues; it would possibly healthy. To the geologist, the antiquarian, and the enlarge their souls into such a contempt of what fashion naturalist, Pembrokeshire, like every part of the coast and prejudice have made honourable, that their duty, incliof Wales, offers an almost boundless field for instruc-nation, and honour, would tend the same way, and make tion and delight.

all their lives an uniform act of religion and virtue.

Guardian. *Caldy Island is of some extent, being about one mile long by half that distance in width. A considerable portion is under profitable The product of the literary philosophy of the day, which cultivation. A Priory (the tower of the Church attached to which, has not Christianity for its basis, resembles the unhealthy surmounted by a stone spire, is still remaining) was erected on this

fruit which springs up in the soil adjoining the bituminous wild spot in the reign of Henry I. About six

years since, the Trinity Bcard erected a lighthouse on the island, which has proved extremely

Lake of Palestine, sickly and of no firm texture, without important to the shipping navigating the bay and channel.

the blessed nurture of the Redeemer's religion.-BRASSE.

1512

THE MINES OF GREAT BRITAIN. upon it, from the points of intersection, communica

tions being formed between them at certain intervals, as may be found expedient. The upper levels, having been longest in operation, will, however, be much further advanced from the shaft than the lower ones, which will, of course, gradually become shorter

towards the bottom of the mine, from having been Allie

more recently commenced. In the course of timo, it will, therefore, become necessary to have another outlet to the surface, both for the sake of air, the more convenient raising of ores, and other reasons. For this purpose a new shaft will now be sunk on one or both sides of the former, according as the orc may be found to extend in one or both directions. As the sinking of a shaft from the surface is a slow

and tedious operation, the miner often avails himself CROSS SECTION,

of the aid of science to shorten and facilitate the Showing the progress of a Shaft, after cutting the Vein,

work, by the following beautiful process.

Vein

Shaft

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IV. PROGRESS or THE SUBTERRANEAN WORKS OF

A MINE. Having already* described the mode in which mineral veins are discovered, and the preliminary

Adit

Ads operations for exploring them, we proceed to notice

10 Pathomi Level the manner in which these operations are extended, so as to form what is properly termed a mine.

After cutting the vein, the miner is enabled to commence the necessary trials for ascertaining the nature and value of its produce. These trials are chiefly made by excavating small horizontal passages termed levels, which are about three feet wide, and six or seven feet high. The levels are cut in the body of the vein, so as to lay open the various

LONGITUDINAL

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SECTION, mineral substances of which it is composed, being, Slowing the manner in which the Vein is laid open by Levels and Winzes. in the first instance, commenced from the shaft, at Having begun the shaft from the surface, at a the point where it intersects the vein, and carried in point nearly corresponding with the ends of the both directions as far as may be considered necessary levels, a series of very accurate subterranean meafor trial, or if ore is found, as far as it may encourage surements is made, by which it is ascertained to the miner to proceed. While this operation is going what distance, and in what direction, cross-cuts must on, the shaft is gradually sunk deeper, and when be driven from them, so as to come exactly under the it arrives at a certain depth below the first level, spot where the shaft is being sunk from the surface. generally about ten or twelve fathoms, a short passage This having been done, as many cross-cuts as may or cross-cut is driven from it to the vein, and a second be convenient are driven to the required points, and level commenced in the same manner.

at the end of each a rectangular excavation is made, In this way the shaft continues to be sunk decper, corresponding in form and size with the shaft at the and new cross-cuts and levels to be driven one below surface, and of course exactly in the same perpenthe other, at stated intervals, each level, of course, dicular line, both with it and with each other. At laying open and exploring the portion of the vein each of these points parties of men are set to work, through which it passes. It is customary to call excavating both upwards and downwards, and the these levels the 10, 20, 30 fathom levels, &c., accord- work of each party being in the same perpendicular ing to their depth.

line, will finally unite, and thus the shaft will be When, however, the first levels have been driven completed in much less time than if carried on from some distance from the shaft, the ventilation becomes one point only. Thus, supposing the shaft to be imperfect, owing to their having but one communi one hundred fathoms in depth, and that on an cation with the external air. To remedy this evil, a average but half a fathom per week could be sunk, small pit, termed by the miner a winze, is sunk from it would require about four years to accomplish, if the upper level to the end of the one below, and this sunk from the surface only. If, however, two crosscommunication having been made, a free current of cuts are introduced below, so as to divide the work air is at once established. When the levels have into three portions, it is evident, that by working advanced further, want of ventilation is again expe- upwards and downwards, the shaft may proceed rienced, and again obviated by the same means as from four or five points at once, and thus be combefore. As the deeper levels advance, winzes are pleted in one-fourth part the time, or one year only, formed between them in the same manner, but are and as little or no advantage is derived from the work generally placed so as to come about midway between till completed, the great utility of this mode of prothe winzes above, thus dividing the vein into rectan- ceeding will at once be apparent. gular compartments, not unlike those formed by the

By supposing operations similar to those now seams of mortar in brick-work or masonry.

described, to be indefinitely extended, the reader will Should the vein prove productive, it is evident that be able to form a pretty good idea of the excavations, these operations may be extended indefinitely. The which (with others hereafter to be noticed) constitute shaft will continue to be sunk deeper, fresh cross a mine. The various irregularities to which mineral cuts will be driven to the vein, and levels extended veins are subject, have, however, often the effect of See Saturday Magazine Vol V p. 76.

considerably modifying this system of operations

It is necessary to observe, that during the progress of the above works, in all cases where the slope of the ground will admit of such an operation, an adit will have been driven to the vein, from the lowest convenient spot in some neighbouring valley. This adit will, of course, be brought into the vein at the same depth as one of the levels, and to this point will form an outlet for the water; that which flows into the mine at a greater depth, must, of course, be raised to the adit by machinery.

