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combined with considerable mechanical skill, raised | In former times, the miser withdrew from use, such himself to rank and eminence, and acquired a large articles as constituted the wealth of the community ; fortune.
such as corn, clothing, furniture of various kinds, In 1767, Arkwright came to Warrington, where, and above all, as the least perishable, and least bulky, relying on his mechanical acquirements, he endea- gold, and silver, and jewels. All these things, even voured to construct a machine to produce a perpetual if not kept till spoilt, or hidden, so as to be altogether motion. Luckily for himself and his country, his lost, were at least withdrawn during his life-time, attention was diverted from this impracticable project, from the enjoyment of the community. But the by the representations of Kay, a clockmaker in the community would supply the want, either directly, town, who advised him, rather to apply himself to by the labour of its own members, or by exchanging the improvement of machinery for spinning cotton. with other nations the produce of that labour. Some Kay, it seems, had already made some progress in an few instances occur, even in such a state of society invention of this description, and he and Arkwright as ours, of this kind of hoarding, but they are very made a joint application to P. Atherton Esq., of rare, and generally on a small scale. Liverpool, for assistance to carry their plans into On the other hand, in countries as far advanced in practice. Mr. Atherton, deterred by the homely commercial transactions, as almost the whole of appearance of the two projectors, was afraid to hazard Europe, it may be said, that with hardly any excephis property in the undertaking, but agreed to send tions, hoarding withdraws nothing from the public a smith and a watch-tool maker, to construct the If the miser is engaged in any kind of business, heavier parts of the machinery.
he lives himself, indeed, (as in the other case,) on a The clockmaker's work was performed by Kay, to very miserable pittance: but his desire of gain whom in reality belongs a great share of the inven- naturally prompts him to add continually his profits tion, although the subsequent improvements of to his capital. Now, his capital is a part of the Arkwright brought it to a perfect state. When capital of the country, namely, of the stock that is the machine was completed, Arkwright, in 1769, employed profitably in producing more commodities ; took out a patent, and soon after entered into part- these commodities being used by others, though the nership with Mr. Smalley of Preston; the speculation, owner will not indulge himself with them. If he is however, failed, and they both went to Nottingham, not himself engaged in business, it comes to the where, with the aid of several opulent individuals, same thing; for, in that case, he lends to others, for they erected a large cotton-mill turned by horses. the sake of increasing his store ; and he continues Ilaving succeeded in this undertaking, he gradually to invest, in like manner, the interest they pay him. enlarged his views, and in his hands, the carding and And it makes no difference, whether he lends to spinning of cotton became a great national manu individuals, or invests in government-securities : for facture. During five years, in which time the ma since in the latter case, the total amount of the chinery was being brought to perfection, upwards of government securities is not increased, (the national 20,0001. was expended without any return of capital, debt remaining the same,) every purchase he makes, but the undertaking soon became extremely lucrative, sets free an equal amount, which is sure to find its and with the advantages of his patent-right, Ark- way into the hands of some private borrower; and, wright soon became one of the greatest manufacturers generally speaking, of one who will employ this in the kingdom.
borrowed capital productively, in trade, agriculture, On the 22nd of December, 1786, Arkwright re
and manufactures. Whereas, if he had lived in ceived the honour of knighthood, on the occasion of what is called a liberal style, most of what he has presenting an address to His Majesty, from the hun thus laid by, would have been spent unproductively dred of Wirksworth. He died on the 3rd of August, in grand dinners, the employment of livery-servants, 1792, at his works at Cromford in Derbyshire. race-horses, hounds, &c., all of which would have
In 1776 another machine was invented, called a left behind no increase of the capital of the country mule, in which the two principles of the spinning
The individuals, however, who borrow the miser's Jenny and of Arkwright's plan are combined. money, not only owe him no thanks, as he had not
Having already noticed the art of weaving at their benefit in view, but are unable, in most instances, page 188, Vol. III., in an article on the silk manu to refer the benefit to him. We can no more trace facture, we shall not again revert to the subject, the actual progress of each sum that is thus thrown the methods employed for the weaving of cotton into the general capital of the country, than of the fabrics being very similar.
drops of water of each shower that falls into the ocean. Though it may be proved, that the whole
mass of waters must be increased by just so much. SOCIETY. VII.
