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did not foresee all the strange consequences that inevitably arose from the cross currents of commerce and politics. They did not realize the fact that our Western ideas and customs would of necessity profoundly affect an imitative and impulsive people who had for centuries been wedded to a socialism unknown in Europe. Huxley may be right in regarding commerce as a very potent civilizing force, but it is doubtful if he was right in regarding it as a most beneficent one. It is difficult for anybody who has lived behind the scenes in heathen lands to share Huxley's enthusiasm on this latter point. Western commerce and politics thoroughly arouse the natives and yet have a fatal way of Europeanizing the Kafir and of destroying in him some of his original and peculiar virtues. Of the factors which might help a backward race, the most beneficent might be the Christian religion; it can when suitably presented do more to quicken, control and purify the Kafir than can all the combined forces of commerce, politics and education. But having confessed my missionary faith, let me discriminate. Christian missionaries do not always show consummate wisdom in their methods. Christianity is under no inherent compulsion to impose any special form of civilization on its adherents, else we should all be Judaized. It is certainly strange that we take an Eastern religion adapt it to Western needs, and then impose these Western adaptations on Eastern races. I can conceive of no better way of swamping and stamping out all true individuality on our converts. Their strong imitative propensities are, in this matter, a snare. It need cause us no surprise to note that we have more Europeanized than Christianized the Kafirs to their loss, and to the Church's loss," (59, vol. 5, pp. 168-169).

In another writing he states that

the education of a savage is a peculiarly difficult task; and it is pathetic to think how we send out missionaries with the kindest of hearts without giving them any training suited to their requirements. The education of a backward race is as delicate a problem as the training of defective or feebleminded children at home; we educate them by means of highly trained teachers, but we let loose upon the Kafirs, teachers whose sole qualification for the work is their goodness (33, pp. 148–9). In England we do not care to have inefficient people in positions of trust, but demand certain certificates of capacity or of adequate training in those who minister to our bodily or mental needs. But here we are dealing with that most difficult of all problems, the government and progress of a backward race, and we allow the most inefficient teachers whose only qualification for the difficult work is their own kind hearts, to form the character of the rising generation and to complicate immensely our difficulties. We might as well try to cure cancer by kindness as to educate the Kafir by it. The quality of the education we give the Kafir probably more than anything else decides the entire future of the natives; and yet while there are many excellent and efficient mission schools, we also allow the most inefficient to mis-educate the Kafirs (33,

p. 172).

"The appeal of the missionary career," writes Moore, “in the early stages of the work is primarily not so much to the reflective as to the active, not to say the heroic, qualities in men. Its demand is for those qualities which pioneers, explorers, and adventurers show, for men whom Stevenson describes, as ‘mighty men of their hands, the smiters and builders, the judges who have lived long and done sternly,' who have not always indeed hesitated when they might, but who at all events reveal that the world was not made in hesitation. The career has gathered to itself men who loved their cause and their fellows and have created problems which very possibly require for their solution other gifts than those which these pioneers themselves possessed.

A work thus inaugurated comes to the point where it needs pondering, solemn review, and sympathetic questioning. It has need of much that a man may do in his study. It has need of that which a man much in his study may see with his eyes when he transports himself to the field. It has much need of the man of much study who will spend his whole life in the field. It has need of continual readjustment of its measures, not to say even the transformation of its ideals, as in its maturer stages it meets the maturer and more complex problems of mind and life of the nations to which it has gone. It has need of perennial reconsideration of its own principles and of its own nature in the light of that which its experiences reveals. And not the least of the services of the endeavor to propagate Christianity among alien races is that which this effort renders to the understanding of Christianity itself. If certain assumptions concerning Christianity which have obtained largely unquestioned within areas where Christianity has been long in the ascendant are found to be baseless, inadequate, or perverse, surely we have cause to be grateful to those whose wider contact tends to rid us of our provincialisms, to rebuke us for pharisaisms, and to bring home to us some sense of the simplicity, the vital quality, the selftransforming capacity, of that which in our Christianity we do really possess” (42, pp. 250-251).

The Commission on the Training of Missionaries of the Edinburgh Conference states that thorough study of history and missions is necessary to profit by the experience so dearly bought. Scholar missionaries have contributed much in social and religious lines which are of infinite worth to the worker.

Men thus prepared (i.e., the ordinary theological course) are not armed to meet the exceedingly complicated problems which face the Christian Church in every part of India. If they do succeed in solving them, they do so more by happy practical genius than through understanding them. The average missionary of today has no reasoned conception of the relation of Christianity to other religions, except the good old contrast of the one truth and the many errors. He is not prepared in any sense for estimating an alien faith. He is not in a position to appreciate spiritual excellence or moral character, if they run on other lines than his own; too often he does not know where to find the information necessary for understanding the barest elements of the civilizations around him; nor has he been introduced to those large social questions which inevitably arise when a people is passing over from one religion to another (59, vol. 5, pp. 165–166).

The Commission summarized its inquiry as follows:

Each missionary should have been so trained in the sociological point of view that he shall have a proper comprehension of the entire problem, and shall labour at his section of it as a part of the whole. Life is a unit, and the industrial, educational, and religious changes are all interdependent. A missionary whose work is primarily evangelistic, for example, will be more effective if he works as an intelligent worker of the great army. There is a demand for men of broad statesmanlike vision, who will see what needs to be done and the Church can assist, supplement, and direct the great social forces now at work. As a missionary to China puts it, there is less need of men who know how to do things than of men who know what to do. The lines of work and the methods of work followed by the different Missions have been developed from experience under conditions which are very different from those that now prevail. Men who are not familiar with the broad lines of human development may work at crosspurposes with these great social forces. Ignorance of the failures as well as of the successes of social work elsewhere almost invariably leads to the repetition of experiments which have proved fruitless. In such matters as factory legislation, housing and sanitation, Western experience should be of value. Because of a lack of this knowledge, or of a disregard of it, Japan and India seem bound to repeat the blunders of the West. This does not mean that what works well in London will work equally well in Tokyo or Calcutta, for the varying conditions must be met with modified measures, but it does mean that in the missionary body there should be men who will know the real import of the movements around them, and will be able to give intelligent advice, based upon the experience of Western peoples. It also means that the missionary should be a broad man, who recognizes religion as a mighty social fact and a mighty social force, and who will use every method of missionary work to further the great task of transforming the Orient so that it shall be both thoroughly Oriental and fully Christian (59, vol. 5, pp. 171-173).

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