« AnteriorContinuar »
part of our West Indian dominions !) consecrated | down from the high mountain-pass on the city of our chapel and its burying-ground, on that once Caraccas, (splendid still, even after the ruin it susSpanish terra-firma.
tained by the terrible earthquake in 1812,) and When the bishop, with his clerical train, and the along its lengthened line of fertile plain, irrigated by chief of the British residents, had passed on from the river Guayra, and stretching in an easterly and the great gate of the cemetery, repeating, the 24th westerly direction for more than twenty miles ; at Psalm, they entered the chapel, (the colonnaded front this elevation of nearly 3000 feet above the level of of which is quite open to the air ;) and seated himself the sea, with a range of mountains on either side, in the episcopal chair prepared for the occasion. The (rising at one point to more than 5000 feet above the Venezuelan authorities sat on his right side, and plain itself,) the eye yet rests with calm and holy the British consul and commodore, &c., on his left. delight on the conspicuous, but neat and simple The chaplains then recited the prayers, and read burial-ground of the English church." the chapters in the Bible appropriated to the con The little chapel and its cemetery have received secration of the chapel and burial-ground. This the name of St. Paul : he who of all the Apostles, was succeeded by a procession of the whole assembly, perhaps, traversed the widest circuit of the known headed by the bishop, along the interior of the globe in his holy mission. Now, on this side of it, sepulchral-field; continuing the prayers for its sanc- which was then unknown to the other half, (probably tification, as they traversed the young cypress avenues, because it was not inhabited,) we have, after the and the bright green-sward of the unshaded ground, lapse of eighteen centuries since the first promulgawhere the little hillock, or the level stone, marked tion of the Gospel by that eminent Apostle to every that a Christian brother had already been laid. shore of the Old World, set his name in this quarter
The most marked order and reverence prevailed of the New, on a Protestant Christian chapel : the amongst all present, during the whole ceremony; and first built, and sanctioned, and consecrated for our when it closed with a solemn address and benediction simple doctrines and worship, on that Roman Cafrom the bishop, there was not even a disturbing tholic expanse of the American Continent; and whisper heard. Every countenance, as it turned the first Protestant Bishop who ever set foot on it, away from the now sacredly guaranteed spot, cast a was invited thither for the purpose of performing look, whether from Catholic or Protestant, on each that patriarchal duty for the members of our British silent tomb, which seemed to say, May the sleeper Church. He, too, is the first prelate which that rest in peace !"
church sent to our West India Islands, and Sir We have seen a little account of the bishop's own Robert Ker Porter the first Consul accredited by the writing to a friend, in which he describes the place, British Government to the Caraccas state ; nay, we and the adjoining scenery. We cannot but enrich may add, that it was also permitted and done, during our own sketch with an extract.
the first Presidency of General Paez over the New “Amidst a sublimity and richness of landscape Republic of Venezuela. The epoch is remarkable, almost unequalled in the world, which presents itself and reflects an abiding honour on all concerned. to the view of the astonished traveller, on looking
LONDON PubKshed by JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND; and sold by all Booksellen
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
five years, a sufficient portion of it was completed for AMONGST the beautiful Cathedrals of this country, the celebration of public worship, and on the vigil of that of Salisbury holds a very distinguished rank. St. Michael, being Sunday, it was consecrated by The singular uniformity displayed in its design and Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury. Three style, the harmony which is found to pervade its years afterwards Bishop Poore was translated to several parts and proportions, and the striking air of Durham, but he left his friend Elias de Derham, lightness, simplicity, and elegance, which reigns to whom he had, from the first, intrusted the managethroughout the whole, all conspire to invest it with a
ment of the work, to superintend its progress, which, charm peculiarly its own; whilst the amazing eleva- indeed, he did for the first twenty years. Bishop tion of its graceful spire renders it, without exception, Bingham carried on the building eighteen years ; his the most lofty building in the kingdom.