This slight notice of the subject has been introLTFECTS OF THE CONDUCT OF A MISER, IN DIF duced, as affording a striking instance of the manner FERENT STATES OF SOCIETY.
in which, by the wise arrangements of Providence, The tendency which the conduct of individuals, in
not only self-interest, but, in some instances, eren
an pursuing their own private and selfish ends, has the most sordid selfishness, are made, in towards promoting the interests of the community,
advanced stage of society, to conduce to public is more and more developed as Society advances prosperity: Not that, as Mandeville holds, private Tahe, for example, the case of a MiSER; one whose vices conduce to public prosperity. The spendthrift selfishness shows itself in a love of hoarding. Such
diminishes it : and the miser, though his evil dispoa person, though his individual character is of course
sition is generally turned by an over-ruling Provievery where the same, is yet, as to the effects of his dence, to a good end, yet might lay out his money conduct on others, very different in different stages of much more beneficially, if he possessed right feelings,
D. Society. In a community where commercial affairs and were moved by judicious public-spirit. are yet in a rude and infant state, the conduct of a muiser is mischievous to the public; while, in one that is in a more advanced stage, he is, though he be chosen, longer to be retained; and, indeed, never to be
A good man is the best friend, and, therefore, scone. t to does not intend it, benefiting others by the sacrifice parted with, unless he cease to be that for which he was of liis own comforts,
NESTLING OF THE REDBREAST.
ideas, which would not be expressed by common A Pair of robins chose for their abode a small cottage, words, in such a manner as to be clearly understood. which, though not actually inhabited, was constantly used | Thus, when an astronomer speaks of the altitude of as a depository for potatoes, harness, &c., and repeatedly a star, to indicate its height, or an optician of the visited by its owners. It closely adjoined a large black-refraction of a ray of light, to denote its bending from smith's shop, in which it may be truly said, That all day long with click and bang,
its straight course, as it passes from one medium, or Close to their couch did hammer clang.
substance, into another, they do no more than a and in which the usual din of such places, is considerably carpenter, or a blacksmith, or a weaver is obliged to increased by the strokes of a hammer, which would have do, in speaking of bevilling, and rabbeting; of welding, bailled the strength even of “Hal of the Wynd," liimself and fine-boring ; of throwing his silk, and building the to wield, and is worked by water. But neither the noise of monture of his draw-looms. They are obliged either the adjacent forge, nor the frequent visits of the owners of to use new words, or to employ old words in a the cottage, deterred these fearless settlers. They entered through a window-frame, the lattice of which had been peculiar and restricted sense, in order that there may removed; and in a child's covered cart, which, with its be no mistake in their meaning. Still, the difficulty horse attached to it, was hanging on a pey over the fire- of terms is very soon overcome: and the shortest, place, and just afforded space for the purpose, they built as well as the best, way, is to learn them thoroughly their first nest early in the spring. The circumstance was at once; just as an apprentice to a turner learns first observed, and soon became an object of curiosity to the neighbours, many of whom came to look at the nest; these and mandrils, which he is to use; or a druggist to
to distinguish by name the various chisels, chucks, the birds, who here reared, without accident, their first decipher the inscriptions on the drawers and bottles brood. When the attention of the parents was no longer in his master's shop. needed by their full-fledged offspring, they set about pro In treating, however, of a substance so common viding for another family, and built their second nest on a as water, it may be expected that we shall not have shelf, on the opposite side of the room, close to an old
to use many uncommon words. Wherever this is mouse-trap. Here, again, they received visits of inquiry from bipeds of a larger growth, and reared and dismissed necessary, we shall endeavour to explain them as their progeny. This second brood had no sooner left them, they occur, in such a way as to remove any difficulty than, as if mindful of their Creator's mandate, “increase which they might occasion. and multiply," they again betook themselves to the task of Water is not a simple substance. It is composed building a third nest, under the same sheltering roof; and of two gases, or airs, oxygen and hydrogen, united in for this purpose, chose another shelf, in a different corner of the proportion of eight to one in weight; so that the same room, and there, in their mossy bed, on a bundle nine pounds of water contain eight pounds of oxygen of papers, on the 21st of June, I saw four half-fledged and one pound of hydrogen chemically combined. nestlings, which the parent birds were feeding, while a party of us were watching their proceedings. I am wrong,
All matter, with which we are acquainted, is capable perliaps, in saying the parent birds, for the hen alone of existing in three forms, solid, Auid, or aëriform: entered the room while we were there, the cock-bird con and water is found under each of these forms. It is tenting bimself with observing us from the outside. There either solid, as in ice, hail, or snow: or liquid, as it is can be no doub that the same pair of birds belonged to each successive nest, as the loss of her tail rendered the generally found in temperate or warm climates: or hen conspicuous amongst her kindred in the neighbourhood. gaseous, that is, in the form of an invisible vapour, J. R.
