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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEI)GE.

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138

than half that of the earth; namely, 4100 (four | THE NATURALIST'S AUTUMNAL WALK. thousand one hundred) miles.

The little excursions of the naturalist, from habit Revolving between Mars and Jupiter are four and from acquirement, become a scene of constant celestial bodies, commonly called planets; but which observation and remark. The insect that crawls, are supposed to be the separated fragments of what the note of the bird, the plant that flowers, or the was once a larger planet. The names of these

vernal green leaf that peeps out, engages his attenbodies, which have all been discovered since the

tion, is recognised as an intimate, or noted from commencement of the present century, are Ceres, some novelty that it presents in sound or aspect. Pallas, Juno, and Vesta. They are so extremely Every season has its peculiar product, and is pleasdiminutive, when compared with the other planetary

ing or admirable, from causes that variously affect bodies, that they seem only as specks in the creation;

our different temperaments or dispositions; but there the largest being 160 and the smallest about 80 miles

are accompaniments in an autumnal morning's in diameter. They are not visible to the unassisted woodland walk, that call for all our notice and adeye.

miration : the peculiar feeling of the air, and the The largest planet in our system, is Jupiter. The solemn grandeur of the scene around us, dispose diameter of this magnificent body is nearly 11 times

the mind to contemplation and remark; there is a that of the earth. It is estimated at 87,000 (eighty- silence in which we hear every thing, a beauty that seven thousand) miles. For a man to walk that will be observed. The stump of an old oak is a distance, would occupy very nearly 7 years; a steam very landscape, with rugged alpine steeps bursting carriage would accomplish it in 5 months and 5 days. through forests of verdant mosses, with some pale. Saturn has a diameter equal to 10 times that of the denuded. branchless lichen. like a scathed oak. earth, or about 80,000 (eighty thousand miles.) | creeping up the sides, or crowning the summit. Next beyond Saturn, is Uranus, the most remote of Rambling with unfettered grace. the tendrils of the the planets known to the inhabitants of our world. / briony (tamus communis) festoun with its brilliant Its diameter is about 35,000 (thirty-five thousand)

berries, green, yellow, red, the slender sprigs of the miles, rather more than 4 times that of the earth.

hazel, or the thorn; it ornaments their plainness, The bulk of Uranus is equal to 80 such bodies as

and receives a support its own feebleness denies. the earth.

The agaric, with all its hues, its shades, its eleThe most transcendently beautiful of all the mighty

gant variety of forms, expands its cone sprinkled orbs with which we are associated, is the Sun, the with the freshness of the morning : a transient fair. centre of motion, and the source of light, to the a child of decay, that “ sprang up in a night, and whole planetary system. In contemplating an object will perish in a night." The squirrel, agile with in its dimensions so stupendous, in its aspect so life and timidity, gamboling round the root of an splendid, the mind is lost in wonder. The real ancient beech. its base overgrown with the dewberry diameter of the sun is estimated at 882,000 (eight rubus cæsius), blue with unsullied fruit, impeded hundred and eighty-two thousand) miles, exceeding, in his frolic sports, half angry, darts up the silvery in this respect, the earth, in the proportion of 111 | bole again, to peep and wonder at the strange in. to 1. In bulk, the sun is equal to 1,384,472 (one truder on his haunts. The jay springs up, and million, three hundred and eighty-four thousand, four screaming, tells of danger to her brood, the noisy hundred and seventy-two) such bodies as the earth. tribe repeat the call, are hushed, and leave us ; the

To travel a distance equal to the diameter of thc | loud laugh of the woodpecker, joyous and vacant; sun, would occupy a man, supposing him to proceed the hammering of the nuthatch (sitta europæa), at the rate we have before mentioned, 58 years, 11 cleaving its prize in the chink of some dry bough; months, 2 weeks, and 3 days. A steam-carriage the humble-bee. torpid on the disc of the purple would be 4 years and 2 weeks performing the same thistle, just lifts a limb to pray forbearance of injury, distance. Proceeding uninterruptedly at the same to ask for peace, and bid us rate, namely, 25 miles per hour, it would occupy 12

Leave him, leave him to repose. years, 8 months, 3 weeks, 5 days, and 2 hours, for a The cinquefoil, or the vetch, with one lingering bloom steam-carriage to run a distance equal to the circum- yet appears, and we note it from its loneliness.