successor, William de York, continued it during nine History informs us that the spiritual affairs of the years ; but the glory of bringing the undertaking to west of England were, for many years, under the a happy conclusion was reserved for Bishop Egidius sole direction of a single bishop, whose see was even- (or Giles) de Bridport. . In the second year of his tually fixed at Winchester ; but on the death of elevation, on the 30th of September, 1258, he had Bishop Hedda, or Eadda, the diocese was divided, the satisfaction of seeing this splendid fabric, after and a second bishopric established at Sherborne in having been rather more than thirty-eight years in Dorsetshire, comprehending the present counties of progress, solemnly dedicated to the Virgin Mary by Wilts, Berks, Dorset, Somerset, Devon, and Corn Boniface, Archbishop of Canterbury. The whole wall. Again, about 905, on the three counties last cost of the edifice seems to have been met by volunmentioned receiving bishops of their own, a fifth see tary contributions, and this, according to an account was soon after erected for Wiltshire, the bishops of delivered to Henry the Third, amounted to 40,000 which resided chiefly at Wilton, then the capital of marks, or about 25,6661. 138. 4d. sterling. the county to which it gave its name.
It appears, however, that the greater part of the On the death of Elfwold, Bishop of Sherborne, tower, and the lofty spire, were not then erected. between 1050 and 1058, we find that Herman, Bishop The building was raised to its present elevation of Wilton, effected the re-union of that see with his about a century after its dedication, and chiefly from own, and thus obtained jurisdiction over the coun the remains of the Cathedral at Old Sarum, which ties of Wilts, Berks, and Dorset, upon which he were granted to the Chapter in 1331, for the imchanged his residence to Sherborne. There, how- provement of their church. Notwithstanding the care ever, the see did not long remain. For about the taken by the architect to meet the vast increase of year 1074, Herman removed it from Sherborne to pressure created by these additions, great alarm arose Searobyrig, the spot now known by the name of Old for the safety of the fabric soon after their comSarum, then a royal town, and one of the strongest pletion, and about the year 1417 it was found fortified places in the west. At Old Sarum the see necessary to represent to Henry the Sixth that "the continued till the year 1220, when it was transferred stone spire in the middle of the Cathedral Church of to its present situation.
Sarum appeared to be in such ruin and danger, that The removal of the establishment, though long unless it were repaired, it must speedily fall, to the desired, was not, however, effected till the time of utter destruction of the Church itself ;" and conseBishop Richard Poore. The spot selected by him quently a license was granted to the Chapter to acfor the new foundation was a portion of his own quire lands to the amount of 501. per annum to be manor, distant about two miles from the castle, and appropriated to this object. Under this license, we then, according to Camden, bearing the name of find that amongst other benefactions, lands and posMerryfield. It lay at the juncture of the Avon with sessions were ceded to the Chapter by Walter Lord the Nodder, in the midst of a sheltered and fertile Hungerford, in 1429, “ to maintain the tall spire valley of considerable extent. Here, in 1219, a steeple in repair," and for other pious purposes; and wooden chapel was erected ; and to meet the expenses hus, it seems, they were enabled place the strucof the undertaking, the dignitaries of the Church ture in a permanent state of security * bound themselves to contribute one-fourth of their During the great Rebellion this Cathedral suffered revenues during seven years, and a number of the its full share of calamity from the violence of maliclergy were sent into different parts of the country, cious and misguided men. Whilst the members of and even into Scotland, to raise contributions. the establishment were insulted and dispersed, and
At length the day was fixed for laying the founda- the possessions of the Church were alienated, the tion of the Cathedral in due form ; and such was the beautiful edifice was profaned, and its architectural national importance attached to the event, that the decorations sadly mutilated and defaced. Yet even king himself (Henry the Third,) was expected. then persons were not wanting to interest themselves Henry, however, was prevented from being present, in the preservation of the building. Dr. Pope, in his being engaged at Shrewsbury in arranging a treaty Life of Bishop Ward, relates that workmen were with the Welsh *. On the 28th of April, 1220, the often seen employed in making repairs, and when bishop accompanied by the clergy, as well as by some questioned by whom they were sent, they were accusof t14 nobility of the country, and a vast concourse tomed to reply," Those who employ us will pay us, of persons from all quarters, after having attended trouble not yourselves to inquire ; whoever they are, divine service, proceeded to the place of foundation they do not desire to have their names known.” chanting the Litany. There the bishop laid the first Happily, soon after the Restoration, the see was held stone, and was followed by the nobility then present, by Dr. Seth Ward, a prelate of distinguished muniand by the dean and chapter, and other dignitaries; ficence and high scientific attainments, who directed both laity and clergy binding themselves to certain his attention to the repairs of the fabric, and in this annual payments for seven years.