as in stcam. Without entering into the question as
to the cause of this change in the form of bodies, we The quantity of silk material used in England alone, may consider, that the very small particles of which amounts in each year to more than four millions of pounds' bodies are composed, are capable of being acted upon weight, for the production of which, myriads upon myriads by two opposite forces. By one of these, which is of silk-worms are required. Fourteen thousand millions called the attraction of cohesion, the particles of a of animated creatures annually live and die to supply this body are drawn together; by the other, which is little corner of the world with an article of luxury! If astonishment be excited at this fact, let us extend our view called the force of repulsion, they have a tendency to into China, and survey the dense population of its widely- separate from one another. If the attractive force is spread region, whose inhabitants, from the emperor on his the stronger, the body requires force to separate its throne, to the peasant in the lonely hut, are indebted for parts, or it is a solid: if the attractive and repulsive their clothing to the labours of the silk-worm. The ima- forces are exactly equal, the parts of the body can gination, fatigued with the flight, is lost and bewildered in be separated by the least force, or the body is a fluid: contemplating the countless numbers, which every successive if the repulsive force is the stronger, the particles year spin their slender threads for the service of man. LARDNER'S Cyclopædia.
require some force to keep them near one another, the body resists compression, or it is an air, or vapour.
Heat has the property of increasing the repulsive FAMILIAR ILLUSTRATIONS OF NATURAL
or expansive powers of the particles of bodies; and PHENOMENA.
a very simple experiment will show the manner in No. XII. WATER.
which water may assume the form of a solid, or THERE are many natural substances very familiar to fiuid, or a vapour by the influence of heat. us, yet possessed of properties of which we are con Suppose A, B, C, D, is a closed glass vessel, contented to be ignorant, for want of taking the necessary taining at the bottom a small quantity of pounded trouble. We are apt to think that the knowledge of ice or frozen snow, s; and that a thermometer, T, has things cannot be attained without the previous know its bulb immersed in the ice, which will, of course, ledge of technical words; and, when we open a book mark a temperature at least as low as 32° of Fahrenupon any subject of natural philosophy, we are, heit. Suppose, also, that the cubical contents of the perhaps, diverted from our first attempts, by meeting vessel are full 1700 or 1800 times as great as those with some terms of art, or some reference to branches of the part occupied by the ice s. Now let heat be of science of which we are ignorant. Now it cannot applied at the bottom, as, for instance, by a lamp, or be denied, that, in the study of some natural phe- by setting the vessel on a heated plate; and observe nomena, we must have recourse to scientific terms. what takes place. These are not mere hard words, intended to conceal If the temperature of the ice is below the freezing knowledge from all except the well-instructed. They point, or 32°, the mercury in the thermometer first are necessary, in order to express, with accuracy, rises to that point, and then the ice begins to melt,
During the time of melting, the temperature, as and boils. Other fluids expand also, although not so
the figure. If the bulb be now
In the act of freezing, water expands with great rapidity, and, if confined, with irresistible force. Every one must have had experience of the breaking of a bottle, or other vessel, by the freezing of water in it; and an iron bomb-shell has been burst by the same means. The Florentine academicians succeeded in bursting a brass globe, the cavity of which was an inch in diameter, by filling it with water and freezing it. The force necessary to produce this effect was calculated at 27,720 lbs. The quantity of expansion is such, that eight cubic inches of water form about
nine cubic inches of ice. Thus the addition of heat to the solid body, ice,
The deviation from the ordinary law of expansion, has changed it into a fluid: and the addition of more
in the case of water, is a fact of immense import
ance. If water continued to be compressed until it heat has changed the fluid into a vapour: so that we
froze, as is the case with other liquids, large bodies may say, without much impropriety, that heat and
of water, instead of being covered with a coating of ice, ice together produce water, and water and heat produce
would be converted into solid masses ; a state which steam. If the vessel be suspended, during the experiment,
would destroy the existence of almost all living creaand balanced by a weight, it will be found to have
tures which now pass the winter under water in neither gained nor lost any weight, which shows that
security and comfort. The cold, which congeals the very same matter, which was first in the form of
water, is usually applied at the top; as soon as a ice, and then of water, is still contained in the vessel,
small quantity of the water is cooled, it becomes speonly it is converted into steam. The same fact may
cifically heavier than the rest, and sinks, thereby be proved by exposing the vessel again to cold, when
exposing a fresh surface to the action of the atmothe very same weight of ice will again be obtained as
sphere. Thus a constant current is kept up, the was originally placed in the vessel.