Spreading on the light foliage of the fern, dry and millions, seven hundred and seventy thousand, eight mature, the spider has fixed her toils, and motionless hundred and ninety-one) miles !

in the midst, watches her expected prey, every thread Here we lay down the pen. We have treated only I and mesh beaded with dew, trembling with the of the magnitude of the bodies known to us, as zephyr's breath. Then falls the “sere and yellow composing what is termed, by its relation to the sun, leaf,” parting from its spray without a breeze tinkling the Solar System. We have said nothing of the in the boughs, and rustling scarce audibly along, respective distance of the planets from the sun, from rests at our feet, and tells us that we part too. All each other, and from the earth ; nor have we given these are distinctive symbols of the season, marked any account of the velocity with which they move in the silence and sobriety of the hour; and form, in their several orbits. These subjects will engage perhaps, a deeper impression on the mind, than any our attention in a future paper. Meanwhile, we afforded by the verdant promises, the vivacities of shall do well to remember, with emotions of gratitude spring, or the gay, profuse luxuriance of summer. and humility, that the Almighty Being who has

- Journal of a Naturalist. created, and who governs innumerable worlds, is concerned in sustaining the brief existence of the Tue attention which a beneficent Providence has shown to insect that floats unseen by us in the sunbeam, the well-being of its creatures, is beautifully illustrated by Amidst such evidences of infinite power, and such the following fact. When a bird sits on its perch at roost, displays of unchanging beneficence, we need enter the action of doing so, from the peculiar formation of the tain no fears that we shall be overlooked or forgotten.

muscles of the legs and thighs, draws the claws of the feet

together, so that they hold tightly to the perch as long as Let our chief concern be, that whilst we are the

the bird is in a sitting posture. But for this circumstance, objects of the providential care of our Heavenly

the comfort and security of the bird would be endangered Father, we may show, by our faith and good works, by every gale of wind while it reposed.—Gleanings in that we are also the partakers of His special grace. Natural History.

R. R.

GREAT NUMBERS.

fore, 8 furlongs, or 1760 (one No. I. NUMBERS DESCRIPTIVE OF MAGNITUDE. hundred and sixty) yards, or 528€ In mental operations, few things are more difficult,

two hundred and eighty) feet, or 63

thousand three hundred and sixty) i or more imperfectly performed, than that of esti

The real diameter of the earth mating great numbers. We are accustomed to speak

nearly to 8000 (eight thousand) ny and to read of thousands and millions of miles, of

generally so described for the sake of Ivunu mumvers. years, of inhabitants, and of pounds sterling, without

As our object is not so much to convey accurate possessing any definite idea of the relative degrees of

information on subjects connected with astronomy, vastness which these numbers are intended to pre

on the present occasion, as it is to give a general idea figure, as respects extension, duration, population, or

of the dimensions of the earth, and of the bodies value. To assist our conceptions as to the magnitude of

that are known to us as its companions in the Solar

System, we shall adopt the popular mode of computhe earth; of its attendant, the moon ; of the sun; and of the planets, which, like ourselves, revolve

tation; assume the diameter of the earth as equal to round the sun ; to enable us to form some notion of

8000 miles, and employ that diameter as a standard

| measure in comparing the earth with other worlds. the distance the moon is from the earth; that of the

If a man were to walk 4 miles per hour, and 12 respective planets from the earth and the sun; and of

hours per day, but resting on the Sabbath-day, he the sun from the nearest star; it seems desirable that

would be six lunar months (28 days each), 3 weeks, we employ some simple and familiar mode of com

and nearly 5 days, walking 8000 miles. A stageputation, in addition to that of abstract quantities; and that the process we select, should impressively

coach, travelling at an average rate of 10 miles per convey to the mind an accurate perception of great

hour, both day and night, and, as is too commonly ness, without fatiguing and bewildering it by frequent

the practice, Sundays and other days alike, would repetition.

accomplish that distance in 1 month 5 days and 8 In surveying the world on which we dwell, we are,

hours. A steam-carriage on a rail-way, similar to

those employed between Liverpool and Manchester, very properly, affected by its extent and its grandeur. It is, when viewed in relation to the beings who

moving at an average rate of 25 miles per hour, day inhabit it, extensive, as respects its dimensions, and

and night, Sundays and other days, would perform

the distance in 13 days and 6 hours. magnificent, as respects its structure. But when we