he was assisted by the dignitaries of the Church After that event, the Cathedral steadily advanced contributing the fifth part of their endowments. under the auspices of Bishop Poore, and in less than King Charles the Second, also, encouraged them by
• Henry, however, did afterwards visit the new Cathedral a few days after its consecration in 1225, with his justiciary, Hubert de * It is supposed that the screens thrown across between the clus Burgh, and made several offerings.' That of Pubert is described as tered columns at the foot of the spire on the north and south sides, a GOLDEN TEXT,—that is, an ornamental copy of the Old and New were then erected. Testament for the altar,
his presence, and Sir Christopher Wren, the King's flat, and being each divided and subdivided by others surveyor, visited Salisbury in 1669 to examine the of smaller dimensions, rest on short clustered state of the Cathedral, and according to his report, columns. The range of the upper or clere-story is some alterations in the building, as well as some occupied by a series of triple lancet windows, with repairs in the tower and spire were made.
their centre light raised considerably above the other In 1736, new alarms having arisen, repairs were two. The vaulting is plain and simple, being turned made at the expense of Bishop Sherlock, assisted with arches and cross springers only, but tufts of by the Chapter, and the nobility and gentry of the foliage mark the intersections. The choir and neighbourhood. In the time of Bishop Hume, transepts differ but little from the nave.
Our Lady about 1776, amongst other changes, the pulpit and Chapel consists but of a single elevation; but such is seats, which were till then in the nave, were re the height and almost incredible lightness of the moved; since which period, the sermon has been marble columns, which divide the body and side delivered in the choir. But perhaps the most ex- aisles, and support the vaulted roofs,—the single tensive alterations and repairs, which of late years pillars being nearly thirty feet high, and only nine the Cathedral has undergone, took place under the inches in diameter,—that this part of the building auspices of Bishop Barrington, aided by the eminent excites the highest degree of admiration. architect, Mr. Wyatt. At this time two chapels, The number of windows with which the walls of erected in the 15th century by Lady Hungerford this Cathedral are pierced, and of the marble pillars and Bishop Beauchamp, were removed, and the which adorn the interior, is very striking. Camden present organ-screen, bishops throne, pulpit, stalls in remarks, “ They say this Church hath as many winthe choir, and the altar-pieces, which, from their dows as there are days in the year ; as many pillars being taken from the decorations of those chapels, and pilasters as there are hours ; and as many gates are of a more florid style than the building in general, as months.” This has been celebrated in some Latin were erected.
Whilst these operations were in pro verses by the learned Daniel Rogers, thus translated gress, George the Third visited the Cathedral ; and, by Dr. Heylin : the good king, on learning that the improvements
How many days in one whole year there be, depended on the voluntary subscriptions of the gentry So many windows in our church you see. of the diocese, took advantage of his residence in the So many marble pillars there appear, Royal Castle at Windsor, and begged to present to
As there are hours throughout the fleeting year, the Cathedral a new organ, being, as he said,
So many gates as moons one year does view, contribution as a Berkshire gentleman*.”
Strange tales to tell, yet not so strange as true. At the period of the erection of this Cathedral, At the intersection of the nave with the chief the singularly beautiful pointed arch had just begun transept, and having, as it were, for its foundation, to prevail in this country over the massive circular four lancet arches, on as many lofty clustered arch of the Saxon and Norman styles, and conse columns, 81 feet in height, from the pavement, quently a mixture of the two was chiefly in use in rises the most remarkable feature of the buildbuildings of that date. In Salisbury Cathedral this ing, the Spire, which Dallaway pronounces "has is not the case. It is admitted to be the only Ca never been equalled.” The original design seems thedral Church which never had any intermixture of clearly to have been merely a low tower, terminating styles, and it is cited by Hawkins as the first instance in an embattled moulding about eight feet above the of the pure unmixed Gothic in England. There roofs. The walls of this tower, though six feet in can be no doubt, that in this edifice the pointed thickness, above and below, are in the intermediate arched Gothic is not only displayed in all its purity space reduced to only two feet, being, if we may so and beauty, but that it is carried to the highest say, hollowed out into a colonnade or gallery, thirty degree of perfection; indeed it is generally considered feet in height, which was intended as a communias a model of its style.