cooler water descending, and the warmer ascending, Hence it is very far from being a matter of course
until the whole reaches the temperature of 40°, or 8° that water should be found in a fluid state. The
less than freezing. After this point, the colder stratum limits of temperature, between which that condition
of water, at the surface, expands, and becomes speis fulfilled, are very small. Had the heat of the
cifically lighter than that below; it, therefore, floats, earth been comparatively but little less than it is,
and so continues until a sheet of ice is formed at water would have existed, naturally, only as a solid |
the top, while the temperature of the water below substance: the ocean would have been a mass of ice.
may be seven or eight degrees warmer, a degree Had the heat of the earth been much greater, every
of heat quite suflicient for fish and other aqueous drop of water would have been dissipated into vapour.
animals. The precise adaptation of temperature to the comfort
The mere philosopher may view, in this beautiful and existence of animated beings. cannot be con. | deviation from the ordinary laws which regulate the templated without feelings of gratitude and admira
expansion of fluids, little more than a singular fact; tion towards the Creator of all things..
a religious mind will scarcely fail to regard it as an There is another very remarkable circumstance
adaptation of wise means to an useful end, as one of connected with the communication of heat to water.
the numberless instances in which, as we contemplate All fiuils are expanded by the addition of heat; and
the natural world, we recognise the traces of a bene we have already seen * that this property, in mercury,
ficent and designing Mind. enables us to measure the quantity of sensible heat by the degree of expansion. If mercury be gradually
LONDON: heated, it continues to expand very nearly equably,
JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAX!). till it reaches a temperature of 660° of Fahrenheit,
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THE MAN IN THE IRON MASK.
THE MAN IN TIS IRON MASK. It was in the reign of Louis the Fourteenth, according it from a window facing the sea. A fisherman to a French historian, that an unknown prisoner, brought it to the governor of the island, who, when young, and of noble appearance, of distinguished he found that the man could not read, dismissed height, and great beauty of person, was sent in profound him with the remark, that he was lucky in his ignosecrecy to an island on the coast of Provence. The rance. The governor of the place where the stranger captive wore, while travelling, a mask so contrived by was confined was afterwards appointed to command steel springs, that he could take his meals without the Bastille; and under his care the man in the iron uncovering his face, a strict order having been given mask was taken secretly to Paris. In the Bastille, he that if he disclosed his features he should instantly be was lodged as conveniently as the nature of the put to death. The king's minister, Louvois, paid him place allowed: his table was excellent; all his a visit, and spoke to him standing, treating him with requests were complied with ; and the governor selthe greatest respect. It was said that during this dom sat down in his presence. He played the guitar, period of his confinement he one day traced some and had a liking for lace and fine linen. The phywords with a knife on a silver plate, and threw sician who frequently attended him was in the habit VOL. V.
of looking at his tongue, but never saw his face. The was Count Ercolo Antonio MATTHIOLI, a native of very tone of his voice was said to inspire interest : Bologna, Bachelor of Laws in the University of that no complaint ever escaped him, nor did he attempt, place, and à senator of Mantua. He had been even by a hint, to make ḥimself known. He died minister high in favour with Ferdinand's father, and in 1703, and was buried at night in the cemetery still busied himself in watching the aspect of public of St. Paul. So great was the importance ascribed affairs, which, with regard to Ferdinand's interests, to this dark event, that M. de Chamillart, the war somewhat precarious, owing to the power minister, successor of Louvois, was entreated, even on of the Spanish government at Milan, and the grow his death-bed, by his son-in-law, to explain the my. ing influence of the house of Austria in his domistery; but he replied, It was a solemn secret of state, nions, his mother being a lady of that family. which he had sworn never to reveal.