The diameter of the earth is only one of its dicontrast it with other worlds, some of which may be

| mensions. The extent of its exterior surface, is considered our near neighbours, our own beautiful

what chiefly concerns its inhabitants, since it is there globe sinks into comparative insignificance; and

that they carry on the greatest number of their though we know it is not the least, we have abundant

daily avocations. attestations that it is very far removed from the

The circumference t of the earth

at the equator, is estimated at 24,899 (twenty-four greatest, of the Creator's works.

thousand eight hundred and ninety-nine) or, in round The only means we possess, for ascertaining the

numbers, 25,000 (twenty five thousand) miles. To dimensions of the earth, is by measuring off, in

travel this distance would occupy a man, walking at succession, certain distinct portions of its surface,

the rate already mentioned, 20 months, 2 weeks, and and then computing the extent of the whole by a comparison of these separate parts. This has been

5 days. A ship, supposing she could take a direct done with such astonishing accuracy that Sir J. W.

course, and average 8 miles per hour, would accomHerschel assures us, he considers it extremely

plish the distance in 4 months, 2 weeks, 4 days, and

5 hours ; a stage-coach in 3 months, 2 weeks, 6 improbable that, in the estimated diameter * of the

days, and 4 hours; and a steam-carriage in 1 month, earth, an error exists to the extent of five miles. The figure of the earth is spherical. It is not a

| 1 week, 6 days, and 16 hours.

The moon, being our nearest neighbour and con. true sphere, inasmuch that its equatorial diameter is somewhat greater than its polar. The difference, I

stant companion in the regions of space, next claims

our attention. The moon is very inferior in size to however, is so trifling, that in a model made to represent the earth in its just

the earth. Its diameter is rather more than one · proportions, supposing it to

fourth that of the earth ; namely, 2160 (two thou: be sixteen inches in diameter,

sand one hundred and sixty) miles. Supposing the in the direction denoted in

earth to be a solid sphere, (and there is every reason

to conclude that it is,) if the materials of which it is the annexed figure from A

composed were separated into 49 equal parts, each to B; the diameter in the other direction, from C to D,

part would be equal to the bulk of the moon. To would require to be only oth

| walk 2160 miles, would occupy a man 1 month, 3

weeks, and 3 days. The circumference of a circle is (one twentieth) of an inch

rather more than 3 times its diameter 1. The cirless; a variation from a true

cumference of the moon is about 6785 (six thousand sphere, that neither the hand

"! seven hundred and eighty-five) miles, a distance that nor the eye could detect. The greatest diameter of the earth is estimated as

would be run by a steam-carriage in 11 days and 74 equal to 7925 (seven thousand nine hundred and

hours. twenty-five), and its least, to 7899 (seven thousand

Next in order among the superior planets, as eight hundred and ninety-nine) English miles, the

respects dimensions, is Mercury, whose diameter is difference being 26 miles. A mile is equal to 8

estimated at 3140 (three thousand one hundred and furlongs, each furlong being equal to 220 yards,

forty) miles. Mercury is larger than the moon, but each yard equal to 3 feet, and each foot equal to 12

considerably less than the earth. Venus is nearer inches. An English statute mile comprises, there

the size of the earth than either of the other planets,

its diameter being about 7800 (seven thousand eight From two Greek words, dia, through, and metron, a measure. hundred) miles. Mars has a diameter rather more It implies a right line; that is, a straight line passing through the centre of a circle or other curved figure, dividing it into two equal | + From two Latin words, circum, round, and foro, to carry. It sige parts. As applied to a solid, it denotes the distance from the exterior nifies the exterior line that bounds a circular body. surface on one side, to the exterior surface on the other side, by al As 1 is to 3.1416, so is the diameter of a circle to its oircumstraight line passing through the centre.

| ference. .

146-2

was

an

than half that of the earth; namely, 4100 (four THE NATURALIST'S AUTUMNAL WALK. thousand one hundred) miles.