If it appears probable that other veins exist near the first, cross-cuts will be driven for the purpose of dis. covering them; and should they be found, and appear sufficiently productive, levels will be driven upon them from the cross-cuts, and if necessary, new shafts will be sunk from the surface. After cutting the vein, shafts are often sunk upon it in an inclined position, so as to avoid the necessity of driving cross-cuts.

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The operations which have now been described, are, however, of a preparatory nature only, having for their object merely to explore the vein, and to lay open the productive portions of it for future working; and although some ore will have been thus obtained, the quantity will have been but trifling, compared to what is still left standing in the untouched portions of the vein.

The process by which the ore is obtained, will, therefore, form the subject of another article, while, by referring to the annexed sketches, the reader will more easily understand the nature of the operations which have formed the subject of the present. The cross-section shows the progress of the shaft after cutting the vein, while the longitudinal one shows the progress of the levels and winzes, and the manner in which the vein is explored by them. The third figure illustrates the manner in which, as noticed above, a shaft is worked from several points at the same time.

F. B.

MERINO SHEEP,

AND THEIR MIGRATIONS. The name of Merino, which marks a particular kind of sheep, signifies, in the language of the country, wandering, ambulatory; and is highly descriptive of their habits. They do not always remain in the same farm, or the same province; but they travel from one to another.

Towards the beginning of May, nearly five millions of sheep leave the plains of Estremadura, Andalusia, Old and New Castille, and Leon, and are conducted by the shepherds to the mountains of the two Cas. tilles, those of Biscay, Navarre, and even Arragon. On these more elevated spots they find a fresher herbage, less dried up by the burning sun, which in summer destroys all verdure in the plains. The high ground near Segovia is very much frequented by the sheep.

The details of their march are very curious. The rich proprietors, that is to say, those who possess the greatest number of sheep, have formed themselves into a company called the Mesta; this association being necessarily a monopoly, it is difficult to alter any of its laws. It would have been impossible for a few proprietors, with small flocks, to have undertaken these yearly peregrinations: this society was formed to do away this inconvenience, and under the superintendence of persons chosen for the purpose, the flocks are led to the uncultivated lands and mountains of Spain. The Mesta employ between forty and fifty thousand shepherds, who lead a wandering and almost savage life, who never cultivate the ground, and rarely marry; their knowledge being confined wholly to sheep, and in that department they are very skilful.

The flocks of the Mesta are divided into smaller troops of ten thousand sheep each; at the head of which is a mayoral, or chief shepherd, to direct them, fifty inferior shepherds, and the same number of dogs, who keep watch over the sheep. The chief shepherd is on horseback, and has a salary of about sixty pounds English. The wages of the inferior shepherds vary according to their skill and usefulness. The best paid have about thirty shillings a month : and the worst, not more than eight; but to these last, two pounds of bread a day are given. Every shepherd may have a certain number of sheep and goats of his own, but their wool belongs to the proprietor of the flock. The shepherd has only the milk, the flesh, and the young ones they produce.

Abundant supplies of salt are provided : the sheep eat as much of it as they like. The annual consumption for a thousand animals is two thousand fire hundred pounds.

The Mesta is composed of proprietors, possessing, some four, and others sixty thousand sheep.

The march of these large flocks is regulated by particular laws, derived from immemorial custom. The sheep have a right of pasturage in all those waste lands which are reserved for that purpose, paying a fixed price to the proprietors, beyond which they can exact nothing. They cannot enter upon cultivated grounds : but the owners are obliged to reserve them a passage, forty-five fathoms wide. The sheep travel two leagues a day in their own pastures; but they go six when they pass through arable lands. Their emigrations extend to a hundred and twenty, and a hundred and fifty leagues. The Mesta has its particular laws, and a tribunal called the “Honourable Council of the Mesta.” It is composed of four judges, and one of the members of the Council of Castille is their president.

Sparn Yesterday and To-day.] .

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TIME. Time's an hand's-breadth ; 'tis a tale; 'Tis a vessel under sail : 'Tis an eagle in its way, Darting down upon its prey; 'Tis an arrow in its flight, Mocking the pursuing sight; 'Tis a short-liv'd fading flower ; 'Tis a rainbow on a shower ; 'Tis a momentary ray, Smiling in a winter's day; 'Tis a torrent's rapid stream; 'Tis a shadow ; 'tis a dream ; 'Tis the closing watch of night, Dying at the rising light; 'Tis a bubble; 'tis a sigh ; Be prepar'd, O man ! to die.

FRANCIS QVARIES 1634.

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