This man, a designing politician, readily submitted' * This is the romance of the history, and it is no to become the tool of one more designing... The. wonder, considering the real state of the case, which, instructions he received from D'Estrades, were to was extraordinary enough, though differing in some point out to Ferdinand the dangerous power of points from the above, that men's heads should be Austria and Spain, and their ambitious designs upon busy in imagining, and their tongues in circulating, Casal and the Montferrat, urging that the only course various surmises respecting the name and station to which he could safely resort, was to seek protecof the masked prisoner. At one time he was Fouquet, tion from the King of France. Into this project the the disgraced minister of finance; at another, an young prince at once entered ; understanding that Armenian patriarch. Some people were sure it was Louis, on paying him a sum of money, was to send Louis Comte de Vermandois, son of Louis the Four- French troops into Italy, and place him at their head. teenth and Mademoiselle de la Vallière, though he was So far all went on well. D'Estrades chuckled at said to have died and been buried in 1683. Others the probable success of his scheme, and expressed, declared the person to be the Duc de Beaufort, who, by a letter to Louis, his delight at Casal being about however, had to all appearance been slain and beheaded to be annexed to the crown of France, blessing his by the Turks, at the siege of Candia. 'On grounds fortune for having procured him the honour of serving about as solid, he was imagined to be the Duke of a monarch whom he revered as a demigod ! Such Monmouth, whom the Londoners, if their eyes had was the gross flattery addressed to one, who, whether not deceived them, saw executed on Tower-hill, in we regard him as a man or a sovereign, was a most 1685. But the favourite, and for some time gene- hardened and tyrannical person. But difficulties rally-received opinion, was that which represented gathered in the way of this shameful scheme. The him as a son of Anne, mother of Louis the Four course of guile seldom runs smooth. The Duke, teenth. It was at one time boldly asserted that he closely watched by his mother and the Austrians, was a twin-brother of that monarch; though another could not openly have an interview that was necesversion of the time and circumstances of his birthsary with D'Estrades, but promised to give him reflected great disgrace on the queen.
audience in Venice, at the ensuing carnival, when Amidst these various notions the following ex- they were to meet in disguise. Louis, in the mean isted, but obtained, till lately, little credit; that the time, by letters to D'Estrades, kept up Ferdinand's object of curiosity was a private agent of Ferdinand hopes of commanding an army, though delay was Charles, Duke of Mantua, and that he suffered this evidently sought for, each party proceeding with the strange and long imprisonment for having deceived utmost caution, and endeavouring to make the best and disappointed Louis, King of France, in a secret bargain for themselves. Matthioli insisted on a affair of state, the particulars of which could not hundred thousand pistoles as the present which Fercome to light without exposing the shame of both dinand was to receive for admitting a French force the principals concerned.
concerned. The truth of this state into Casal ; but the Abbé thought the bribe too high, ment has since been established beyond any reason and brought down the pistoles to crowns. At length able doubt*; and we will briefly furnish the facts, the conference between the Duke and D'Estrades was which are worthy of historical remembrance, as fea- obtained : and they met at Venice by midnight. The tures of the time and country to which they belong. former, being now actually in want of French pro
But another and a better purpose may be answered tection, showed his impatience for the conclusion of
tampered with by the agents of Spain and Austria, In 1677, when the grandeur of Louis the Four- who probably offered a higher bribe ; for, instead of teenth was at its height, and he was served by men returning to France; as it had been settled, he inof courage, genius, and industry, whose ambition was vented a variety of excuses, and, lastly, declared that to gratify that of their master, the Abbé d'Estrades, the Duke, his master, had been obliged to execute a ambassador of France to the Venetian state, con- treaty which disabled him from keeping his engageceived the idea of obtaining for his Sovereign the ment with France. It was now too late for remontown of Casal, a fortress in the territory of the above- strance; and at length the mortifying truth was mentioned Duke of Mantua, and capital of the Mont- plain, that the great Louis had been duped by the ferrat. A dissipated and uneducated prince, such as obscure minion of a petty Italian prince*! The the Duke, once in the hands of the wily French crime could only be visited by the ruin of the ambassador, was likely to be prevailed upon by offender. By order of the king, Louvois instructed means of a shrewd address, and the offer of money, D'Estrades to seize and imprison Matthioli, allowto resign Casal, though it was the key of Italy. ing him no intercourse with any one. Soon after The agent selected for playing this double part the breach of the treaty, the unfortunate man met
• Casal did not come into the possession of the Prench till 1681. See the History of the Iron Mask, extracted from documents in It was afterwards taken by the allies, and its fortifications demothe French archives, by the late Lord Dover
lished; but was subsequently re-taken by the French,