The little excursions of the naturalist, from habit Revolving between Mars and Jupiter are four and from acquirement, become a scene of constant celestial bodies, commonly called planets ; but which observation and remark. The insect that crawls, are supposed to be the separated fragments of what the note of the bird, the plant that flowers, or the

once a larger planet. The names of these vernal green leaf that peeps out, engages his attenbodies, which have all been discovered since the tion, is recognised as an intimate, or noted from commencement of the present century, are Ceres,

some novelty that it presents in sound or aspect. Pallas, Juno, and Vesta. They are so extremely Every season has its peculiar product, and is pleasdiminutive, when compared with the other planetary ing or admirable, from causes that variously affect bodies, that they seem only as specks in the creation ;

our different temperaments or dispositions; but there the largest being 160 and the smallest about 80 miles

are accompaniments in autumnal morning's in diameter. They are not visible to the unassisted woodland walk, that call for all our notice and adeye.

miration : the peculiar feeling of the air, and the The largest planet in our system, is Jupiter. The solemn grandeur of the scene around us, dispose diameter of this magnificent body is nearly 11 times the mind to contemplation and remark; there that of the earth. It is estimated at 87,000 (eighty- silence in which we hear every thing, a beauty that seven thousand) miles. For a man to walk that will be observed. The stump of an old oak is a distance, would occupy very nearly 7 years; a steam- very landscape, with rugged alpine steeps bursting carriage would accomplish it in 5 months and 5 days. through forests of verdant mosses, with some pale, Saturn has a diameter equal to 10 times that of the denuded, branchless lichen, like a scathed oak, earth, or about 80,000 (eighty thousand miles.) creeping up the sides, or crowning the summit. Next beyond Saturn, is Uranus, the most remote of Rambling with unfettered grace, the tendrils of the the planets known to the inhabitants of our world. briony (tamus communis) festoun with its brilliant Its diameter is about 35,000 (thirty-five thousand) berries, green, yellow, red, the slender sprigs of the miles, rather more than 4 times that of the earth. hazel, or the thorn ; it ornaments their plainness, The bulk of Uranus is equal to 80 such bodies as

and receives a support its own feebleness denies. the earth.

The agaric, with all its hues, its shades, its eleThe most transcendently beautiful of all the mighty gant variety of forms, expands its cone sprinkled orbs with which we are associated, is the Sun, the with the freshness of the morning; a transient fair, centre of motion, and the source of light, to the a child of decay, that “ sprang up in a night, and whole planetary system. In contemplating an object will perish in a night.” The squirrel, agile with in its dimensions so stupendous, in its aspect so

life and timidity, gamboling round the root of an splendid, the mind is lost in wonder. The real ancient beech, its base overgrown with the dewberry diameter of the sun is estimated at 882,000 (eight (rubus cæsius), blue with unsullied fruit, impeded hundred and eighty-two thousand) miles, exceeding, in his frolic sports, half angry, darts up the silvery in this respect, the earth, in the proportion of 111bole again, to peep and wonder at the strange in. to 1. In bulk, the sun is equal to 1,384,472 (one truder on his haunts. The jay springs up, and million, three hundred and eighty-four thousand, four screaming, tells of danger to her brood, the noisy hundred and seventy-two) such bodies as the earth.

tribe repeat the call, are hushed, and leave us ; the To travel a distance equal to the diameter of the loud laugh of the woodpecker, joyous and vacant ; sun, would occupy a man, supposing him to proceed the hammering of the nuthatch (sitta europæa), at the rate we have before mentioned, 58 years, 11 cleaving its prize in the chink of some dry bough; months, 2 weeks, and 3 days. A steam-carriage the humble-bee, torpid on the disc of the purple would be 4 years and 2 weeks performing the same thistle, just lifts a limb to pray forbearance of injury, distance. Proceeding uninterruptedly at the same to ask for peace, and bid us rate, namely, 25 miles per hour, it would occupy 12

Leave him, leave him to repose. vears, 8 months, 3 weeks, 5 days, and 2 hours, for a The cinquefoil, or the vetch, with one lingering bloom steam-carriage to run a distance equal to the circum- yet appears, and we note it from its loneliness. ference of the sun, which is about 2,770,891 (two Spreading on the light foliage of the fern, dry and millions, seven hundred and seventy thousand, eight mature, the spider has fixed her toils, and motionless hundred and ninety-one) miles !

in the midst, watches her expected prey, every thread Here we lay down the pen. We have treated only and mesh beaded with dew, trembling with the of the magnitude of the bodies known to us, as zephyrs breath. Then falls the "sere and yellow composing what is termed, by its relation to the sun, leaf,” parting from its spray without a breeze tinkling the Solar System. We have said nothing of the in the boughs, and rustling scarce audibly along, respective distance of the planets from the sun, from rests at our feet, and tells us that we part too. All each other, and from the earth ; nor have we given these are distinctive symbols of the season, marked any account of the velocity with which they move in the silence and sobriety of the hour; and form, in their several orbits. These subjects will engage perhaps, a deeper impression on the mind, than any our attention in a future paper. Meanwhile, we afforded by the verdant promises, the vivacities of shall do well to remember, with emotions of gratitude spring, or the gay, profuse luxuriance of summer. and humility, that the Almighty Being who has