cation with the roofs. The whole was no doubt This magnificent structure is in the form of a open to the interior of the Cathedral, forming what double cross, the long arm of which consists of the is usually styled a lantern. To give sufficient nave, choir, and Our Lady Chapel, following each strength to this frail fabric, for the reception of the other in succession from west to east. At the junc- proposed superstructure, the architect found it necesture of the nave and choir, this arm is crossed by sary to supply 120 additional supports, in the form the principal transept, and again near the centre of of flying and other buttresses, and to block up a the choir by a second, of lesser dimensions. The number of doorways; thus adding not less than 387 nave, the choir, the eastern side of the two transepts, superficial feet to the 260 of which the tower origiand Our Lady Chapel, are all ornamented with side nally consisted. He also braced the upper part aisles. The northern aisle of the nave is also broken throughout with an iron bandage, which is repreby a very handsome porch, which is entered under a
“perhaps the best piece of smith's work, lofty and beautiful pointed arch, and is altogether and also the most excellent mechanism of any thing admirably in character with the building t. The in Europe of its age." Upon this structure, so nave, choir, and transepts, rise in three regular tiers strengthened, he had the boldness to raise the preof pointed arches. The lower arches in the nave are sent stupendous tower and spire. of the lancet shape, and of very considerable eleva The tower consists of two equal divisions, the tion. They rest upon a succession of the most lower of which is of much more solid workmangraceful clustered columns, each consisting of four ship than the upper, but rather less highly decorated. pillars surrounded by as many slender shafts. The The spire is octagonal, and consequently, arches second tier is a kind of open gallery corresponding were thrown across the four angles at the summit of with the roof of the aisles, the arches of which are the tower, to form an eight-sided foundation; and
in nothing has the builder more clearly displayed The organ was built by Green, and cost 1000 guineas. It is his taste and skill, than in the beautiful cluster of tone is remarkably fine and mellow. It has, at various times since, pinnacles which he placed on each of the angles, received considerable additions.
since they have the joint advantage of confining the + This appears from the church records to have been the Galilee, arches, and causing the different forms of the tower or place appointed for those who were under ecclesiastical censures, and were not allowed to enter the church,
and spire to blend and harmonize together. The
walls of the spire gradually diminish from two feet them. We must, however, mention that of William to only nine inches, which, after the first fifteen feet, Longespee, Earl of Sarum, who was the first person is their thickness upwards. A timber frame, how- buried in the Cathedral; that of Bishop Roger, ever, consisting of a centrepiece, with arms to the which, with those of Bishops Osmund and Jocelin, walls, and hanging from the iron standard of the was removed from Old Sarum, and is, perhaps, the nave, after it passes through the capstone, binds the earliest monument ornamented with sculptured figures whole together, and contributes materially to its now in existence; and that of the Boy Bishop, strength and security.
probably the only specimen of the kind in the kingThe height of the cross from the ground was long dom. Of this we have the following history. It supposed to be 404 feet, or twice that of the Monument appears that on St. Nicholas' Day, the choristers of of London. But according to the accurate measure the Cathedral, every year, chose one of their number ments of Mr. Fisher, the present able clerk of the to be their bishop, and from that day till the night works, it is only 399 feet 10 inches. It is supposed of Innocents' Day, he bore the name and regular to have been originally 400 feet, but to have lost two state of a bishop, being robed, carrying a pastoral inches by a settlement in two of the columns below, staff, and wearing a mitre, his fellow choristers also which threw the structure no less than 24} inches assuming the title of prebendaries or canons. from the perpendicular, towards the south, and 164 the eve of Innocents' Day they performed the same inches towards the west, or nearly 29 inches general service (except the mass,) as the bishop himself, and decline towards the south-west. Happily, however, other dignitaries, and even taking precedence of them it seems not to have varied since its original settle in the procession. It is pretty clear that this was ment*. The summit is obtained first by stone the monument of one of those chorister bishops, staircases of 365 steps, to THE EIGHT DOORS” at who no doubt having died during the season of his the top of the tower, from thence by wooden ladders short-lived office, was buried, as was usual with to THE WEATHER DOOR," 42 feet from the cross, bishops, with a figure on his tomb-stone adorned with and after that by iron rings fixed on the outsidet. episcopal robes and ornaments.
