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RELIGIOUS STATISTICS FOR THE WHOLE TWENTY-FOUR STATES.
• The Methodist Denomination do not divide their numbers in New England among the different States statistically, so that they are put in one number at the close of New York.
N A T U R AL THEOLOGY,
THE NATURE OF THE EVIDENCE AND THE ADVANTAGES
OF THE STUDY.
HENRY LORD BROUGHAM, F. R. 8.,
AND MEMBER OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FRANCE
THOMAS GEORGE, JR., 162 NASSAU STREET.
TO JOHN CHARLES EARL SPENCER. could be obtained was devoted to this object, and to
a careful revision of what had been written in a The composition of this Discourse was under- season less auspicious for such speculations. taken in consequence of an observation which I I inscribe the fruits of those studies to you, not had often made, that scientific men were apt to re- merely as a token of ancient friendship-for that gard the study of Natural Religion as little connect you do not require; nor because I always hare ed with philosophical pursuits. Many of the per- found you, whether in possession or in resistance sons to whom I allude, were men of religious habits of power, a fellow-laborer to maintain our cominon of thinking; others were free from any disposition principles, alike firm, faithful, disinterested–for towards skepticism, rather because they had not your known public character wants no testimony much discussed the subject, than because they had from me; nor yet because a work on such a subject formed fixed opinions upon it after inquiry. But needs the patronage of a great name-for it would the bulk of them relied little upon Natural Theolo- be affectation in me to pretend any such motive; gy, which they seemed to regard as a speculation but because you have devoted much of your time built rather on fancy than on argument; or, at any to such inquiries—are beyond most men sensible of rate, as a kind of knowledge quite different from their importance-concur generally in the opinions either physical or moral science. It therefore ap- which I profess to maintain-and had even formed peared to me desirable to define, more precisely the design of giving to the world your thoughts than had yet been done, the place and the claims of upon the subject, as I hope and trust you now will Natural Theology among the various branches of be moved to do all the more for the present address human knowledge.
In this view, your authority will prove of great va. About the same time, our Society, as you may lue to the cause of truth, however superluous the recollect, was strongly urged to publish an edition patronage of even your name might be to recolzof Dr. Paley's popular work, with copious and mend the most important of all studies. scientific illustrations. We both favored this plan; Had our lamented friend Romilly lived, you are but some of our colleagues justly apprehended that aware that not even these considerations would the adoption of it might open the door to the intro- have made me address any one but him, with whom duction of religious controversy among us, against I had oftentimes speculated upon this ground. Both our fundamental principles; and the scheme was of us have been visited with the most severe afilicabandoned. I regarded it, however, as expedient tions, of a far nearer and more lasting kind than to carry this plan into execution by individual ex even his removal, and we are now left with few ertion; and our worthy and accomplished colleague, things to care for; yet, ever since the time I followSir C. Bell-whose admirable treatise on Animal ed him to the grave, 'I question if either of us has Mechanics pointed him out as the fellow-laborer 1 read, without meditating upon the irreparable loss should most desire-fortunately agreed to share the we and all men then sustained, the words of the work of the illustrations. In these we have made ancient philosopher best imbued with religious opi a very considerable progress; and I now inscribe nions—"Proficiscar enim non ad eos solum viros de this publication, but particularly the Preliminary quibus ante dixi, sed etiam ad Catonem meam, quo Discourse, to you. It was, with the exception of nemo vir melior natus est, nemo pietate præstanthe Third Section of Part I., and the greater por- tior; cujus a me corpus crematum est, animus vero tion of the Notes, written at the end of 1830, in non'me deserens sed respectans, in ea profecto loca 1831, and the latter part of 1833, and a portion was discessit quo mihi ipsi cernebat esse veniendum added in the autumn of 1834. In those days I held quem ego meum casum fortiter ferre visus sum, the Great Seal of this kingdom; and it was impos- non quod æquo animo ferrem; sed me ipse conso sible to finish the work while many cares of another labar, existimans, non longinquum inter nos digres: kind pressed upon me. But the first leisure that sum et discessum fore."* * For the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.
* De Senect.