- Journal of a Naturalist, created, and who governs innumerable worlds, is concerned in sustaining the brief existence of the The attention which a beneficent Providence has shown to insect that floats unseen by us in the sunbeam. the well-being of its creatures, is beautifully illustrated by Amidst such evidences of infinite power, and such the following fact. When a bird sits on its perch at roost, displays of unchanging beneficence, we need enter the action of doing so, from the peculiar formation of the tain no fears that we shall be overlooked or forgotten. muscles of the legs and thighs, draws the claws of the feet Let our chief concern be, that whilst we are the together, so that they hold tightly to the perch as long as

the bird is in a sitting posture. But for this circumstance, objects of the providential care of our Heavenly the comfort and security of the bird would be endangered Father, we may show, by our faith and good works, by every gale of wind while it reposed. —Gleanings in that we are also the partakers of His special grace.

Natural History
R. R.

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No. IX. THE BATTLES OF THE PYRENEES. of St. Sebastian's and Pamplona, which were both When the news reached England of the battle that well garrisoned; and it became necessary to make had been fought at Vittoria, and of the complete preparations for reducing these, their last, strong-holds. rout which the French had suffered on that occasion, Lord Wellington determined to besiege St. Sebastian's, it caused unbounded joy and exultation. The thanks because its proximity to the sea would allow the of both Houses of Parliament were voted to the means of attack to be more readily obtained; and it British general and his troops; and addresses of was accordingly invested by 10,000 men under Sir congratulation were poured in to the throne from Thomas Graham. Pamplona was closely blockaded various public bodies. The same feeling prevailed in by a corps of Spaniards; and intrenchments were Spain. By a decree of the cortes, the Marquess of thrown up on every side of it, to prevent the escape Wellington was created Duke of Vittoria;

and a

of the garrison, and to cut them off from all supplies. grant of the lordship of Sota de Romano, in the tion of Napoleon, and severely to wound his pride.

These events could not fail deeply to fix the attenkingdom of Granada, was annexed to the title.

Yet this victory was not more brilliant in its He saw the object for which he had so long conachievement than it was important in its results; for tended, on the point of being wrested from his it was quickly followed by the retreat of the French grasp; and he felt that the most powerful efforts from Spain. We mentioned in our preceding paper were necessary, even to protect the “sacred terri

His measures were how precipitate was the flight of Joseph, and how tory*" itself from invasion. narrow his escape from capture; his panic-stricken taken at once, and they were regulated according to troops Aed with equal rapidity, and they were pur

the

emergency. Fresh levies were directed upon the sued as hotly. They took the road leading to Pam. Pyrenees, to recruit the exhausted ranks of his plona, and on reaching that fortress, hastened to seek broken army; and that the general might be equal shelter within its walls; but they found the gates to the occasion, Marshal Soult, who had quitted closed. Nevertheless, so strong was their alarm, Spain in the spring, and followed Napoleon to Gerand such their anxiety to place themselves beyond many, was hastily sent back to the scene of operathe reach of their pursuers, that they actually en- tions, as the “ Lieutenant of the Emperor." deavoured to force their way over the ramparts, and

This appointment restored, in a certain degree, were only induced to desist, on being opposed by a

the confidence of the French army, for the reputaserious fire of cannon and musketry.

tion of Marshal Soult stood high. The marshal Their stay was, however, but short. Having joined his command on the 13th of July, and strengthened the garrison, Joseph resumed his flight; began his preparations with energy and activity. and then taking the main body of his army with The army was re-organized, its several corps were him into France, he left the remainder in the valley again provided with their necessary equipments, of El Ba an, the possession of which was desirable, and great exertions were used to increase the effiboth on account of the fertility of its soil, and the ciency of the cavalry and artillery. A proclamation strong positions which it afforded. Lord Wellington was issued, admitting the dispositions and arrangeimmediately took effective measures for dislodging ments of the British general to have been prompt, this force; the enemy were forced to abandon every skilful, and consecutive, and the valour'and steadisuccessive post which they occupied, and at length to retire into France.

* Buonaparte had boastingly given this name to France, implying

that that country alone, in the whole continent, was free from the The French still, however, retained the fortresses calamities of war.

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