On the south side of the Cathedral are the Cloisters, Amongst the benefits derived from Salisbury which form a complete square of 181 feet. The Cathedral, we may mention that it is the parishcharacter of their architecture is simple, but elegant. church of a very considerable community. The On the east side of them is the chapter-house, a “Liberty of the Close” contained at the last census, most beautiful octagonal building, 58 feet in diameter in 1831, no less than 538 souls, and hence the and 52 in height, supported in the centre by one Cathedral is regularly attended, in its parochial chainsulated clustered column of the most singular racter, by a highly respectable congregation of all lightness. Seven of its sides are almost entirely ranks and classes of society. occupied by large pointed windows; and in the The Bishop of Salisbury has now jurisdiction over eighth is the entrance from the cloisters. Under the the two counties of Wilts and Berks, that of Dorset windows, is a course of sculpture in high relief, having been separated from the diocese at the Rerepresenting portions of the Scripture history, from formation, and made to form part of the See of the Creation to the destruction of Pharaoh. In the Bristol. He is also assisted in his duties by the Chapter-house stand the remains of a curious cir-Chancellor of the Diocese, the Archdeacons of Sarum, cular chapter-table of considerable antiquity.
Wilts, and Berks, and twenty-four Rural Deans. Over part of the east side of the cloisters is the The service of the Cathedral is conducted by the Cathedral library, the erection of which is ascribed Dean, six Canons, and four Priest Vicars, each in to Bishop Jewell; but Bishop Gheast, it is said, their appointed turns, all of whom have residences supplied its earliest contents. It has at various in the Close ; the other dignitaries are only called periods received considerable additions from several upon to preach once or twice in the course of the bishops of the see, and other liberal contributors. year, and, in general, derive but little regular income The works most worthy of mention are a consi- from their stalls, these being, for the most part, derable number of ancient manuscripts, and some rather posts of distinction than of emolument*. valuable specimens of the earliest printed books.
* The members of the Cathedral establishment are the Dean, As a whole, this library forms a noble collection of the Precentor, the Chancellor of the Diocese, and the Chancellor divinity and ecclesiastical history 1.
of the Church; the Treasurer, the three Archdeacons, the Sub
Dean, the Sub-Chanter, forty-one Prebendaries, of whom six aro Interesting as are many of the monuments in this residentiary, called Canons, four Priest-Vicars, seven Lay-Vicars Cathedral, our space forbids any detailed account of or Singing-Men, one of whom is Organist, and eight Choristers..
As might be expected from its pointed form and great elevation, It has been several times affected by lightning, particularly in 1741,
LINES ON THE POOR BLIND MAN OF but not since the erection of the present conductor.
SALISBURY CATHEDRAL, + The Dimensions of the Cathedral are as follow:
BY THE REV, W. L. BOWLES, ONE OF THE CANONS RESIDENTIARY Extreme length
Outside, 473 0 Inside, 449 Principal transept
THERE is a poor blind man, who, every day, 229 7
203 10 Eastern transept.
Through frost and snow, in sunshine and in rain, Nave
Duly as tolls the bell, to the high fane Choir
Explores, with falt'ring footsteps, his dark way, Lady Chapel
68 East front
To kneel before his Maker, and to hear width, 1114 Nave and Choir do.
The solemn service chanted full and clear.
34 3 Vaulting of the Nave... height 81 0
Ask why, alone, in the same spot he kneels
Through the long year? Oh! the wide world is cold, do. 115 0 West front do. 130 0
And dark to him, but here, no more he feels The vane is 6 ft. 11} inches in length, and the capstone of the spire
His sad bereavement: Faith and Hope uphold 4 ft. 2 inches in diameter; which last afford a good idea of the great
His heart: amid the tumult of mankind height of the spire.
He droops no longer-lone, and poor, and blind # There was till the time of Bishop Barrington, 2 belfry in the His soul is in the choirs above the skies, cemetery, apparently of the same date as the Cathedral, detached from the church on the north side, in which was a ring of bells. But
And songs, far off, of angel-harmonies. at that period the belfry was removed, and the bells transferred to Oh! happy if the vain, the rich, the proudthe church of St. Thomas in the city. In this belfry some of the The pageant actors of life's motley crowd parliamentary forces were stationed in the time of the Rebellion. Would drop the mask; the moral prospect scan, (See the interesting account of Old and New Sarum, page 75, just published by Mr. Hatcher.)
And learn one lesson from a poor blind man;
143 229 151