ARRANGEMENT OF SUBJECTS AND EXPLANATION OF
ference to obligation; and then it relates to rights and duties, and is synonymous with ethical. It seems advisable to use it always in this sense, and to employ the words spiritual and mental in opposi
tion to natural and material ; and psychological, as The words Theology and Religion are often used applied to the science of mind, in opposition to phyas synonymous. Thus, Natural Theology and Na- sical. Again, a distinction is sometimes made vetural Religion are by many confounded together. tween the intellectual and moral powers or faculties But the more accurate use of the words is that the former being directly those of the understand. which makes Theology the science, and Religion its ing, the latter those of the will, or, as they are often subject; and in this manner are they distinguished called, the “active powers,"—that is, the passions when we speak of a "professor of theology," and a and feelings. It seems better to use the word active sense of religion."
for this purpose as opposed to intellectual. Thus, There is, however, as regards Natural Theology, we shall have these general terms, spiritual or men a more limited use of the word, which confines it tal, as applied to the immaterial part of the creato the knowledge and attributes of the Deity, and tion, and psychological, as applied to the science regards the speculation concerning his will, and which treats of it. We shall next have a subdiviour own hopes from and duties towards him, as an- sion of the mental faculties into intellectual and acother branch of the science, terined Natural Reli- tive; both form the subjects of psychological science. gion, in contradistinction to the former. Dr. Paley Moral science, in its restricted sense, and properly hardly touches on this latter branch in his book, so called, will then denote that branch which treats there being only about one-sixtieth part devoted to of duties, and of what is implied in those duties, it, and that incidentally in treating of the attributes. their correlative rights; it will, in short, be ethical Indeed, though in the dedication he uses the word science. Religion as synonymous with Theology, the title Thus, the science of mindsay Metaphysical sciand the arrangement of his discourse show that he ence-may be said to consist of two great branches, generally employed the term Natural Theology in the one of which treals of existences, the other of its restricted sense. Bishop Butler, on the other duties. The one accordingly has been termed, with hand, seems to have used Natural Religion in a great accuracy, Ontology, speaking of that which sense equally restricted, but certainly little warrant- is; the other, Deontology, speaking of that which ed by custom; for that portion of his work which ought to be. The former, however, comprehends treats of Natural Religion is confined to a future properly all physical, as well as mental science. state and the moral government of God, as if he The division which appears upon the whole most either held Natural Religion and Natural Theology convenient is this: That metaphysical science, as to be two branches of one subject, or Natural Reli- contradistinguished from physical, is either psychogion to be a branch of Natural Theology. The logical, which treats of the faculties both intellectolder writers, Clarke, Bentley, Derham, seem to ual and active, but treats of existences only; or have sometimes used the words indifferently, but moral, which treats of rights and duties, and is disnever to have regarded Natural Religion in the re- tinguishable from psychological, though plainly stricted acceptation. The ancients generally used connected with it nearly as corollaries are with the Religion in a qualified sense, either as connected propositions from whence they flow. Then physiwith an obligation, or as synonymous with supersti- cal truths, in one respect, come under the same tion.
head with the first branch of metaphysical truths. This Discourse is not a treatise of Natural The Physical as well as psychological science treats of ology: it has not for its design an exposition of the existences, while moral science alone treats of dudoctrines whereof Natural Theology consists. But ties. its object is, first, to explain the nature of the evi According to a like arrangement, Natural Theo dence upon which it rests—to show that it is a logy consists of two great branches, one resembling science, the truths of which are discovered by in- Ontology, the other analogous to Deontology. The duction, like the truths of Natural and Moral Phi- former comprehends the discovery of the existence losophy--that it is a branch of science partaking and attributes of a Creator, by investigating the eviof the nature of each of those great divisions of dences of design in the works of the creation, matehuman knowledge, and not merely closely allied to rial as well as spiritual. The latter relates to the thein both. Secondly, the object of the Discourse discovery of his will and probable intentions with is to explain the advantages attending this study. regard to his creatures, their conduct, and their duThe work, therefore, is a Logical ore.
ty. The former resembles the physical and psychoWe have commented upon the use of the terms logical sciences, and treats of the evidences of design, Theology and Religion. Às it is highly desirable wisdom, and goodness exhibited both in the natural to keep scientific language precise, and always to and spiritual worlds. The latter resembles rather use the same lerms in the same sense, we shall now the department of moral science, as distinguished further observe upon the word "moral” in relation from both physical and psychological. to science or faculties. It is sometimes used to de- thus consider the science of Natural Theology as note the whole of our mental faculties, and in oppo- consisting, like all inductive science, of three comsition to na:ural and physical, as when we speak of partments, Natural, Mental, and Moral; or, tak, "moral science," "moral truths;”.“moral philosophy.” ing the Greek terms, Physical, Psychological, and But it is also used in contradistinction to "intellec- Ethical. tual” or “mental," and in connection with or in re This classification is convenient, and its grounds